Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models - Model validation

IEC 61400-27-2:2020 specifies procedures for validation of electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power plants, intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The validation procedures are based on the tests specified in IEC 61400-21 (all parts). The validation procedures are applicable to the generic models specified in
IEC 61400-27-1 and to other fundamental frequency wind power plant models and wind turbine models.
The validation procedures for wind turbine models focus on fault ride through capability and control performance. The fault ride through capability includes response to balanced and unbalanced voltage dips as well as voltage swells. The control performance includes active power control, frequency control, synthetic inertia control and reactive power control. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the tests specified in IEC 61400-21-1. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the wind turbine terminals.

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 27-2: Modèles de simulation électrique - Validation des modèles

IEC 61400-27-2:2020 spécifie des procédures de validation des modèles de simulation électrique pour les éoliennes et les centrales éoliennes, destinées à être utilisées dans des analyses de stabilité du réseau d'énergie électrique et du réseau de distribution. Les procédures de validation reposent sur les essais spécifiés dans l'IEC 61400-21 (toutes les parties). Les procédures de validation sont applicables aux modèles génériques spécifiés dans l’IEC 61400-27-1 et aux autres modèles de centrales éoliennes et d’éoliennes à fréquence fondamentale.
Les procédures de validation des modèles d'éoliennes se concentrent sur la capacité d’alimentation continue par défaut et les performances de commande. La capacité d’alimentation continue par défaut comprend la réponse aux creux de tension équilibrés et déséquilibrés, ainsi qu’aux hausses de tension. Les performances de commande comprennent la commande de puissance active, la commande de fréquence, la commande d’inertie synthétique et la commande de puissance réactive. Les procédures de validation applicables aux modèles d’éoliennes se rapportent aux essais spécifiés dans l’IEC 61400‑21‑1. Les procédures de validation applicables aux modèles d’éoliennes se rapportent aux bornes de l'éolienne.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jul-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
14-Jul-2020
Ref Project

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IEC 61400-27-2
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models – Model validation
IEC 61400-27-2:2020-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 61400-27-2
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models – Model validation
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-8506-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 15

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 15

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 15

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 16

5 Functional specifications and requirements to validation procedures ............................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 General specifications ........................................................................................... 18

5.3 Wind turbine model validation ............................................................................... 20

5.4 Wind power plant model validation ........................................................................ 20

6 General methodologies for model validation .................................................................. 20

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

6.2 Test results ........................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Simulations ........................................................................................................... 21

6.4 Signal processing ................................................................................................. 21

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

6.4.2 Time series processing .................................................................................. 21

6.4.3 Windows error statistics ................................................................................. 23

6.4.4 FRT windows specification ............................................................................ 24

6.4.5 Step response characteristics ........................................................................ 25

7 Validation of wind turbine models .................................................................................. 27

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Fault ride through capability .................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 28

7.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 29

7.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 29

7.3 Active power control ............................................................................................. 29

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 29

7.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 30

7.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 30

7.4 Frequency control ................................................................................................. 30

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

7.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 30

7.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 31

7.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 31

7.5 Synthetic inertia control ........................................................................................ 31

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 3 –

7.5.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 31

7.5.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 32

7.5.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 32

7.6 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 32

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

7.6.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 32

7.6.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.6.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 33

7.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 33

7.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

7.7.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 33

7.7.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.7.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 34

7.8 Grid protection ...................................................................................................... 34

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

7.8.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 34

7.8.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 34

7.8.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 35

8 Validation of wind power plant models ........................................................................... 35

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 35

8.2 Active power control ............................................................................................. 35

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

8.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 36

8.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 36

8.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 36

8.3 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 36

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

8.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 37

8.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 37

8.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 37

8.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 37

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

8.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 38

8.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 38

8.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 38

Annex A (informative) Validation documentation for wind turbine model ............................... 39

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

A.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 39

A.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 39

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 39

A.3.2 Fault ride through capability ........................................................................... 40

A.3.3 Active power control ...................................................................................... 42

A.3.4 Frequency control .......................................................................................... 42

A.3.5 Synthetic inertia control ................................................................................. 43

A.3.6 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 43

A.3.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 44

A.3.8 Grid protection ............................................................................................... 45

Annex B (informative) Validation documentation for wind power plant model........................ 46

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 46

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020

B.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 46

B.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 46

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46

B.3.2 Active power control ...................................................................................... 47

B.3.3 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 47

B.3.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 48

Annex C (informative) Reference grid for model-to-model validation .................................... 49

Annex D (informative) Model validation uncertainty .............................................................. 50

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

D.2 Simulation uncertainties ........................................................................................ 50

D.3 Measurement uncertainties ................................................................................... 50

D.4 Impact of model validation uncertainties ............................................................... 51

Annex E (normative) Digital 2 order critically damped low pass filter ................................ 52

Annex F (informative) Additional performance based model validation methodology for

active power recovery in voltage dips.................................................................................... 53

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

F.2 Active power recovery criterion ............................................................................. 53

F.3 Active power oscillation criterion ........................................................................... 53

Annex G (informative) Generic software interface for use of models in different

software environments .......................................................................................................... 55

G.1 Description of the approach .................................................................................. 55

G.2 Description of the software interface ..................................................................... 56

G.2.1 Description of data structures ........................................................................ 56

G.2.2 Functions for communication through the ESE-interface ................................ 58

G.2.3 Inputs, outputs, parameters ........................................................................... 59

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 60

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [1] ............................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Signal processing structure with play-back simulation approach applied .............. 22

Figure 3 – Signal processing structure with full-system simulation approach applied ............. 22

Figure 4 – Voltage dip windows [12] ...................................................................................... 24

Figure 5 – Step response characteristics .............................................................................. 26

Figure 6 – Measured and simulated settling time with inexpedient choice of tolerance

band ..................................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence voltage ................... 40

Figure A.2 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence active current ......... 40

Figure A.3 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 40

Figure A.4 – Time series of calculated absolute error of positive sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 40

Figure A.5 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence voltage .................. 41

Figure A.6 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence active current ........ 41

Figure A.7 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 41

Figure A.8 – Time series of calculated absolute error of negative sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 41

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure A.9 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 42

Figure A.10 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.11 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.12 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.13 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.14 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 44

Figure A.15 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................. 44

Figure A.16 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................. 44

Figure B.1 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 47

Figure B.2 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 47

Figure B.3 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................... 47

Figure B.4 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................... 48

Figure C.1 – Layout of reference grid .................................................................................... 49

Figure F.1 – Voltage dip active power performance validation parameters ............................ 54

Figure G.1 – Sequence of simulation on use of ESE-interface .............................................. 59

Table 1 – Windows applied for error calculations .................................................................. 25

Table A.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 39

Table A.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 39

Table A.3 – Positive sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 41

Table A.4 – Negative sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 42

Table A.5 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 42

Table A.6 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 44

Table A.7 – Validation summary for grid protection ............................................................... 45

Table B.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 46

Table B.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 46

Table B.3 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 47

Table B.4 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 47

Table C.1 – Line data for the WECC test system in per-unit .................................................. 49

Table C.2 – Transformer data for the WECC test system ...................................................... 49

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
WIND ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEMS –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models –
Model validation
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 61400-27-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 88:

Wind energy generation systems.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
88/763/FDIS 88/772/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 7 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 61400, published under the general title Wind energy generation

systems, can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

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---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
INTRODUCTION

IEC 61400-27-2 specifies model validation procedures for electrical simulation models of wind

turbines and wind power plants.

The increasing penetration of wind energy in power systems implies that Transmission

System Operators (TSOs) and Distribution System Operators (DSOs) need to use dynamic

models of wind
...

IEC 61400-27-2
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models – Model validation
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne –
Partie 27-2: Modèles de simulation électrique – Validation des modèles
IEC 61400-27-2:2020-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 61400-27-2
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models – Model validation
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne –
Partie 27-2: Modèles de simulation électrique – Validation des modèles
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-1008-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 15

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 15

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 15

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 16

5 Functional specifications and requirements to validation procedures ............................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 General specifications ........................................................................................... 18

5.3 Wind turbine model validation ............................................................................... 20

5.4 Wind power plant model validation ........................................................................ 20

6 General methodologies for model validation .................................................................. 20

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

6.2 Test results ........................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Simulations ........................................................................................................... 21

6.4 Signal processing ................................................................................................. 21

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

6.4.2 Time series processing .................................................................................. 21

6.4.3 Windows error statistics ................................................................................. 23

6.4.4 FRT windows specification ............................................................................ 24

6.4.5 Step response characteristics ........................................................................ 25

7 Validation of wind turbine models .................................................................................. 27

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Fault ride through capability .................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 28

7.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 29

7.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 29

7.3 Active power control ............................................................................................. 29

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 29

7.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 30

7.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 30

7.4 Frequency control ................................................................................................. 30

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

7.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 30

7.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 31

7.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 31

7.5 Synthetic inertia control ........................................................................................ 31

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 3 –

7.5.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 31

7.5.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 32

7.5.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 32

7.6 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 32

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

7.6.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 32

7.6.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.6.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 33

7.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 33

7.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

7.7.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 33

7.7.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.7.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 34

7.8 Grid protection ...................................................................................................... 34

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

7.8.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 34

7.8.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 34

7.8.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 35

8 Validation of wind power plant models ........................................................................... 35

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 35

8.2 Active power control ............................................................................................. 35

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

8.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 36

8.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 36

8.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 36

8.3 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 36

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

8.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 37

8.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 37

8.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 37

8.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 37

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

8.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 38

8.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 38

8.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 38

Annex A (informative) Validation documentation for wind turbine model ............................... 39

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

A.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 39

A.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 39

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 39

A.3.2 Fault ride through capability ........................................................................... 40

A.3.3 Active power control ...................................................................................... 42

A.3.4 Frequency control .......................................................................................... 42

A.3.5 Synthetic inertia control ................................................................................. 43

A.3.6 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 43

A.3.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 44

A.3.8 Grid protection ............................................................................................... 45

Annex B (informative) Validation documentation for wind power plant model........................ 46

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 46

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– 4 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020

B.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 46

B.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 46

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46

B.3.2 Active power control ...................................................................................... 47

B.3.3 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 47

B.3.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 48

Annex C (informative) Reference grid for model-to-model validation .................................... 49

Annex D (informative) Model validation uncertainty .............................................................. 50

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

D.2 Simulation uncertainties ........................................................................................ 50

D.3 Measurement uncertainties ................................................................................... 50

D.4 Impact of model validation uncertainties ............................................................... 51

Annex E (normative) Digital 2 order critically damped low pass filter ................................ 52

Annex F (informative) Additional performance based model validation methodology for

active power recovery in voltage dips.................................................................................... 53

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

F.2 Active power recovery criterion ............................................................................. 53

F.3 Active power oscillation criterion ........................................................................... 53

Annex G (informative) Generic software interface for use of models in different

software environments .......................................................................................................... 55

G.1 Description of the approach .................................................................................. 55

G.2 Description of the software interface ..................................................................... 56

G.2.1 Description of data structures ........................................................................ 56

G.2.2 Functions for communication through the ESE-interface ................................ 58

G.2.3 Inputs, outputs, parameters ........................................................................... 59

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 60

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [1] ............................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Signal processing structure with play-back simulation approach applied .............. 22

Figure 3 – Signal processing structure with full-system simulation approach applied ............. 22

Figure 4 – Voltage dip windows [12] ...................................................................................... 24

Figure 5 – Step response characteristics .............................................................................. 26

Figure 6 – Measured and simulated settling time with inexpedient choice of tolerance

band ..................................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence voltage ................... 40

Figure A.2 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence active current ......... 40

Figure A.3 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 40

Figure A.4 – Time series of calculated absolute error of positive sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 40

Figure A.5 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence voltage .................. 41

Figure A.6 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence active current ........ 41

Figure A.7 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 41

Figure A.8 – Time series of calculated absolute error of negative sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 41

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IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure A.9 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 42

Figure A.10 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.11 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.12 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.13 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.14 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 44

Figure A.15 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................. 44

Figure A.16 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................. 44

Figure B.1 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 47

Figure B.2 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 47

Figure B.3 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................... 47

Figure B.4 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................... 48

Figure C.1 – Layout of reference grid .................................................................................... 49

Figure F.1 – Voltage dip active power performance validation parameters ............................ 54

Figure G.1 – Sequence of simulation on use of ESE-interface .............................................. 59

Table 1 – Windows applied for error calculations .................................................................. 25

Table A.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 39

Table A.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 39

Table A.3 – Positive sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 41

Table A.4 – Negative sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 42

Table A.5 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 42

Table A.6 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 44

Table A.7 – Validation summary for grid protection ............................................................... 45

Table B.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 46

Table B.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 46

Table B.3 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 47

Table B.4 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 47

Table C.1 – Line data for the WECC test system in per-unit .................................................. 49

Table C.2 – Transformer data for the WECC test system ...................................................... 49

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– 6 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
WIND ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEMS –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models –
Model validation
FOREWORD

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