Information technology - Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) - Part 2: Reference architecture

ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017(E) This part of ISO/IEC 30140 provides an underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) conceptual model by identifying and defining three domains (application domain, network domain and UWASN domain). It also provides multiple reference architecture views consistent with the requirements defined in ISO/IEC 30140-1 (systems reference architecture, communication reference architecture and information reference architecture). For each view, related physical and functional entities are described.

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Publication Date
25-Oct-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
26-Oct-2017
Completion Date
26-Oct-2017
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ISO/IEC 30140-2
Edition 1.0 2017-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Part 2: Reference architecture
ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC 30140-2
Edition 1.0 2017-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Part 2: Reference architecture
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-4990-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 7

5 Purpose of UWASN reference architecture (UWASN RA) ................................................ 9

6 UWASN conceptual model ............................................................................................. 10

7 Configuration of UWASN RA – Systems reference architecture (SRA) ........................... 11

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 System-level physical entities ............................................................................... 13

7.2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 13

7.2.2 Physical entities ............................................................................................ 13

7.3 High-level SRA view ............................................................................................. 20

7.4 SRA from system service view .............................................................................. 21

8 Configuration of UWASN RA – Communication reference architecture (CRA) ................ 21

8.1 High-level CRA view ............................................................................................. 21

8.2 CRA from network connectivity view ..................................................................... 25

8.2.1 UWA-Physical layer ....................................................................................... 25

8.2.2 UWA-Datalink layer ....................................................................................... 26

8.2.3 UWA-Network layer ....................................................................................... 27

8.2.4 UWA-Bundle layer ......................................................................................... 27

8.2.5 UWA-Application layer ................................................................................... 28

8.2.6 Functional modules........................................................................................ 29

8.2.7 Essential concept of functional entities .......................................................... 29

9 Configuration of UWASN RA – Information reference architecture (IRA) ........................ 32

9.1 High-level IRA view ............................................................................................... 32

9.2 IRA from information service view ......................................................................... 34

9.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

9.2.2 Information gathering layer ............................................................................ 35

9.2.3 Information delivering layer ............................................................................ 35

9.2.4 Application and service layer ......................................................................... 35

9.2.5 Information domain view ................................................................................ 35

9.2.6 Information service view ................................................................................ 36

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – UWASN system conceptual model ....................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – UWASN systems reference architecture ............................................................... 12

Figure 3 – Physical entities of a UWASN .............................................................................. 14

Figure 4 – Physical architecture of underwater sensor node ................................................. 16

Figure 5 – Underwater sensor node (UWA-SNode) architecture ............................................ 17

Figure 6 – Underwater gateway architecture ......................................................................... 18

Figure 7 – Unmanned underwater vehicle architecture .......................................................... 19

Figure 8 – Underwater device architecture ............................................................................ 20

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ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 9 – Graphical representation of the interoperable UWASN RA from a service

point of view ......................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 10 – UWASN communication reference architecture .................................................. 22

Figure 11 – Underwater acoustic communication architecture ............................................... 24

Figure 12 – Underwater acoustic sensor network architecture ............................................... 25

Figure 13 – UWA-PHY layer reference model ....................................................................... 26

Figure 14 – UWA-DL layer reference model .......................................................................... 26

Figure 15 – UWA-NWK layer reference model ....................................................................... 27

Figure 16 – UWA-Bundle layer reference model .................................................................... 28

Figure 17 – UWA-APS layer reference model ........................................................................ 28

Figure 18 – Functional entities of UWASN ............................................................................ 30

Figure 19 – UWASN IRA ....................................................................................................... 33

Figure 20 – Underwater information service architecture ....................................................... 35

Figure 21 – Underwater information domain view .................................................................. 36

Figure 22 – Underwater information service view .................................................................. 37

Table 1 – UWASN systems reference architecture ................................................................ 12

Table 2 – UWASN communication reference architecture (UWASN CRA) ............................. 23

Table 3 – Functional model and descriptions in UWASN ....................................................... 30

Table 4 – Interrelationship between functional and physical entities of UWASN .................... 32

Table 5 – UWASN information reference architecture (UWASN IRA) ..................................... 34

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 2: Reference architecture
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have

established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

3) IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted

by IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to

ensure that the technical content of IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications is accurate, IEC or ISO cannot be held

responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

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apply IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and

regional publications. Any divergence between any ISO, IEC or ISO/IEC publication and the corresponding

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC publication may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 30140-2 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The list of all currently available parts of the ISO/IEC 30140 series, under the general title

Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN), can be found on the

IEC and ISO websites.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Water covers approximately 71 % of the Earth’s surface. Modern technologies introduce new

methods to monitor the bodies of water, for example, pollution monitoring and detection.

Underwater data-gathering techniques require exploring the water environment, which can be

most effectively performed by underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). Applications

developed for the UWASNs can record underwater climate, detect and control water pollution,

monitor marine biology, discover natural resources, detect pipeline leakages, monitor and

locate underwater intruders, perform strategic surveillance, and so on.

The ISO/IEC 30140 series provides general requirements, reference architecture (RA)

including the entity models and high-level interface guidelines supporting interoperability

among UWASNs in order to provide the essential UWASN construction information to help

and guide architects, developers and implementers of UWASNs.

Additionally, the ISO/IEC 30140 series provides high-level functional models related to

underwater sensor nodes and relationships among the nodes to construct the architectural

perspective of UWASNs. However, the ISO/IEC 30140 series is an application agnostic

standard. Thus, ISO/IEC 30140 series specifies neither any type of communication waveforms

for use in UWASNs nor any underwater acoustic communication frequencies. Specifying

communication waveforms and/or frequencies are the responsibility of architects, developers

and implementers.

Acoustical data communication in sensor networks necessitates the introduction of acoustical

signals that overlap biologically important frequency bands into the subject environment.

These signals may conflict with regional, national or international noise exposure regulations.

Implementers of acoustical communication networks should consult the relevant regulatory

agencies prior to designing and deployment of these systems to ensure compliance with

regulations and avoid conflicts with the agencies.

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 30140 series is to provide general requirements, guidance and

facilitation in order for the users of the ISO/IEC 30140 series to design and develop the target

UWASNs for their applications and services.
The ISO/IEC 30140 series comprises four parts as shown below.
• Part 1 provides a general overview and requirements of the UWASN reference
architecture.
• Part 2 provides reference architecture models for UWASN.

• Part 3 provides descriptions for the entities and interfaces of the UWASN reference

architecture.

• Part 4 provides information on interoperability requirements among the entities within a

UWASN and among various UWASNs.
___________

Architects, developers and implementers need to be aware of the submarine emergency frequency band, near

and below 12 kHz, and it is recommended to provide a provision for such submarine emergency band in their

UWASN design and applications.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
Part 2: Reference architecture
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 30140 provides a UWASN conceptual model by identifying and defining

three domains (application domain, network domain and UWASN domain).
It also provides UWASN reference architecture multiple views consistent with the
requirements defined in ISO/IEC 30140-1:
a) UWASN systems reference architecture;
b) UWASN communication reference architecture;
c) UWASN information reference architecture.
For each view, related physical and functional entities are described.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29182-2, Information technology – Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference

Architecture (SNRA) – Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology

ISO/IEC 30140-1, Information technology – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –

Part 1: Overview and requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
___________
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: ISO/IEC FDIS 30140-1:2017.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 7 –
4 Abbreviated terms
2D two-dimensional
3D three-dimensional
3G third generation
4G fourth generation
A/D analog-to-digital converter
AODV ad hoc on demand distance vector
APS IB application layer information base
APSDE application layer data entity
APSME application layer management entity
ASK amplitude shift keying
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
BLDE bundle layer data entity
BLME bundle layer management entity
BUN IB bundle layer information base
CDMA code division multiple access
CLA convergence layer adapter
CM communication module
CPU central processing unit
CRA communication reference architecture
CSMA carrier sense multiple access
D/A digital-to-analog converter
DB database
DG distance group
DSDV destination-sequenced distance vector routing
DSR dynamic source routing
DTN delay and disruption tolerant network
HAL hardware abstraction layer
FSK frequency shift keying
GFG greedy-face-greedy
GPRS general packet radio service
HAL hardware layer
IB information base
I C inter-integrated circuit
IP Internet protocol
IRA information reference architecture
kbps kilobits per second
LAN local area network
MAC IB datalink layer information base
MAC media access control
MCU microcontroller unit
MFSK multiple frequency shift keying
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– 8 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
MIMO multi-input multi-output
MLDE MAC layer data entity
MLME MAC layer management entity
MM micro controller module
MSDU mac service data unit
NLDE network layer data entity
NLME network layer management entity
NWK IB network layer information base
OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
OLSR optimized link state routing
OS operating system
PC personal computer
PDU protocol data unit
PHY IB physical layer information base
PIT passive integrated transponder
PLDE physical layer data entity
PLME physical layer management entity
PSK phase shift keying
PTKF partial topology knowledge forwarding
PWM pulse width modulation
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
QoS quality of service
RA reference architecture
REST representational state transfer
RF radio frequency
RFID radio-frequency identification
ROV remotely operated underwater vehicle
SAP service access point
SCI serial communication interface
SDV switched digital video
SIM sensor interface module
SIMO single-input multi-output
SISO single-input single-output
SM service module
SPI serial peripheral interface
SRA system reference architecture
TDMA time division multiple access
UART universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
UWA-APS underwater application layer
UWA-BUN underwater bundle layer
UWA-CH underwater acoustic cluster head
UWA-EUN underwater acoustic extend united network
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 9 –
UWA-FN underwater acoustic fundamental network
UWA-GW underwater acoustic gateway
UWA-DL underwater datalink layer
UWA-NWK underwater network layer
UWA-PHY underwater physical layer
UWASN underwater acoustic sensor network
UWA-SNode underwater acoustic sensor node
UWA-UN underwater acoustic united network
WAN wide area network
Wi-Fi wireless fidelity
5 Purpose of UWASN reference architecture (UWASN RA)

This document provides reference architecture views consistent with the requirements which

are defined in ISO/IEC 30140-1.

A UWASN reference architecture (UWASN RA) is a generalized architecture sharing one or

more common domains of several end systems, giving direction downward and requiring

compliance upward. In other words, the developer can reuse entities and elements in the

reference architecture that fit the developers’ application or target architecture. In addition,

the UWASN reference architecture provides standards and guidelines for building a specific

architecture for underwater environment.

The combination of these architecture perspectives and views forms a comprehensive

architectural description of a UWASN system. Reference architecture perspectives and views

are to:
a) specify how UWASNs operate;
b) specify systems of equipment and flows of information which support UWASNs;

c) specify technical rules and guidelines which allow these systems to interoperate.

UWASN RA provides the rules and guidance for developing and presenting the architecture

descriptions.
This document provides multiple views of the technical architecture of UWASN:
1) overview of UWASN reference architecture;
2) UWASN systems reference architecture;
3) UWASN communication reference architecture;
4) UWASN information reference architecture.

The UWASN supports development of interacting architectures. UWASN defines the multiple

perspectives of UWASN reference architecture and multiple views of the technical

architecture. All views are made up of sets of architecture data elements. The UWASN

defines relationship between architectural views and the data elements.
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
6 UWASN conceptual model
The UWASN conceptual model shown in Figure 1 depicts the common domains that are

identified in various UWASN systems and each of the presented domains. In this document,

the UWASN reference architecture is described using the domains shown in Figure 1 and this

conceptual model is extended to develop the three UWASN reference architectures which

describe common entities and interfaces in each domain for various UWASN systems
applications and services.
The UWASN RA describes the key technology that enables “a UWASN system”. In most
UWASN systems, there are three main technologies involved: system technology,

communication technology and information technology. The UWASN reference architecture

views are described and focused on these three technologies, resulting in the architecture

views mentioned.
IEC
Key
1 domain

2 two-way communication link, interface for data/information and/or physical interface

Figure 1 – UWASN system conceptual model

The conceptual model describes the UWASN system in terms of the key domains which are

common to the deployed UWASN systems. These domains are identified and defined.
a) Application domain

The application domain includes many types of application users connected to a UWASN

system. These are scientific, military, business and aquatic applications. The application

users make use of underwater sensor data for monitoring the environment, providing

tsunami warnings, etc.
b) Network domain
The network domain can be realized using LAN, WAN and/or backbone networks. This
domain provides data/information links between the application domain and UWASN
domain. This domain uses RF communication, satellite or optical communication.
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ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 11 –
c) UWASN domain

This domain is related to the underwater environment, which includes surface domain,

sensing domain, and controlling domain. These three domains are described below.
1) Surface domain
In the UWASN system, ships, surface buoys and UUVs may be used as underwater
gateways. These gateways gather data from underwater sensor nodes using acoustic
communication links and transfer to the backbone network using, e.g. satellite
communication or CDMA.
2) Sensing domain
In the UWASN system, the sensing domain is used for sensing the underwater

environment using various types of sensors, e.g. temperature, pressure and imaging

sensors. The sensing domain can directly communicate with the surface domain in the

case of ad-hoc networks.
3) Controlling domain

In the UWASN system, the controlling domain is used for communication between the

sensing domain and the surface domain. Intermediate nodes, such as AUVs and relay

nodes, are used to gather data from the sensing domain and transform to surface
domain with the help of acoustic communication.
7 Configuration of UWASN RA – Systems reference architecture (SRA)
7.1 General

The UWASN systems reference architecture is shown in Figure 2, along with all the entities

involved and the interfaces among them. The entity and interface descriptions are presented

in Table 1.
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– 12 – ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017
IEC
Key
1 domain

2 two-way communication link, interface for data/information and/or physical interface

3 entity
Figure 2 – UWASN systems reference architecture
Table 1 – UWASN systems reference architecture
UWASN domains Domain entities
Network domain Backbone
Internet
Intranet
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30140-2:2017 © ISO/IEC 2017 – 13 –
Application domain Scientific
Business
Military
Aquatic
Civilian
Others (e.g. Sports)
Underwater domain Surface domain
– Ships
– Buoys
– USV (unmanned surface vehicle)
– Others [e.g. anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters]
Sensing domain
– UUV
– Other sensing systems
Controlling domain
– Relay node
– UUV
Interfaces (between entities) Description

Application domain Network domain Inf-01: The interface between application domain

and network domain.

Network domain Underwater domain Inf-02: The interface between network domain and

underwater domain.

Underwater domain Application domain Inf-03: The interface between underwater domain

and application domain.
7.2 System-level physical entities
7.2.1 Overview

The purpose of this subclause is to provide not only basic information but also high-le

...

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