Information technology - Sensor networks - Services and interfaces supporting collaborative information processing in intelligent sensor networks

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 20005
First edition
2013-07-01
Information technology — Sensor
networks — Services and interfaces
supporting collaborative information
processing in intelligent sensor
networks
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux de capteurs — Services et
interfaces prenant en charge le traitement d’information collaboratif
dans les réseaux de capteurs intelligents
Reference number
ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
ISO/IEC 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 General description ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Requirements of intelligent sensor networks .............................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Overview of collaborative information processing ................................................................................................. 4

5.4 Functional model of collaborative information processing ............................................................................. 5

5.5 Overview of services supporting CIP ................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Core services and interfaces specifications .............................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Event service ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Logical grouping service ..............................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Data grouping service ....................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5 Data registration service .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Information description service ...........................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Node-to-node inter-activation service ............................................................................................................................25

6.8 Parameter adaptation service .................................................................................................................................................26

7 Enhanced services and interfaces specifications ............................................................................................................28

7.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2 QoS management service ............................................................................................................................................................28

7.3 CIP-driven scheduling service .................................................................................................................................................32

7.4 Adaptive sensing service .............................................................................................................................................................37

Annex A (informative) Core services and interfaces examples ..............................................................................................40

Annex B (informative) Enhanced services and interfaces examples ...............................................................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................44

© ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 20005 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

iv © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Introduction

Sensor networks have been widely deployed in different application domains including environment

monitoring, transportation, manufacturing, chemical process, healthcare, home and buildings, and

many other domains. Wired/wireless sensor networks can be regarded as an extension of the Internet

interfacing the physical world. Intelligent sensor networks are increasingly attractive in a wide range

of applications to meet challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude

network scaling and dynamic application requirements. Intelligent sensor networks are developed to

provide new system capabilities such as environment self-adaptability, dynamic task supporting and

autonomous system maintenance. Collaborative information processing (CIP), which closely integrates

information processing algorithms with collaboration mechanisms, is an essential technology enabling

the intelligent sensor networks to enhance efficiency and to improve quality and reliability of information

processing and its outputs in real application scenarios. This standard specifies services and interfaces

supporting CIP in the intelligent sensor networks.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Information technology — Sensor networks — Services
and interfaces supporting collaborative information
processing in intelligent sensor networks
1 Scope

This international standard specifies services and interfaces supporting collaborative information

processing (CIP) in intelligent sensor networks which includes:
— CIP functionalities and CIP functional model
— Common services supporting CIP
— Common service interfaces to CIP
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model:

The Basic Model
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
actuator

device that provides a physical output in response to a input signal in a predetermined way

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.2
collaborative information processing

form of information processing in which multiple sensor network elements collaborate, in order to

enhance efficiency and improve the quality and reliability of the output
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.3
data registration
process of transforming different sets of data into one coordinate system
3.4
data grouping

process of identifying a time interval common among different data sources and grouping data obtained

in the time interval
3.5
event

anything that happens or is contemplated as happening at an instant or over an interval of time

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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
3.6
sensor network

system of spatially distributed sensor nodes interacting with each other and, depending on applications,

possibly with other infrastructure in order to acquire, process, transfer, and provide information extracted

from its environment with a primary function of information gathering and possible control capability

Note 1 to entry: Distinguishing features of a sensor network can include: wide area coverage, use of radio networks,

flexibility of purpose, self-organization, openness and providing data for multiple applications.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.7
sensor network application

use case of sensor networks, which provide a set of functions to users to meet defined requirements

EXAMPLE Monitoring forests to detect natural fires; monitoring seismic activity; monitoring pollution levels

in environment.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.8
sensor network service

set of functionalities offered by individual sensor network elements or the sensor network

EXAMPLE generating an alarm signal if the measurement made at a sensor exceeds drops out of certain

prescribed range; providing average sensor measurements over a given geographic area.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.9
sensor node

sensor network element that includes at least one sensor and optionally actuators with communication

capabilities and associated data processing capabilities
Note 1 to entry: It may include additional application capabilities.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
3.10
service set or service subset

group or subgroup of services organized to provide common mechanisms or facilities to meet certain

requirements from users or applications
4 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
CDE Capability Declaration Entity
CIP Collaborative Information Processing
CRSE Communication Requirement Specification Entity
CS Core Service
CSPE Collaborative Strategy Planning Entity
ES Enhanced Service
FAR False Alarming Rate
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
FCR Functional Capability Requirement
GSR Generalized System Requirement
OSI/RM Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model [ISO 7498-2:1989]
QoS Quality of Service
SAP Service Access Point
5 General description
5.1 Overview

A system composed of a sensor network or sensor networks attempts to fully integrate sensing,

data/information transmission and processing and information provision processes to satisfy the

system’s application requirements for end users. Figure 1 shows a functional overview of sensor

networks system from the layered architectural view.
APP 1 APP 2 ... APP N
Information Information Information
Application Layer
...
Publishing Indexing Processing
High Level
Protocol Layer
(OSI Layer 7)
Service Layer Time
Localization Security ...
Synchronization
Other optional network communication Layer
Low Level
Network Layer
Protocol Layer Basic Functions Layer
Data Link layer
(OSI Layer 1-6)
Physical Layer
Figure 1 — Layer overview of sensor network system architecture

The Basic Functions Layer implements basic functionalities fulfilled by the lower layers in the Open

Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI/RM in ISO/IEC 7498-1), including the physical layer,

the data link layer, the network layer, and other optional network communication layers. Above the

basic functions layer, there are the Application Layer and the Service Layer. The application layer

provides services to individual applications and/or users and implements functions such as information

publishing, information indexing and information processing, etc. Between the application layer

and the basic functions layer, the service layer provides generic common services to entities in the

application layer. Typical generic common services in the service layer include localization service, time

synchronization service, security service, and other services.
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
5.2 Requirements of intelligent sensor networks

Besides the generalized system requirements (GSR) and generalized functional capability requirements

(FCR) of sensor networks, there are additional unique requirements that the intelligent sensor networks

have to meet the challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude network

scaling and dynamic application requirements.

— Environmental self-adaptability: An intelligent sensor network shall adapt to obtain required

system performances if the physical environment of the sensor network’s monitoring area changes.

For example, an intelligent sensor network based anti-intrusion system should guarantee consistent

system performances such as detection and false alarming rate (FAR) when the environment in

which the sensor network is deployed changes.

— Dynamic task supporting: An intelligent sensor network shall support dynamic tasking including

dynamic task assignment, dynamic task ordering by prioritization, dynamic service provisioning

for information users/consumers, and dynamic quality of service (QoS) adjustment.

— Autonomous system maintenance: An intelligent sensor network shall autonomously maintain

system functionalities in case of network scaling, node mobility, new node entrances, node exits,

and node failures.
5.3 Overview of collaborative information processing

The key differences between traditional telecommunication infrastructures and information service

systems based on sensor networks are that (1) sensor networks systems collect raw sensory data from

physical world; and (2) from these data, extract application-specific information in order to obtain

feature level data, decision level information, and knowledge about the physical world.

Integrated with metadata such as sensory information description, sensor identification, and

sensory information location, CIP handles efficient resource management to provide the dynamic

tasking to fulfil the requests demanded by information service consumers. Though different sensor

network applications normally require application-specific services, the collaborative processing is

an indispensable requirement for senor network based information service to handle constraints in

power (e.g. batteries), computing resources, storage, and communication bandwidth. The collaborative

processing also has to deal with technical challenges such as task dynamics, measurement uncertainty,

node mobility, and environmental adaptation ability.

The aims of CIP in sensor networks are to improve system efficiency, enhance quality of service, and

guarantee system performance. It provides efficient mechanisms such as majority-voting fusion, decision

template fusion and statistical methods for handling incomplete and/or inaccurate information. It also

provides protocols to meet challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude

network scaling and dynamic application requirements.

CIP can be viewed from three distinct viewpoints. Figure 2 shows a three-dimensional conceptual

model of CIP.
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Figure 2 — Conceptual model of collaborative information processing

The first viewpoint is CIP Processing Level viewpoint. In this viewpoint, CIP can be implemented on

different processing levels, which includes data, feature and decision processing levels. The second

viewpoint is CIP Involved Entity viewpoint. Involved Entities in CIP could be sensor modalities,

processing modules, nodes, clusters, and even subnets. CIP can thirdly be viewed from Task Component

viewpoint. The task components in this viewpoint depend on the specific application scenarios of

sensor networks. In anti-intrusion application system, the task components can be target detection,

localization, classification, and tracking for security services. In healthcare system, task components

may include blood pressure/temperature measurement, respiration inspection, and gait analysis.

Figure 2 shows that tracking is one of the main CIP task components in Application 1. Decision-level and

feature-level processing are applied, and both sensor modalities and processing modules are involved

for CIP in the application. Specific selections and combinations using components from these three

viewpoints correspond to different application task implementations, or personalized services using

sensor networks.
5.4 Functional model of collaborative information processing

Figure 3 shows a functional model of collaborative information processing from a functional entities

point of views. In this model, CIP can be characterized by three distinct entities, which are named as

capability declaration entity (CDE), collaborative strategy planning entity (CSPE) and communication

requirement specification entity (CRSE).
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Figure 3 — Functional model of collaborative information processing

Capability Declaration Entity (CDE) declares capabilities of sensor nodes in a sensor network. Capabilities

include not only individual node information such as sensing modality and its configuration, sensing

range, remaining life on power, location, remaining storage capacity, and communication bandwidth,

etc., but also certain characteristic information of sensory data collected by individual sensor node.

One of the representative characteristics on sensory data are signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value. Other

characteristics include signal strength, estimated distance between a target (or targets) and sensor

nodes, and state parameter prediction, etc. In other words, one sensor node should be qualified by the

Capability Evaluation model to be a CIP participant before any actual CIP procedure is triggered. CDE

requires a preliminary capability evaluation process which uses information of local measurement and

node property.

Collaborative Strategy Planning Entity (CSPE) is probably the most important entity in CIP. CSPE uses

available information provided by CDE and decides how collaborative information processing will be

implemented. With certain cost functions or utility measures, CSPE tries to find a resource-efficient

solution to collaborative strategy planning problem while the best information processing performance

can also concurrently be achieved. Two computing paradigms can be used in the implementation of

resulting solution from CSPE – One is centralized computing paradigm; the other is distributed computing

paradigm. In distributed computing paradigm, there are several local computing/fusion centres. In

centralized computing paradigm, only one central computing/fusion centre exists. The paradigm used

is decided by the CSPE entity. Both the spatial and temporal correlation among different local centres,

which may be dynamic, is also indicated by the CSPE entity.

Communication Requirement Specification Entity (CRSE) acts as interface between information service

provider and Communication and Information Exchange. CRSE defines parameters and protocols to

clearly describe requirements on communication and information exchange. For example requirements

such as end-to-end delay, time jitter, bit error, and other QoS parameters should be specified.

5.5 Overview of services supporting CIP

Generic common services in the service layer could be divided into different subsets according to the types

of service consumer entities in the application layer. This standard specifies a subset of generic common

services which interface with the CIP entities in the application layer and support implementation of the

corresponding CIP entity functionalities.

Services supporting CIP can be conceptually divided into two classes: core services (CS) and enhanced

services (ES), as shown in Figure 4. Core services include fundamental and essential services which can

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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)

be provided directly and individually to the CIP entities. Enhanced services are implemented through

combining services, for example, integrating two or more core services or other generic common

services provided in the service layer.
Application
CIP Entities
Layer
Service Access Points (SAPs)
Services
Supporting
Enhanced
ES1 ES2 ... ES N
CIP
Services
Other
Service Generic
Layer common
services
Core
CS1 CS2 ... CS N
Services
Figure 4 — Overview of services supporting CIP
5.5.1 Core services supporting CIP
The core services (CS) supporting CIP includes:

— Event service: This service implements functionalities concerning the process of event subscription,

registration, cancellation and un-subscription. Event may be generated due to environmental

changes, new physical signal occurrence, and network status dynamics.

— Logical grouping service: This service implements functionalities concerning the establishment

and management processes of logical group for the implementation of CIP in the application

layer. The logical group is a logical set of sensor network entities involved in specific information

processing tasks such as target detection, localization, recognition and target tracking. Logical

grouping service provides mechanism for establishing collaborative relationship among the entities

in intelligent sensor networks.

— Data grouping service: Data are generated by various sensors in different time intervals and

scales. This service identifies or specifies a time interval common to all sensors participating in CIP,

and groups all sensor data obtained during that time interval for processing. Data grouping service

uses a time synchronization service to support CIP.

— Data registration service: Data generated from sensors in distributed sensor nodes may be

described in different spatial reference coordinate systems. Data registration is a necessary

process in order to transform or integrate different sets of data into one coordinate system. Based

on reference coordinate system description, this service provides functionalities to keep the spatial

reference coordinate system consistency among participators in CIP.

— Information description service: This service provides mechanisms to establish ways or methods

to describe information in intelligent sensor network. Information can be the input parameters to

CIP processes, and it can also be the results from CIP processes.

— Node-to-node inter-activation service: This service provides mechanisms not only to initiate

the execution of tasks in one sensor node commended by another sensor node, but also to trigger

modules from one sensor node from another sensor node. Dynamic tasking can be supported by this

core service.

— Parameter adaptation service: This service provides mechanisms to adapt or reconfigure

parameters for CIP. Parameter adaptation service is one of the essential services to guarantee system

performance in case of dynamic changes in deploying environment and application requirements.

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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
5.5.2 Enhanced services supporting CIP
The enhanced services (ES) supporting CIP includes:

— QoS management service: This service provides mechanisms to define and update QoS profiles, and

to apply QoS profiles. In intelligent sensor networks, QoS shall be considered from both information

processing perspective and communication processing perspective. The QoS management service

uses the logical grouping service and the parameter adaptation service.

— CIP-driven scheduling service: This service provides functions to control and schedule node

states upon the request of the CIP entities instead of node management entities in intelligent sensor

networks. This service can help to implement application-oriented networking and on-demand

task scheduling. CIP-driven scheduling service use the event service, the logical grouping service,

the parameter adaptation service and the node-to-node inter-activation service, and other generic

common services including neighbour finding service.

— Adaptive sensing service: This service provides mechanisms to adaptively apply sensing rules

according to different event occurrence and different contexts in intelligent sensor networks.

Adaptive sensing service can provide autonomous system maintenance and system adaptability

in intelligent sensor network. Adaptive sensing service uses the event service, the information

description service, and other generic common services including sensor configuration service.

6 Core services and interfaces specifications
6.1 Overview

This clause specifies core services (CS) supporting CIP in intelligent sensor networks. Service primitives

and parameters of primitives are defined for each core service. Table 1 shows the names of service

access points (SAPs) through which specific service is provided.
Table 1 — Core services and the names of SAPs
Service name SAP name
Event service EVENT-SAP
Logical grouping service LG-SAP
Data grouping service DG-SAP
Data registration service REG-SAP
Information description service INFO-SAP
Node-to-node inter-activation service N2NACT-SAP
Parameter adaptation service PAR-SAP
6.2 Event service

Event service is provided through EVENT-SAP. The EVENT-SAP is the logical interface between the

event service entity in the service layer and the CIP entity in the application layer. This logical interface

incorporates a set of primitives and their definitions. These primitives and definitions are described

conceptually here, but through this, the process of the parameters exchanged between the service layer

and the application layer can be understood. Table 2 lists the primitives supported by the EVENT-SAP.

Table 3 outlines the primitive parameters.
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
Table 2 — EVENT-SAP primitive summary
Name Request Indication Response Confirm
EVENT-SUB 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3
EVENT-REG 6.2.4
EVENT-UNS
...

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