Semiconductor converters - General requirements and line commutated converters - Part 1-2: Application guidelines

IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 is available as IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 gives guidance on variations to the specifications given in IEC 60146-1-1:2009 to enable the specification to be extended in a controlled form for special cases. Background information is also given on technical points, which facilitates the use of IEC 60146-1-1:2009. This technical report primarily covers line commutated converters and is not in itself a specification, except as regards certain auxiliary components, in so far as existing standards may not provide the necessary data. This fifth edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) addition of annexes concerning the applications of converter transformers and of fuses for overcurrent protection;
b) changes of calculation methods related the inductive voltage regulation and changes of description on transformer losses to be consistent with the latest transformer standards;
c) addition and updates of references based on the latest information.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Oct-2019
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 - Semiconductor converters - General requirements and line commutated converters - Part 1-2: Application guidelines
English language
105 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC TR 60146-1-2
Edition 5.0 2019-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Semiconductor converters – General requirements and line commutated
converters –
Part 1-2: Application guide
IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2019 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 60146-1-2
Edition 5.0 2019-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Semiconductor converters – General requirements and line commutated
converters –
Part 1-2: Application guide
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.045; 29.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-7525-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 11

3.1 Tems and definitions related to converter faults .................................................... 11

3.2 Terms and definitions related to converter generated transients............................ 12

3.3 Terms and definitions related to temperature ........................................................ 13

4 Application of semiconductor power converters ............................................................. 13

4.1 Application ............................................................................................................ 13

4.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.1.2 Conversion equipment and systems............................................................... 14

4.1.3 Supply source conditioning (active and reactive power) ................................. 14

4.2 Equipment specification data ................................................................................ 14

4.2.1 Main items on the specification ...................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Terminal markings ......................................................................................... 14

4.2.3 Additional information .................................................................................... 15

4.2.4 Unusual service conditions ............................................................................ 16

4.3 Converter transformers and reactors ..................................................................... 16

4.4 Calculation factors ................................................................................................ 16

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

4.4.2 Voltage ratios ................................................................................................ 21

4.4.3 Line side transformer current factor ............................................................... 21

4.4.4 Valve-side transformer current factor ............................................................. 21

4.4.5 Inductive direct voltage regulation due to transformer .................................... 22

4.4.6 Magnetic circuit ............................................................................................. 22

4.4.7 Transformer guaranteed load losses .............................................................. 22

4.4.8 Transformer guaranteed short-circuit impedance ........................................... 22

4.4.9 Line side fundamental current factor .............................................................. 22

4.5 Parallel and series connections............................................................................. 23

4.5.1 Parallel or series connection of valve devices ................................................ 23

4.5.2 Parallel or series connection of assemblies and equipment units ................... 23

4.6 Power factor ......................................................................................................... 24

4.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

4.6.2 Symbols used in the determination of displacement factor ............................. 24

4.6.3 Circle diagram for the approximation of the displacement factor cosϕ

and of the reactive power Q for rectifier and inverter operation ................ 26

1LN

4.6.4 Calculation of the displacement factor cosϕ ................................................. 26

4.6.5 Conversion factor .......................................................................................... 28

4.7 Direct voltage regulation ....................................................................................... 28

4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

4.7.2 Inherent direct voltage regulation................................................................... 29

4.7.3 Direct voltage regulation due to AC system impedance .................................. 33

4.7.4 Information to be exchanged between supplier and purchaser about

direct voltage regulation of the converter ....................................................... 35

4.8 Voltage limits for reliable commutation in inverter mode ........................................ 36

4.9 AC voltage waveform ............................................................................................ 36

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

5 Application information .................................................................................................. 37

5.1 Practical calculation of the operating parameters .................................................. 37

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

5.1.2 Assumptions .................................................................................................. 38

5.1.3 Preliminary calculations ................................................................................. 38

5.1.4 Calculation of the operating conditions .......................................................... 39

5.2 Supply system voltage change due to converter loads .......................................... 41

5.2.1 Fundamental voltage change ......................................................................... 41

5.2.2 Minimum R requirements for voltage change ........................................... 41

1SC

5.2.3 Converter transformer ratio ............................................................................ 41

5.2.4 Transformer rating ......................................................................................... 42

5.3 Compensation of converter reactive power consumption ....................................... 43

5.3.1 Average reactive power consumption............................................................. 43

5.3.2 Required compensation of the average reactive power .................................. 43

5.3.3 Voltage fluctuations with fixed reactive power compensation ......................... 44

5.4 Supply voltage distortion ....................................................................................... 45

5.4.1 Commutation notches .................................................................................... 45

5.4.2 Operation of several converters on the same supply line ............................... 47

5.5 Quantities on the line side..................................................................................... 48

5.5.1 RMS value of the line current ......................................................................... 48

5.5.2 Harmonics on the line side, approximate method for 6-pulse converters ........ 48

5.5.3 Minimum R requirements for harmonic distortion ..................................... 51

1SC

5.5.4 Estimated phase shift of the harmonic currents .............................................. 52

5.5.5 Addition of harmonic currents ........................................................................ 52

5.5.6 Peak and average harmonic spectrum ........................................................... 52

5.5.7 Transformer phase shift ................................................................................. 53

5.5.8 Sequential gating, two 6-pulse converters...................................................... 53

5.6 Power factor compensation and harmonic distortion.............................................. 54

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 54

5.6.2 Resonant frequency ....................................................................................... 54

5.6.3 Directly connected capacitor bank ................................................................. 54

5.6.4 Estimation of the resonant frequency ............................................................. 54

5.6.5 Detuning reactor ............................................................................................ 56

5.6.6 Ripple control frequencies (carrier frequencies) ............................................. 57

5.7 Direct voltage harmonic content ............................................................................ 57

5.8 Other considerations ............................................................................................. 58

5.8.1 Random control angle .................................................................................... 58

5.8.2 Sub-harmonic instability ................................................................................ 58

5.8.3 Harmonic filters ............................................................................................. 59

5.8.4 Approximate capacitance of cables ................................................................ 59

5.9 Calculation of DC short-circuit current of converters ............................................. 59

5.10 Guidelines for the selection of the immunity class ................................................. 59

5.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 59

5.10.2 Converter Immunity class .............................................................................. 60

5.10.3 Selection of the immunity class ...................................................................... 60

6 Test requirements.......................................................................................................... 63

6.1 Guidance on power loss evaluation by short-circuit test ........................................ 63

6.1.1 Single-phase connections .............................................................................. 63

6.1.2 Polyphase double-way connections ............................................................... 64

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 © IEC 2019

6.1.3 Polyphase single-way connections ................................................................ 64

6.2 Procedure for evaluation of power losses by short-circuit method ......................... 64

6.3 Test methods ........................................................................................................ 65

6.3.1 Method A1 ..................................................................................................... 65

6.3.2 Method B ....................................................................................................... 66

6.3.3 Method C ....................................................................................................... 66

6.3.4 Method D ....................................................................................................... 66

6.3.5 Method E ....................................................................................................... 69

6.3.6 Method A2 ..................................................................................................... 69

7 Performance requirements ............................................................................................ 69

7.1 Presentation of rated peak load current values ..................................................... 69

7.2 Letter symbols related to virtual junction temperature ........................................... 70

7.3 Determination of peak load capability through calculation of the virtual

junction temperature ............................................................................................. 71

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 71

7.3.2 Approximation of the shape of power pulses applied to the

semiconductor devices .................................................................................. 72

7.3.3 The superposition method for calculation of temperature ............................... 73

7.3.4 Calculation of the virtual junction temperature for continuous load ................. 74

7.3.5 Calculation of the virtual junction temperature for cyclic loads ....................... 75

7.3.6 Calculation of the virtual junction temperature for a few typical

applications ................................................................................................... 76

7.4 Circuit operating conditions affecting the voltage applied across converter

valve devices ........................................................................................................ 76

8 Converter operation ....................................................................................................... 77

8.1 Stabilization .......................................................................................................... 77

8.2 Static properties.................................................................................................... 77

8.3 Dynamic properties of the control system .............................................................. 78

8.4 Mode of operation of single and double converters ............................................... 78

8.4.1 Single converter connection ........................................................................... 78

8.4.2 Double converter connections and limits for rectifier and inverter

operation ....................................................................................................... 80

8.5 Transition current .................................................................................................. 81

8.6 Suppression of direct current circulation in double converter connections ............. 82

8.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 82

8.6.2 Limitation of delay angles .............................................................................. 82

8.6.3 Controlled circulating current ......................................................................... 82

8.6.4 Blocking of trigger pulses .............................................................................. 82

8.7 Principle of operation for reversible converters for control of DC motors ............... 83

8.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 83

8.7.2 Motor field reversal ........................................................................................ 83

8.7.3 Motor armature reversal by reversing switch .................................................. 83

8.7.4 Double converter connection to motor armature ............................................. 83

9 Converter faults ............................................................................................................. 84

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

9.2 Fault finding .......................................................................................................... 85

9.3 Protection from fault currents ................................................................................ 85

Annex A (informative) Information on converter transformer standards ................................ 86

A.1 Background .......................................................................................................... 86

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 86

A.1.2 Structure of IEC 61378 (all parts) .................................................................. 86

A.2 Important difference between IEC 61378 (all parts) and IEC 60146 (all parts) ....... 86

A.3 Coordination between transformer and power converter ........................................ 87

Annex B (informative) Application guide for the protection of semiconductor converters

against overcurrent by fuses ................................................................................................. 88

B.1 Object ................................................................................................................... 88

B.2 Fuse connections in converter .............................................................................. 88

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 88

B.2.2 Double way connection .................................................................................. 88

B.2.3 Single-way connection (B), regenerative or non-regenerative load ................. 90

B.3 Main parameters to be considered for fuse selection ............................................. 90

B.4 Applied voltage in service ..................................................................................... 91

B.5 Discrimination for fuses in parallel connection ....................................................... 91

B.5.1 Discrimination between paralleled fuses and circuit breaker .......................... 91

B.5.2 Discrimination among paralleled fuses ........................................................... 92

B.5.3 Protection of semiconductor against overcurrent............................................ 93

B.6 General considerations ......................................................................................... 93

Annex C (informative) Inductive voltage regulation due to converter transformer ................. 94

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 94

C.2 Recommendation for calculating inductive voltage regulation due to

converter transformer............................................................................................ 94

C.3 Inductive voltage regulation .................................................................................. 94

C.3.1 DC output voltage during commutation .......................................................... 94

C.3.2 DC voltage regulation .................................................................................... 95

C.3.3 Formula of inductive voltage regulation due to converter transformer............. 96

C.4 Analysis of ratio (d /e ) .................................................................................. 96

xtN xN

C.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 96

C.4.2 Base impedance of converter transformer ...................................................... 97

C.4.3 Relationship between transformer reactance X and parameter e .............. 97

t xN

C.4.4 Derivation of ratio (d /e ) ........................................................................ 98

xtN xN

C.5 Implicit assumptions implemented in ratio (d /e ) ........................................... 98

xtN xN

C.6 Old calculation factors for information ................................................................... 99

C.7 Inductive voltage regulation including the system reactances .............................. 100

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 104

Figure 1 – Voltages at converter faults .................................................................................. 11

Figure 2 – Circle diagram for approximation of the displacement factor ................................. 26

Figure 3 – Displacement factor as a function of d for p = 6 ............................................... 27

Figure 4 – Displacement factor as a function of d for p = 12 ............................................. 28

Figure 5 – d as a function of d for p = 6 and p = 12 ...................................................... 34

LN xN

Figure 6 – AC voltage waveform ........................................................................................... 37

Figure 7 – Harmonic current spectrum on the AC side for p = 6 ............................................ 50

Figure 8 – Influence of capacitor rating and AC motor loads on the resonant frequency

and amplification factor ......................................................................................................... 55

Figure 9 – Direct voltage harmonic content for p = 6 ............................................................. 58

Figure 10 – Example of power distribution ............................................................................ 61

Figure 11 – Test method A1 .................................................................................................. 65

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 60146-1-2:2019 © IEC 2019

Figure 12 – Test method D ................................................................................................... 67

Figure 13 – Single peak load ................................................................................................ 70

Figure 14 – Repetitive peak loads ......................................................................................... 70

Figure 15 – Approximation of the shape of power pulses ...................................................... 73

Figure 16 – Calculation of the virtual junction temperature for continuous load ..................... 74

Figure 17 – Calculation of the virtual junction temperature for cyclic loads ............................ 75

Figure 18 – Circuit operating conditions affecting the voltage applied across converter

valve devices ........................................................................................................................ 77

Figure 19 – Direct voltage waveform for various delay angles ............................................... 79

Figure 20 – Direct voltage for various loads and delay angles ............................................... 80

Figure 21 – Direct voltage limits in inverter operation ............................................................ 81

Figure 22 – Direct voltage at values below the transition current ........................................... 82

Figure 23 – Operating sequences of converters serving a reversible DC motor ..................... 84

Figure B.1 – Three-phase double-way connection with diodes or thyristors with AC side

fuses F for non-regenerative load ........................................................................................ 89

Figure B.2 – Three phase double-way connection with AC side fuses F and DC side

fuse F for regenerative load ................................................................................................ 89

Figure B.3 – Three-phase double-way connection with arm fuses F for regenerative or

non-regenerative load ........................................................................................................... 90

Figure B.4 – Double three-phase single-way connection with interphase transformer,

with arm fuses F for regenerative or non-regenerative load ................................................. 90

Figure B.5 – Arc voltage ....................................................................................................... 91

Figure C.1 – Three-phase bridge converter ........................................................................... 95

Figure C.2 – Voltage regulation ............................................................................................ 96

Table 1 – Connections and calculation factors (1 of 4) .......................................................... 17

Table 2 – List of symbols used in the determination of displacement factor ........................... 25

Table 3 – List of symbols used in the calculation formulae .................................................... 32

Table 4 – Example of operating conditions ............................................................................ 40

Table 5 – Example of operating points .................................................................................. 40

Table 6 – Example of operating conditions ............................................................................ 42

Table 7 – Result of the iteration ............................................................................................ 42

Table 8 – Example of calculation results of active and reactive power consumption .............. 43

Table 9 – Example of notch depth ......................................................................................... 46

Table 10 – Example of notch depth by one converter with a common transformer ................. 47

Table 11 – Example of notch depth by ten converters operating at the same time ................. 47

Table 12 – Values of ( ) ............................................................................................. 48

I α,µ I
L L

Table 13 – Minimum R requirement for low voltage systems........................................... 52

1SC

Table 14 – Transformer phase shift and harmonic orders ...................................................... 53

Table 15 – Approximate kvar/km of cables ............................................................................ 59

Table 16 – Short-circuit values of converter currents ............................................................ 59

Table 17 – Calculated values for the example in Figure 10 ................................................... 63

Table 18
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.