Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances - Part 1: Requirements

IEC 63245-1:2021 specifies requirements for spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances (SWPT-MMR), which is a non-radiative wireless power transfer (WPT). This document contains two categories of requirements: general requirements and functional requirements. The general requirements cover charging procedures and charging zones. The functional requirements cover each component of a SWPT-MMR system, such as transmitter coils.

Transfert d'énergie sans fil dans l'espace reposant sur des résonances magnétiques multiples - Partie 1: Exigences

L'IEC 63245-1:2021 spécifie les exigences relatives au transfert d’énergie sans fil dans l’espace reposant sur des résonances magnétiques multiples (SWPT-MMR), qui est un mode de transfert d’énergie sans fil (WPT) non radiatif. Le présent document contient deux catégories d’exigences: les exigences générales et les exigences fonctionnelles. Les exigences générales couvrent les procédures de charge et la zone de charge. Les exigences fonctionnelles couvrent chaque composant d’un système SWPT-MMR (les bobines de transmission, par exemple).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Mar-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Mar-2021
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IEC 63245-1
Edition 1.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances –
Part 1: Requirements
Transfert d’énergie sans fil dans l’espace reposant sur des résonances
magnétiques multiples –
Partie 1: Exigences
IEC 63245-1:2021-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63245-1
Edition 1.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances –
Part 1: Requirements
Transfert d’énergie sans fil dans l’espace reposant sur des résonances
magnétiques multiples –
Partie 1: Exigences
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.240.99; 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-9470-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ....................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 7

4 Overview of spatial wireless power transfer ..................................................................... 7

5 General requirements ...................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Requirements on charging zone .............................................................................. 9

5.1.1 Three-dimensional charging zone .................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Quiet zone ....................................................................................................... 9

5.1.3 Null point ....................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Requirements on charging procedure .................................................................... 11

6 Functional requirements ................................................................................................ 12

6.1 Requirements on transmitter coils ......................................................................... 12

6.1.1 Multiple transmitter coils ................................................................................ 12

6.1.2 Location of transmitter coils ........................................................................... 13

6.1.3 Relationship between two transmitter coils .................................................... 13

6.1.4 Structure of connecting a pair of transmitter coils .......................................... 13

6.2 Requirements on operations related to current ...................................................... 14

6.2.1 Supplying current........................................................................................... 14

6.2.2 Controlling phase of current ........................................................................... 14

6.3 Requirements on frequency .................................................................................. 15

6.3.1 Adjusting resonance frequency ...................................................................... 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 1 – Conceptual image of SWPT [IEC 62827-3] ............................................................. 8

Figure 2 – Conceptual image of SWPT-MMR .......................................................................... 8

Figure 3 – Free positioning of a receiver in a charging zone ................................................... 9

Figure 4 – Interaction between transmitter coils for generating a quiet zone ........................... 9

Figure 5 – Interaction between transmitter coils for generating a quiet zone (top view) ......... 10

Figure 6 – Null points in a charging zone (top view) .............................................................. 10

Figure 7 – Addressing null points by using two pairs of transmitter coils (top view) ............... 11

Figure 8 – Basic charging procedure of SWPT-MMR ............................................................. 12

Figure 9 – Arrangement of transmitter coils ........................................................................... 13

Figure 10 – Example of transmitter coils and a power supplier in an SWPT-MMR

system .................................................................................................................................. 14

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IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SPATIAL WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER
BASED ON MULTIPLE MAGNETIC RESONANCES –
Part 1: Requirements
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63245-1 has been prepared by technical area 15: Wireless power

transfer, of IEC technical committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
100/3548/FDIS 100/3564/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63245 series, published under the general title Spatial wireless

power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances, can be found on the IEC website.

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– 4 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

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IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The IEC 63245 (Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances,

SWPT-MMR) series provides requirements and a reference model for implementing a spatial

wireless power transfer system. The IEC 63245 series consists of the following parts:

– IEC 63245-1: Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances –

Part 1: Requirements, which describes requirements of SWPTs with multiple magnetic

resonances; and

– IEC 63245-2: Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances –

Part 2: Reference model, which describes a reference model for SWPTs with multiple

magnetic resonances.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021
SPATIAL WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER
BASED ON MULTIPLE MAGNETIC RESONANCES –
Part 1: Requirements
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63245 specifies requirements for spatial wireless power transfer based on

multiple magnetic resonances (SWPT-MMR), which is a non-radiative wireless power transfer

(WPT). This document contains two categories of requirements: general requirements and

functional requirements. The general requirements cover charging procedures and charging

zones. The functional requirements cover each component of a SWPT-MMR system, such as

transmitter coils.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
null point

point or area in the charging zone where the magnetic field cancels out almost entirely or is

below a certain specified minimum
3.1.2
quiet zone

magnetic field having an equalized energy density corresponding to each of the magnetic fields

formed on the transmitter coils
3.1.3
spatial wireless power transfer

concept of wireless power transfer between multiple sources and multiple receiving devices

placed at a certain distance in various positions and postures within a space

Note 1 to entry: "Spatial" means that receiving devices will take various positions and postures, and will lead to

variable transfer efficiency including almost zero percent. This situation can occur when receiving devices are placed

far apart from the power source and are freely rearranged.

[SOURCE: IEC 62827-3:2016, 3.1.2, modified – In the definition, "receiving devices placed at

a certain distance in various positions and postures within a space" replaces "receiving devices

which are placed at a distance within a spatial space".]
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IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.1.4
spatial wireless power transfer system

group implementing spatial wireless power transfer in which the power source can deliver power

and data to the power-receiving device

Note 1 to entry: In special cases, a spatial wireless power transfer system can consist of only a single power source

and only a single power-receiving device.

Note 2 to entry: Spatial wireless power transfer system includes the case in which a power source has the ability

to access a power-receiving device through a relay from other power sources when the power source attempts to

deliver data to the receiving device. In this document, "data" means control and management data for wireless power

transfer.
[SOURCE: IEC 62827-3:2016, 3.1.3]
3.1.5
transmitter coil

component of a wireless power transmitter that converts electric current to magnetic flux

[SOURCE: IEC 63006:2019, 3.1.48]
3.2 Abbreviated terms
2D two-dimensional
3D three-dimensional
SWPT spatial wireless power transfer
SWPT-MMR spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances
WPT wireless power transfer
4 Overview of spatial wireless power transfer

IEC TR 62869 describes types of WPT physical layer technologies. Among the technologies,

electromagnetic induction and magnetic resonance technologies are dominantly used in recent

industries. The IEC PAS 63095 and WPC Qi series specifies WPT based on electromagnetic

induction technology, whereas IEC 63028 specifies WPT based on magnetic resonance

technology.

A spatial wireless power transfer (SWPT) system delivers the electronic power to one or more

receivers within a spatial space. Figure 1 shows a conceptual image of SWPT described in

IEC 62827-3.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 1 – Conceptual image of SWPT [IEC 62827-3]

Spatial wireless power transfer based on multiple magnetic resonances (SWPT-MMR) is a

specific implementation of SWPT. Similar to IEC 63028, SWPT-MMR is based on magnetic

resonance. However, SWPT-MMR includes multiple magnetic resonances to generate a

charging zone. In the charging zone, electric power is transferred to one or more receivers

regardless of the position and direction of the receiver(s). Figure 2 shows a conceptual image

of SWPT-MMR. As shown in Figure 2, an SWPT-MMR system generates a charging zone in a

specific space with multiple magnetic resonances.
Figure 2 – Conceptual image of SWPT-MMR
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IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
5 General requirements
5.1 Requirements on charging zone
5.1.1 Three-dimensional charging zone

An SWPT-MMR system generates a three-dimensional charging zone for SWPT. In the charging

zone, the power-receiving device has an increased degree of freedom in a 3D space to expand

a range of wireless power transmission in a process of performing wireless charging when

compared to a pad structure corresponding to a two-dimensional (2D) area. Figure 3 depicts

various positionings of a receiver in a charging zone.
Figure 3 – Free positioning of a receiver in a charging zone
REQ-ZONE1: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of generating a 3D charging zone.
5.1.2 Quiet zone

For transferring electric energy to a receiver in any position within a 3D charging zone, energy

density in the charging zone shall be equalized corresponding to each of the magnetic fields

formed on the transmitting coils. To equalize energy density within the charging zone, at least

one pair of transmitter coils are arranged to face each other and they generate a magnetic field

by using the current supplied from at least one power source. The 3D space with equalized

energy density is referred to as a "quiet zone". Figure 4 and Figure 5 show interaction between

transmitter coils for generating a quiet zone. A pair of transmitter coils generates a quiet zone

in one direction. To add a quiet zone in another direction, an additional pair of transmitter coils

can be arranged.
Figure 4 – Interaction between transmitter coils for generating a quiet zone
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021

Inward and outward currents of the same colour belong to the same transmitter coil.

Figure 5 – Interaction between transmitter coils for generating a quiet zone (top view)

REQ-ZONE2: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of generating a quiet zone indicating a

magnetic field having an equalized energy density in the charging zone.

REQ-ZONE3: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of controlling multiple transmitter coils

to generate multiple quiet zones.
5.1.3 Null point

In a charging zone, a null point is a point or area where the magnetic field cancels out almost

entirely or is below a certain specified minimum. Figure 6 depicts null points in a charging zone.

Inward and outward currents of the same colour belong to the same transmitter coil.

Figure 6 – Null points in a charging zone (top view)
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

To deal with null points, an SWPT-MMR system can have two pairs of transmitter coils. Figure 7

shows an example of an SWPT-MMR system equipped with two pairs of transmitter coils; each

transmitter coil can be identified by its colour. As shown in Figure 7, red and blue transmitter

coils generate a quiet zone on the y-axis, and green and yellow transmitter coils generate a

quiet zone on the x-axis. A quiet zone on one axis can eliminate the null point of a quiet zone

on another axis.

Inward and outward currents of the same colour belong to the same transmitter coil.

Figure 7 – Addressing null points by using two pairs of transmitter coils (top view)

REQ-ZONE4: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of dealing with null points in a charging

zone.

REQ-ZONE5: it is recommended that an SWPT-MMR system be capable of generating multiple

quiet zones in different directions.
5.2 Requirements on charging procedure

Figure 8 shows a basic charging procedure of SWPT-MMR. In standby state, an SWPT-MMR

prepares for generating a charging zone. After initialization, an SWPT-MMR system generates

a charging zone in the SWPT-MMR system. During this step, a quiet zone will be formed in the

generated charging zone. As a next step, the SWPT-MMR system can optimize the charging

zone based on the location and angle of a receiver coil in a power receiver. The optimization

may include adjusting the phase of current or the resonant frequency, and the SWPT-MMR

system and a receiver can communicate through various methods, such as Bluetooth Low

Energy or Zigbee™ , for the optimization. In addition, the SWPT-MMR system in standby state

may use the various communication methods for detecting a receiver. The SWPT-MMR system

can start power transmission when optimization is complete, and it can terminate power

transmission based on the charging status of the power receiver.
_____________

Zigbee is the trademark of a product supplied by the ZigBee Alliance Corporation. This information is given for

the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC of the product named.

Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021
REQ-PROC1: it is recommended that an SWPT-MMR system follow the basic charging

procedure comprised of standby state, charging zone generation, optimization, power

transmission, and transmission termination.

REQ-PROC2: it is recommended that an SWPT-MMR system include a communication module

to interact with a receiver for optimization procedure.

REQ-PROC3: it is recommended that an SWPT-MMR system include a communication module

to detect a receiver in standby state.
Figure 8 – Basic charging procedure of SWPT-MMR
6 Functional requirements
6.1 Requirements on transmitter coils
6.1.1 Multiple transmitter coils

As described in 5.1, an SWPT-MMR system needs to have multiple transmitter coils.

REQ-COIL1: an SWPT-MMR system shall have at least a pair of transmitter coils for generating

a quiet zone on one axis.

REQ-COIL2: an SWPT-MMR system shall have at least two pairs of transmitter coils for

handling null points occurring on each axis of a quiet zone.
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IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 13 –
6.1.2 Location of transmitter coils

Transmitter coils of an SWPT-MMR system can be placed at various locations in the system.

For example, a box-shaped SWPT-MMR system can have one transmitter coil on each wall.

Then, the coils can be placed on the centre of each wall. When the box-shaped SWPT-MMR

system has two transmitter coils on each wall, the upper part of a wall can have a transmitter

coil and the bottom part of the wall can have another transmitter coil.

REQ-COIL3: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of accommodating transmitter coils

placed at various locations in the system.
6.1.3 Relationship between two transmitter coils

In order to form a quiet zone, two transmitter coils of an SWPT-MMR system are recommended

to face each other as a pair. To generate quiet zones on multiple axes, an SWPT-MMR system

can have multiple pairs of transmitter coils. Figure 9 shows an example of the SWPT-MMR

system with two pairs of transmitter coils.
Figure 9 – Arrangement of transmitter coils

REQ-COIL4: an SWPT-MMR system shall have a pair of transmitter coils arranged to face each

other in the charging zone.
6.1.4 Structure of connecting a pair of transmitter coils

An SWPT-MMR system has at least one pair of transmitter coils facing each other and at least

one power supplier for supplying current to the coils. Figure 10 shows the configuration of an

SWPT-MMR system consisting of a power supplier and two transmitter coils, which are

connected in parallel or in series.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 63245-1:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 10 – Example of transmitter coils and
a power supplier in an SWPT-MMR system

REQ-COIL5: an SWPT-MMR system shall have at least one pair of transmitter coils, which are

connected in parallel or in series.
REQ-COIL6: an SWPT-MMR system shall have at least one power supply.
6.2 Requirements on operations related to current
6.2.1 Supplying current

An SWPT-MMR system has at least two transmitter coils. The transmitter coils are connected

with a power supplier as shown in Figure 10, and the power supplier shall supply current to the

transmitter coils.

REQ-CUR1: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of supplying currents to at least two pairs

of transmitting coils.
6.2.2 Controlling phase of current

To generate a charging zone, an SWPT-MMR system may have multiple pairs of transmitter

coils. In such a case, an in-phase or an out-of-phase current will be provided to each pair of

transmitters in order to generate a charging zone.

REQ-CUR2: an SWPT-MMR system shall supply an in-phase current or an out-of-phase current

to each pair of transmitter coils when the SWPT-MMR system has multiple pairs of transmitter

coils.

REQ-CUR3: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of controlling the phase of the current

supplied to the plurality of transmitting coils included in the wireless charging zone.

REQ-CUR4: an SWPT-MMR system shall be capable of controlling a phase of
...

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