Printed electronics - Part 402-3: Printability - Measurement of qualities - Voids in printed pattern using a two-dimensional optical image

IEC 62899-402-3:2021(E) specifies the optical measurement method for acquiring two-dimensional images of voids and obtaining the void-related attributes in the dried or cured printed patterns which are part of the electronic products in the field of printed electronics. The measurable voids using this document are limited to those that are distinguishable by the optical image measurement.
NOTE In this document, void means an imperfection of pattern observed from a two-dimensional (2D) top-view.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Apr-2021
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IEC 62899-402-3:2021 - Printed electronics - Part 402-3: Printability - Measurement of qualities - Voids in printed pattern using a two-dimensional optical image
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IEC 62899-402-3
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 402-3: Printability – Measurement of qualities – Voids in printed pattern
using a two-dimensional optical image
IEC 62899-402-3:2021-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62899-402-3
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 402-3: Printability – Measurement of qualities – Voids in printed pattern
using a two-dimensional optical image
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-9671-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62899-402-3:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

4 Atmospheric conditions for evaluation and conditioning ................................................... 7

5 Measuring methods and instruments ............................................................................... 7

5.1 Measuring instrument.............................................................................................. 7

5.2 Preparation of specimen ......................................................................................... 8

5.3 Measuring method .................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Obtaining void-related attributes ........................................................................... 10

6 Report of results ............................................................................................................ 10

6.1 Measurement identification information ................................................................. 10

6.2 Instrument system and its specification ................................................................. 11

6.3 Sampling position ................................................................................................. 11

6.4 Results ................................................................................................................. 11

Annex A (normative) Void threshold ..................................................................................... 12

Annex B (normative) Additional attribute from measurement – Size distribution of

voids ..................................................................................................................................... 17

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 1 – Definition of pattern area and background area in the ROI of the captured

image ..................................................................................................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Distribution of the brightness of the pixels of the pattern area and mean

value, and distribution of the brightness of the pixels of the background area and mean

value....................................................................................................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Binarization of pattern and detected voids ............................................................ 10

Figure A.1 – Different images of a void ................................................................................. 12

Figure A.2 – Dependence of the void threshold on the void threshold index .......................... 12

Figure A.3 – Distribution of the brightness of pixels of the printed pattern and effect of

Z ........................................................................................................................................... 13

Figure A.4 – Example of void detection depending on Z ........................................................ 14

Figure A.5 – Additional examples of void detection depending on Z ...................................... 15

Figure A.6 – Total numbers and areas of voids in the sample images of Figure A.4 and

Figure A.5 ............................................................................................................................. 16

Figure B.1 – Size distribution of voids in the sample images of Figure A.3 or Figure A.4 ....... 17

Table 1 – Reporting items example ....................................................................................... 11

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IEC 62899-402-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRINTED ELECTRONICS –
Part 402-3: Printability – Measurement of qualities –
Voids in printed pattern using a two-dimensional optical image
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 62899-402-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 119:

Printed Electronics.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
119/346/FDIS 119/350/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62899 series, published under the general title Printed electronics,

can be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62899-402-3:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
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IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62899-402-3:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This document contains fundamental information on the measurement of voids in a printed

pattern in printed electronics. Void in this document is defined as a very small non-patterned

part of a printed pattern, caused by the printing condition and ink properties, and treated as

two-dimensional on a substrate. It can be seen that the terms void and pinhole used in the

electronics and graphic printing industries, and the term void used in this document are different.

There can be three kinds of absence of materials in the pattern. First, an absence of material

inside the solid pattern, which is generally called void in the electronics industry. In this case,

there is a vacancy inside the pattern but no imperfection area observed from a two-dimensional

(2D) top-view. Therefore, it cannot be defined in the graphic printing industry where only two-

dimensional (2D) images are meaningful. Second, there can be a hole penetrating from the

surface of the printing layer to the substrate. This case can be observed as a hole in the printing

area, and is called a pinhole in the electronics industry and a void in the graphic printing industry,

respectively. The third one is a deep hole that does not penetrate into the substrate, therefore

it is observed as a hollow in a 2D top-view of a printing image. In the electronics industry, this

case is called hollow or pit, and in the graphic printing industry, it is called hollow or void in

general. This document deals with the second and third cases, and focuses on the 2D image of

the printed pattern; therefore, the term void is used in this document according to the generally

used definition in the graphic printing industry. Voids should not exist in the printed patterns

which constitute the printed electronics devices to be commercialized for the stable and reliable

performance of the devices. The detection and analysis of voids in the pattern can provide

guidelines to evaluate the printability of the process, inks, and equipment, therefore, it is

possible to manage and control the performance of the printed electronics devices by measuring

and analysing the voids at the patterning process from the point of view of printability. An easy

way to detect voids in the printed pattern can be to use a three-dimensional (3D) profiler,

however, it is too expensive to install in small-sized manufacturing facilities. Therefore, this

document provides a measurement method of voids using a 2D image obtained by a

conventional optical microscope or camera. This document includes the measurement

procedures of voids and related attributes such as numbers, size, and ratio of voids within the

pattern. In the area of the void, the thickness of the pattern changes gradually: the pattern

thickness decreases gradually and finally becomes zero at the void, which is a three-

dimensional characteristic of the void. The boundary of the void can be different depending on

the definition of the meaningful thickness of the pattern near the void area. This document offers

a method to determine the boundary between the void and the pattern. Although this document

offers a measurement method of voids from the two-dimensional image of the printed pattern,

it gives a proper method that can capture the voids considering their three-dimensional structure

even from the two-dimensional photo image of the pattern. This simple cost-effective

measurement method can offer an easy way to
...

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