Semiconductor devices - Generic semiconductor qualification guidelines - Part 1: Guidelines for IC reliability qualification

IEC 63287-1:2021 gives guidelines for reliability qualification plans of semiconductor integrated circuit products. This document is not intended for military- and space-related applications.
NOTE 1 The manufacturer can use flexible sample sizes to reduce cost and maintain reasonable reliability by this guideline adaptation based on EDR-4708, AEC Q100, JESD47 or other relevant document can also be applicable if it is specified.
NOTE 2 The Weibull distribution method used in this document is one of several methods to calculate the appropriate sample size and test conditions of a given reliability project.
This first edition of IEC 63287-1 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60749-43 published in 2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
the document has been renamed and renumbered to distinguish it from the IEC 60749 (all parts);
a new section concerning the concept of "family" has been added with appropriate renumbering of the existing text.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Lignes directrices génériques concernant la qualification des semiconducteurs - Partie 1: Lignes directrices concernant la qualification de la fiabilité des circuits intégrés

L’IEC 63287-1:2021 fournit des lignes directrices concernant les plans de qualification de la fiabilité des produits de CI à semiconducteurs. Le présent document n’est pas destiné aux applications militaires et spatiales.
NOTE 1 Le fabricant peut utiliser des tailles d’échantillons flexibles afin de réduire les coûts tout en maintenant une fiabilité raisonnable par l’adaptation des présentes lignes directrices fondées sur l’EDR-4708. S’ils sont spécifiés, les documents AEC Q100, JESD47 ou tout autre document pertinent spécifié peuvent également être applicables.
NOTE 2 La méthode de la loi de Weibull utilisée dans le présent document n’est qu’une méthode parmi d’autres permettant de calculer la taille d’échantillon et les conditions d’essai appropriées pour un projet de fiabilité donné.
Cette première édition de l’IEC 63287-1 annule et remplace la première édition de l’IEC 60749‑43 parue en 2017. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:  
le document a été renommé et renuméroté afin de le différencier de l’IEC 60749 (toutes les parties);
une nouvelle section portant sur le concept de famille a été ajoutée avec une renumérotation appropriée du texte existant.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Aug-2021
Ref Project

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IEC 63287-1
Edition 1.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Generic semiconductor qualification guidelines –
Part 1: Guidelines for IC reliability qualification
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Lignes directrices génériques concernant la
qualification des semiconducteurs –

Partie 1: Lignes directrices concernant la qualification de la fiabilité des circuits

intégrés
IEC 63287-1:2021-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63287-1
Edition 1.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Generic semiconductor qualification guidelines –
Part 1: Guidelines for IC reliability qualification
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Lignes directrices génériques concernant la
qualification des semiconducteurs –

Partie 1: Lignes directrices concernant la qualification de la fiabilité des circuits

intégrés
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-1017-2

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---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Product categories and applications ................................................................................ 8

5 Failure ............................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Failure distribution .................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Early failure .......................................................................................................... 10

5.2.1 Description .................................................................................................... 10

5.2.2 Early failure rate ............................................................................................ 11

5.2.3 Screening ...................................................................................................... 15

5.3 Random failure ..................................................................................................... 17

5.3.1 Description .................................................................................................... 17

5.3.2 Mean failure rate ........................................................................................... 18

5.4 Wear-out failure .................................................................................................... 21

5.4.1 Description .................................................................................................... 21

5.4.2 Wear-out failure rate ...................................................................................... 21

6 Reliability test ................................................................................................................ 24

6.1 Reliability test description ..................................................................................... 24

6.2 Reliability test plan ............................................................................................... 24

6.2.1 Procedures for creating a reliability test plan ................................................. 24

6.2.2 Estimation of the test time required to confirm the TDDB from the

number of test samples ................................................................................. 27

6.2.3 Estimation of the number of samples required to confirm the TDDB from

the test time................................................................................................... 28

6.3 Reliability test methods ......................................................................................... 29

6.4 Acceleration models for reliability tests ................................................................. 33

6.4.1 Arrhenius model ............................................................................................ 33

6.4.2 V-model ......................................................................................................... 33

6.4.3 Absolute water vapor pressure model ............................................................ 33

6.4.4 Coffin-Manson model ..................................................................................... 33

6.5 Concept of family .................................................................................................. 34

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

6.5.2 Conducting life test using family .................................................................... 34

6.5.3 Verification of early failure rate using family .................................................. 37

7 Stress test methods ....................................................................................................... 39

8 Supplementary tests ...................................................................................................... 40

9 Summary table of assumptions ...................................................................................... 40

10 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 42

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 1 – Bathtub curve ....................................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Failure process of IC manufacturing lots during the early failure period ............... 11

Figure 3 – Weibull conceptual diagram of the early failure rate ............................................. 12

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

Figure 4 – Example of a failure ratio: α (in hundreds) and the number of failures for CL

of 60 % ................................................................................................................................. 14

Figure 5 – Screening and estimated early fail rate in Weibull diagram ................................... 16

Figure 6 – Bathtub curve setting the point immediately after production as the origin ............ 17

Figure 7 – Bathtub curve setting the point after screening as the origin................................. 17

Figure 8 – Conceptual diagram of calculation method for the mean failure rate from the

exponential distribution ......................................................................................................... 18

Figure 9 – Conceptual diagram of calculation method for the mean failure rate as an

extension of early failure ....................................................................................................... 19

Figure 10 – Conceptual diagram of the wear-out failure ........................................................ 21

Figure 11 – Conceptual diagram describing the concept of the acceleration test ................... 22

Figure 12 – Concept of the reliability test in a Weibull diagram (based on sample size) ........ 26

Figure 13 – Concept of the reliability test in a Weibull diagram (based on test time) ............. 29

Figure 14 – Difference in sampling sizes according to the m value (image) ........................... 30

Figure 15 – How the screening defect rate is seen depending on the difference of chip

size (example) ...................................................................................................................... 37

Table 1 – Examples of product categories ............................................................................... 9

Table 2 – Cumulative failure probability 0,1 % over 10 years [×10 ] for the third, fifth

and seventh years ................................................................................................................ 26

Table 3 – Major reliability (life) test methods and purposes ................................................... 31

Table 4 – Examples of the number of test samples and the test time in typical reliability

(life) test methods ................................................................................................................. 32

Table 5 – Concept of family (example) .................................................................................. 34

Table 6 – Concept of difference/failure mechanism/corresponding test item (examples)........ 36

Table 7 – Factors for calculation examples of early failure rate using family data .................. 38

Table 8 – LTPD sampling table for acceptance number Ac = 0 .............................................. 39

Table 9 – Major reliability (strength) test methods and purposes ........................................... 39

Table 10 – Supplementary tests ............................................................................................ 40

Table 11 – Accelerating factors, calculation formulae and numerical values ........................ 41

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– 4 – IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
GENERIC SEMICONDUCTOR QUALIFICATION GUIDELINES –
Part 1: Guidelines for IC reliability qualification
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

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governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63287-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.

This first edition of IEC 63287-1 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60749-43

published in 2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) the document has been renamed and renumbered to distinguish it from the IEC 60749

(all parts);

b) a new section concerning the concept of "family" has been added with appropriate

renumbering of the existing text.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
DRAFT Report on voting
47/2703/FDIS 47/2720/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63287 series, published under the general title Semiconductor,

devices – Generic semiconductor qualification guidelines, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

This document provides guidelines for semiconductor IC vendors in the preparation of

detailed reliability test plans for device qualification. Such plans are intended to be prepared

before commencing qualification tests and after consultation with the user of their

semiconductor integrated circuit product.

The guideline gives some examples for creating reliability qualification test plans to determine

appropriate reliability test conditions based on the use conditions and requirements for each

application of semiconductor integrated circuits. Categories are set for automotive

applications and for general applications as a target of reliability. The grade for automotive

use is further classified into two grades according to applications. The guideline assumes

annual operating hours, useful life, etc. for each grade, and defines the verification methods

for early failure rate and wear-out failure to propose appropriate reliability tests, and at the

same time, presents concepts to properly ensure the quality of semiconductor integrated

circuits using screening techniques which are designed to reduce the early failure rate.

The test conditions and the values of acceleration factors presented in this guideline are

shown to provide examples of calculations for obtaining reliability test conditions in order to

verify the required quality standards and are not designed to define the standards to ensure

reliability of semiconductor integrated circuits.

NOTE Qualification tests are tests in which the semiconductor vendor takes account of the reliability required by

its product users.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
GENERIC SEMICONDUCTOR QUALIFICATION GUIDELINES –
Part 1: Guidelines for IC reliability qualification
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63287 gives guidelines for reliability qualification plans of semiconductor

integrated circuit products. This document is not intended for military- and space-related

applications.

NOTE 1 The manufacturer can use flexible sample sizes to reduce cost and maintain reasonable reliability by this

guideline adaptation based on EDR-4708, AEC Q100, JESD47 or other relevant document can also be applicable if

it is specified.

NOTE 2 The Weibull distribution method used in this document is one of several methods to calculate the

appropriate sample size and test conditions of a given reliability project.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60749-5, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 5:

Steady-state temperature humidity bias life test

IEC 60749-6, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 6:

Storage at high temperature

IEC 60749-15, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 15:

Resistance to soldering temperature for through-hole mounted devices

IEC 60749-20, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 20:

Resistance of plastic encapsulated SMDs to the combined effect of moisture and soldering

heat

IEC 60749-21, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 21:

Solderability

IEC 60749-23, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 23: High

temperature operating life

IEC 60749-25, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 25:

Temperature cycling

IEC 60749-26, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 26:

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing – Human body model (HBM)

IEC 60749-28, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 28:

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity testing – Charged device model (CDM) – Device

level
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021

IEC 60749-29, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 29:

Latch-up test

IEC 60749-42, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 42:

Temperature and humidity storage
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
failure mode
classification of a fault phenomenon which causes product failure

Note 1 to entry: Disconnection, a short circuit, occasional loss, abrasion, characteristic deterioration, etc. are

typical items considered as failure modes.
3.2
failure mechanism

physical, chemical or other process that results in a product failure to meet functional

requirements (or failure modes)
3.3
integrated circuit

microcircuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and

electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purpose of

construction and commerce
Note 1 to entry: IEV:521-10-03
4 Product categories and applications

Quality-related requirements, operating hours, and field operating condition of ICs depend on

the applications of products in which they are used. As an example of creating scientific test

plans, their applications are broadly classified into three product categories: Automotive Use

A; Automotive Use B; and Consumer Use. Table 1 shows a list of quality-related requirements

according to each product category and the definition of their use conditions.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
Table 1 – Examples of product categories
Category Automotive Use A Automotive Use B Consumer Use

Criteria for Applications for automotive Applications for automotive Home or office electronics,

category use directly relating to safety. use not directly relating to toys, appliances and server

(Failures can cause
safety. applications.
accidents.)

Examples of Powertrains, brakes, driving Navigation systems, car air- Home electronics, toys,

applications support systems, airbags conditioners, audio systems appliances
Annual 500 h 500 h Up to 8 760 h
operating hours
Differs depending on whether Differs among applications.
or not to work with KEY
ON/OFF.

Useful life 15 years (cumulative failure 15 years (cumulative failure Up to 10 years (cumulative

probability: 0,1 %) probability: 0,1 %) failure probability: 0,1 %)
Differs among applications.
Assumed Example of engine compartment
operating
T = −40 °C/ T = 125 °C T = 0 °C / T = 70 °C
conditions a,min a,max a,min a,max
T = 100 °C/ T = 150 °C T = 70 °C/105 °C (max.)
(examples of j,typ j,max j
conditions which
RH = 10 (min.)/80 % (max.)
min. RH: 0 / max. RH: 100 %,
differ among
RH (during 20 % power on)
applications) RH (during 10 % driving) (during 70 % stop)
(during 60 % power off)
Example of interior environment
T = -40 °C (min.)/85 °C (max.)
T = 85 °C (typ.)/125 °C (max.)
RH = 0 (min.)/100 % (max.),
RH (during 10 % driving) (during 70 % stop)
−6 −6 −6

Early failure rate 1 × 10 or below per annum 50 × 10 or below per Up to 500 × 10 per annum

annum
Differs among applications.
Random failure 10 FIT or below 50 FIT or below >50 FIT (typical)
rate
Differs among applications.

NOTE These are examples of application conditions and requirements that do not have to all be met to be

relevant for each use case.
5 Failure
5.1 Failure distribution

Failure distribution of ICs can be broadly divided into three regions: early failure portion

(e.g., t = 1 year), random failure portion, and wear-out failure portion. Figure 1 shows the

ELF

relationship between the field use time and the instantaneous failure rate (bathtub curve).

Failure distributions for each region are described in detail in 5.2 to 5.4.

Most early failures are screened within manufacturing processes of IC vendors. However, ICs

not fully screened can expose problems in a relatively short period after their operation starts

in the field.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63287-1:2021 © IEC 2021

Random failure has been considered to achieve a certain failure rate with respect to time, but

actually, it is appropriate to consider as an extension of the early failure region where the

failure rate continues to decline. Potentially induced failures outside of the supplier’s control,

such as ESD, EOS and soft errors, should not be included in the failure rate calculations

unless a total fail rate that includes these types of fail modes is intended.

Wear-out failure is a failure which occurs due to the end of life of IC components such as

transistors and interconnections, and indicates the life of the ICs themselves. Wear-out failure

is a failure which depends on the
...

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