Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

IEC 62830-4:2019 describes terms, definitions, symbols, configurations, and test methods that can be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is applicable to energy harvesting devices for consumers, general industries, wearable electronics, military, and biomedical applications without any limitations of device technology and size.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour récupération et production d'énergie - Partie 4: Méthodes d’essai et d’appréciation pour les dispositifs de récupération d’énergie piézoélectrique souples

L’IEC 62830-4:2019 décrit les termes, définitions, symboles, configurations et les méthodes d’essai pouvant être utilisés pour apprécier et déterminer les caractéristiques de performance des dispositifs de récupération d’énergie piézoélectrique souples dans le contexte d’une utilisation pratique. Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs de récupération d’énergie destinés au grand public, aux industries générales, aux appareils électroniques portatifs et aux applications militaires et biomédicales, sans restriction concernant la technologie et la taille des dispositifs.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Feb-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
27-Feb-2019
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 62830-4:2019 - Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices
English and French language
61 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 62830-4
Edition 1.0 2019-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting
devices
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et production d’énergie –

Partie 4: Méthodes d’essai et d’appréciation pour les dispositifs de récupération

d’énergie piézoélectrique souples
IEC 62830-4:2019-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2019 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Recherche de publications IEC - Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Le premier dictionnaire d'électrotechnologie en ligne au

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC monde, avec plus de 22 000 articles terminologiques en

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans

comité d’études,…). Elle donne aussi des informations sur les 16 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire

projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées. Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.

IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished Glossaire IEC - std.iec.ch/glossary

Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just 67 000 entrées terminologiques électrotechniques, en anglais

Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. et en français, extraites des articles Termes et Définitions des

Disponible en ligne et une fois par mois par email. publications IEC parues depuis 2002. Plus certaines entrées

antérieures extraites des publications des CE 37, 77, 86 et
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc CISPR de l'IEC.
Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette
publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:
sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62830-4
Edition 1.0 2019-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting
devices
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et production d’énergie –

Partie 4: Méthodes d’essai et d’appréciation pour les dispositifs de récupération

d’énergie piézoélectrique souples
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ISBN 978-2-8322-6609-0
ICS 31.080.99

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Piezoelectric transducer .......................................................................................... 8

3.3 Characteristic parameters ....................................................................................... 8

4 Essential ratings and characteristic parameters ............................................................. 10

4.1 Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 10

4.2 Additional information ........................................................................................... 11

5 Test method .................................................................................................................. 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Electrical characteristics ....................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 12

5.2.2 Capacitance .................................................................................................. 13

5.2.3 Open circuit voltage ....................................................................................... 14

5.2.4 Short circuit current ....................................................................................... 14

5.2.5 Open circuit voltage with various induced strains ........................................... 15

5.2.6 Short circuit current with various induced strains ........................................... 15

5.2.7 Open circuit voltage with various induced frequencies ................................... 16

5.2.8 Short circuit current with various induced frequencies.................................... 17

5.2.9 Output load voltage ....................................................................................... 18

5.2.10 Output current ............................................................................................... 19

5.2.11 Output power ................................................................................................. 19

5.2.12 Optimal load impedance ................................................................................ 20

5.2.13 Maximum output power .................................................................................. 20

5.2.14 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 20

5.2.15 Temperature range ........................................................................................ 21

5.2.16 Relative humidity range ................................................................................. 22

5.2.17 Input bending motion range ........................................................................... 22

5.2.18 Input stretching motion range ........................................................................ 22

5.2.19 Input twisting motion range ............................................................................ 22

Annex A (informative) Piezoelectric modes .......................................................................... 23

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

A.2 d mode............................................................................................................... 23

A.3 d mode............................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Classification of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters ................... 25

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

B.2 Piezoelectric thin film with top and bottom electrodes (d mode).......................... 25

B.3 Piezoelectric thin film with comb structured electrodes (d mode) ........................ 25

B.4 Piezoelectric nano wire with top and bottom electrodes ........................................ 25

B.5 Flexible piezoelectric material with top and bottom electrodes .............................. 25

Annex C (informative) Input motions .................................................................................... 27

C.1 Classification of strain motions.............................................................................. 27

C.2 Example of test method ........................................................................................ 27

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

Annex D (informative) Electromechanical coupling ............................................................... 29

D.1 Compliance and coupling coefficient relation......................................................... 29

D.2 Young’s modulus and coupling coefficient relation ................................................ 29

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 1 – Flexible energy harvester using a flexible substrate with a piezoelectric film .......... 7

Figure 2 – Equivalent circuit of flexible piezoelectric energy harvester .................................... 9

Figure 3 – Measurement procedure of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters ..................... 12

Figure 4 – Test setup for the electrical characteristics of a flexible piezoelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 13

Figure 5 – Open circuit voltage of a flexible piezoelectric energy harvester ........................... 14

Figure 6 – Short circuit current of a flexible piezoelectric energy harvester ........................... 14

Figure 7 – Open circuit voltage of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester with

various induced strains ......................................................................................................... 15

Figure 8 – Short circuit current of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester with

various induced strains ......................................................................................................... 16

Figure 9 – Open circuit voltage of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester with

various induced frequencies ................................................................................................. 17

Figure 10 – Short circuit current of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester with

various induced frequencies ................................................................................................. 18

Figure 11 – Output load voltages of flexible piezoelectric energy harvester at various

external loads ....................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 12 – Output current of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester at various

output voltages ..................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 13 – Output power of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester at various

external loads ....................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 14 – Output power and voltage of the flexible piezoelectric energy harvester at

various input bending, stretching, or twisting motions ........................................................... 20

Figure 15 – Block diagram of a test setup for evaluating the reliability of the flexible

piezoelectric energy harvester .............................................................................................. 21

Figure A.1 – Piezoelectric mode of the bending beam based energy harvester ..................... 24

Figure B.1 – Classification of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters ................................... 26

Figure C.1 – Classification of strain motions applied for flexible piezoelectric energy

harvesters ............................................................................................................................. 27

Figure C.2 – The output current measurement for different types of stretching ...................... 28

Table 1 – Specification parameters for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters .................... 10

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR
ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for
flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62830-4 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2530/FDIS 47/2551/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62830 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR
ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 4: Test and evaluation methods for
flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62830 describes terms, definitions, symbols, configurations, and test

methods that can be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of

flexible piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is applicable

to energy harvesting devices for consumers, general industries, wearable electronics, military,

and biomedical applications without any limitations of device technology and size.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60749-5, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 5:

Steady-state temperature humidity bias life test

IEC 60749-12, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 12:

Vibration, variable frequency
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
flexible
capability of being bent or flexed
3.1.2
flexible energy harvester

energy transducer that transforms bending, stretching, or twisting energy into electric energy

Note 1 to entry: A flexible energy harvester which converts applied stress by bending, stretching or twisting to

electricity using a piezoelectric transducer is comprised of a spring and a piezoelectric transducer as shown in

Figure 1. The piezoelectric transducer contains two electrodes and a piezoelectric film or nano wires. The induced

external stress introduces the bending, stretching or twisting motion to the flexible substrate as shown in Annex C.

The flexible substrate is bent and the bending of the spring introduces tension and compression of the piezoelectric

film. The top and bottom electrodes of the piezoelectric film harvest the generated charges resulting from the

piezoelectric effect.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
1(a) Unimorph type
1(b) Bimorph type
Key
Configuration of energy harvester Components to operate energy
harvester
1 Piezoelectric film which is R External load
the body layer of the
piezoelectric transducer for
energy harvesting
2 Spring, to couple the L+, L- Outputs of energy
induced bending, stretching harvester
or twisting to the flexible
substrate by suspending it

Figure 1 – Flexible energy harvester using a flexible substrate with a piezoelectric film

Note 2 to entry: The flexible piezoelectric energy harvester can be classified into four different types as shown in

Annex B.
3.1.3
unimorph cantilever
cantilever that consists of one piezoelectric layer

Note 1 to entry: A unimorph cantilever consists of two layers where the piezoelectric layer is attached with the

non-piezoelectric layer that works as a spring to introduce external stress to the piezoelectric layer.

3.1.4
bimorph cantilever
cantilever that consists of two piezoelectric layers

Note 1 to entry: In a bimorph cantilever, a non-piezoelectric layer is placed between two piezoelectric layers.

3.1.5
flexible substrate
substrate that is made from flexible materials, such as polyimide and PDMS
3.1.6
spring
elastic object to store mechanical energy with spring constant, k
[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1:2017, 3.1.5]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019
3.2 Piezoelectric transducer
3.2.1
piezoelectric transducer

energy converter to generate electricity from mechanical energy by means of piezoelectric

effect
[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1: 2017, 3.2.1]
3.2.2
piezoelectric effect

effect by which a mechanical deformation of piezoelectric material produces a proportional

change in the electric polarization of that material
3.2.3
piezoelectric constant

quantifying value of the polarization in the piezoelectric material on application of a stress

3.2.4
electromechanical coupling coefficient

value to describe the conversion rate of electrical energy to mechanical form or vice versa

Note 1 to entry: The coefficient is a combination of elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants which appears

naturally in the expression of the piezoelectric transducer.
k= (1)
1/2
(sε)
where
d is the piezoelectric charge constant;

s is the elastic compliance (inverse of Young's modulus) at constant electric field;

ε is the permittivity of the piezoelectric material at constant stress.

Note 2 to entry: Annexes A and D show additional information for the piezoelectric constant and

electromechanical coupling.
3.2.5
capacitance
capacitance between the two electrodes of the piezoelectric transducer
3.3 Characteristic parameters
3.3.1
equivalent circuit

electrical circuit which has the same output voltage

from induced bending, stretching, or twisting motion as the piezoelectric flexible energy

harvester in the immediate neighborhood of a resonance

Note 1 to entry: A flexible piezoelectric energy harvester can be divided into current source and capacitance parts

as shown in Figure 2. The equivalent circuit is comprised of parallel connected C , of R, and of transformer (I(t)),

where C and R represent the capacitance between the two electrodes of the piezoelectric transducer and external

load.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
Key
I(t) current source of piezoelectric
transducer
C capacitance of piezoelectric transducer
R external load
Figure 2 – Equivalent circuit of flexible piezoelectric energy harvester
3.3.2
open circuit voltage

electrical potential difference relative to a reference node of energy harvester when there is

no external load connected to the terminals of the energy harvester
3.3.3
short circuit current

current through the external load connected to the terminal of an energy harvester

[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1:2017, 3.3.6, modified – the term "ouput current" has been replaced

by "short circuit current".]
3.3.4
output power

electrical power transferred to the external load connected to the terminal of an energy

harvester
[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1:2017, 3.3.5]
3.3.5
power density

electrical power per unit volume (including seismic mass and clamper) transferred to the

external load connected to the terminals of the energy harvester
3.3.6
optimal load
opt

specified value of the external load for transferring the largest electrical energy from the

energy harvester
[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1: 2017, 3.3.7]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62830-4:2019 © IEC 2019
3.3.7
temperature range

range of temperature as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within the specified tolerances

[SOURCE: IEC 62830-1: 2017, 3.3.9]
3.3.8
humidity range

range of humidity as measured in the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within the specified tolerances

3.3.9
input stress

range of stress induced by bending motion, stretching motion, and twisting motion to the

energy harvester as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage under long term operation though not necessarily functioning

within the specified tolerances
3.3.10
mean-time-to-failure

length of time the energy harvester is expected to last in operation without failure or

disruption
4 Essential ratings and characteristic parameters
4.1 Limiting values and operating conditions

Specification and characteristic parameters should be listed as shown in Table 1. The

manufacturer shall clearly announce the operating conditions and their limitation for energy

harvesting. The limiting value is the maximum induced bending, stretching or twisting motion

to ensure the long term operation of the flexible energy harvester for power generation

without any damage.
Table 1 – Specification parameters for flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters
Measuring
Parameters Symbols Min. Max. Unit
conditions
Insert name of
characteristic
parameters
The information provided in Table 1 is the following:
– Parameters: name of the characteristic parameters;
– Symbols: symbol of the parameters;
– Min.: minimum
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.