Power consumption of high dynamic range television sets

IEC TR 63274:2021 introduces high dynamic range video technology, describes current television set power consumption measurement methods, discusses the HDR TV market, analyses HDR TV power measurement challenges, and considers a path forward for HDR TV power measurement standards development.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Mar-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
05-Mar-2021
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IEC TR 63274
Edition 1.0 2021-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Power consumption of high dynamic range television sets
IEC TR 63274:2021-03(en)
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IEC TR 63274
Edition 1.0 2021-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Power consumption of high dynamic range television sets
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.40 ISBN 978-2-8322-9512-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative reference ........................................................................................................ 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 8

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 11

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 12

4.1 High dynamic range video ..................................................................................... 12

4.2 HDR TV market ..................................................................................................... 13

5 HDR TV power measurement challenges ....................................................................... 14

5.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 14

5.2 Content analysis ................................................................................................... 15

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.2.2 Sources of HDR video content ....................................................................... 15

5.2.3 HDR metadata ............................................................................................... 16

5.2.4 Increased complexity of display technologies enabling HDR .......................... 16

5.3 HDR video content aspects beyond the scope of this report .................................. 16

6 Dominant aspects for HDR TV power consumption measurement .................................. 17

6.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 17

6.2 Fundamental criteria and requirements for Final HDR Test Clip deliverable .......... 18

6.3 HDR media formats ............................................................................................... 19

6.4 Differences between HDR formats ........................................................................ 19

6.5 Mastering display brightness ................................................................................. 21

6.6 Resolution, scan type and frame rate .................................................................... 22

6.7 Aspect ratio .......................................................................................................... 22

6.8 Picture level .......................................................................................................... 23

6.9 Content signal level analysis method .................................................................... 23

7 Fundamental objectives of HDR test clip deliverable ...................................................... 24

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 24

7.2 CLASP source material ......................................................................................... 24

7.3 Luminance, APL and colour saturation properties ................................................. 24

7.4 Order of scenes .................................................................................................... 25

7.5 Creating the initial HDR test clip ........................................................................... 26

7.6 Optimization of initial HDR test clip to match power statistics ................................ 27

8 Generation of the final HDR test clips ............................................................................ 28

8.1 HDR signal properties ........................................................................................... 28

8.1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 28

8.1.2 Colour gamut ................................................................................................. 28

8.1.3 Colour depth .................................................................................................. 28

8.1.4 Chroma subsampling ..................................................................................... 29

8.2 Converting the optimised test clip to the recommended formats ............................ 29

8.3 Additional elements .............................................................................................. 29

8.3.1 Countdown timer ........................................................................................... 29

8.3.2 Audio tone ..................................................................................................... 29

9 Delivery of test media .................................................................................................... 29

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IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

10 Rating of SD and HDR power consumption .................................................................... 30

11 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 30

Annex A (informative) Other considerations for a next-generation TV power

measurement standard ......................................................................................................... 32

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 32

A.2 Visual overlays ..................................................................................................... 32

A.3 Motion-based features .......................................................................................... 32

A.4 Standby modes and smart television set features .................................................. 32

A.4.1 Quick start ..................................................................................................... 32

A.4.2 Networked standby features .......................................................................... 33

A.4.3 Smart TV applications .................................................................................... 33

A.5 Audio .................................................................................................................... 33

Annex B (informative) Details on content assessment methods ............................................ 34

B.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 34

B.2 Methods for analysis done by PCL on December 20, 2018 .................................... 34

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

B.2.2 Test method .................................................................................................. 34

B.2.3 File name decoder ......................................................................................... 34

B.2.4 Workflow for experimental test clips ............................................................... 35

B.3 Methods for analysis done by PCL on March 20, 2019 .......................................... 38

B.4 Rendering final test clip from DaVinci Resolve Studio 15 ...................................... 38

B.4.1 HDR10 workflow ............................................................................................ 38

B.4.2 HLG workflow ................................................................................................ 40

Annex C (informative) Technical description for converting SMPTE ST 2084 to HLG ........... 42

C.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 42

C.2 Step 1: Convert from SMPTE ST 2084 to absolute linear light ............................... 42

C.3 Step 2: convert from absolute linear light to HLG .................................................. 42

C.4 Encoding using command line tools ...................................................................... 44

C.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

C.4.2 25 fps HDR10 CLI Encode via FFmpeg .......................................................... 44

C.4.3 25 fps HLG CLI Encode via FFmpeg .............................................................. 45

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 46

Figure 1 – Occurrence of linear and non-linear signal encodings in context of a typical

display processing pipeline and how they can be used to compute APL and APL’ ................. 10

Figure 2 – Overview of how the deliverables were developed................................................ 17

Figure 3 – Illustration on editing the initial HDR test clip from the CLASP source

material ................................................................................................................................ 27

Figure 4 – Optimization of initial HDR test clip to match power statistics ............................... 27

Figure 5 – Average power consumption of protected HDR content versus optimized

HDR test clip ........................................................................................................................ 28

Table 1 – Fundamental HDR test media format summary ...................................................... 19

Table 2 – HDR media formats available in the consumer TV landscape ................................ 19

Table 3 – Comparison of HDR media formats on the power consumption (W) of TVs ............ 21

Table 4 – Power consumption (W) of TVs displaying the colour graded Initial HDR test clip .. 21

Table 5 – Power consumption (W) of TVs displaying the assessment HDR video

content in different resolutions .............................................................................................. 22

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– 4 – IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021
Table 6 – Power consumption (W) of TVs displaying the assessment HDR video

content with different frame rates .......................................................................................... 22

Table 7 – Recommended scene order in the test clip ............................................................ 25

Table B.1 – Characteristics of TVs of the NEEA test farm used for the March 20, 2019

analysis ................................................................................................................................ 34

Table B.2 – File name decoder ............................................................................................. 35

Table B.3 – Workflow ............................................................................................................ 35

Table B.4 – Resolve master session: PCL Dolby Vision® 4000 cd/m ................................... 36

Table B.5 – Resolve master session: PCL HDR10 1000 nit: HDR10 grade ............................ 36

Table B.6 – Resolve master session: HLG1 .......................................................................... 37

Table B.7 – Resolve master session: HLG2 .......................................................................... 37

Table B.8 – Characteristics of TVs of the NEEA test farm used for the March 20, 2019

analysis ................................................................................................................................ 38

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IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
POWER CONSUMPTION OF HIGH DYNAMIC
RANGE TELEVISION SETS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

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data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 63274, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by Technical Area 19:

Environmental and energy aspects for multimedia systems and equipment, of IEC technical

committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
DTR Report on voting
100/3348/DTR 100/3397/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.
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– 6 – IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
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IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

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contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
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IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

High dynamic range (HDR) video is emerging as a new technology that affects the entire video

ecosystem from production and processing, through to distribution and presentation. HDR

television sets potentially have higher peak luminance level capabilities, and HDR video signals

can represent pictures with much higher luminance levels than was the case in traditional

analogue and digital video systems.

Current television set power consumption measurement methods, including those standardized

in the IEC 62087 series (see [1] , [2]and [3]), consider only televisions that accept a traditional,

standard dynamic range (SDR) signal. It is likely that an HDR-capable television’s power

consumption will differ when presented with an HDR signal versus an SDR signal.

IEC TC100 TA19 has identified a standardization opportunity related to the method of

measuring the power consumption of HDR television sets, including the development of a

related HDR test signal.

This document assesses the current HDR technology for the parameters relevant for TV power

consumption and sets the groundwork for the subsequent development of a measurement

standard for the power consumption of HDR TV sets.
_____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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– 8 – IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021
POWER CONSUMPTION OF HIGH DYNAMIC
RANGE TELEVISION SETS
1 Scope

This document introduces high dynamic range video technology, describes current television

set power consumption measurement methods, discusses the HDR TV market, analyses HDR

TV power measurement challenges, and considers a path forward for HDR TV power
measurement standards development.
2 Normative reference
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
electro-optical transfer function
EOTF

mathematical function for transferring an electrical signal into a desired optical signal

EXAMPLE EOTFs are typically non-linear and monotonic and aim to incorporate behaviour of the human visual

system, e.g. on a display device. Some are absolute, addressing luminance values directly, while others are of

relative nature.
3.1.2
high dynamic range video
HDR video

capability of components in a video pipeline to capture, process, transport or display luminance

levels and tone gradations that exceed capabilities of conventional SDR imaging pipelines

components

Note 1 to entry: An HDR video signal typically uses a greater bit depth, luminance and colour volume than standard

dynamic range (SDR) video. It also typically utilizes different tone curves such as perceptual quantizer (PQ) as

specified in SMPTE ST 2084 [4] or hybrid log gamma (HLG) specified in ITU-R BT.2100 [5] instead of gamma, as

used with SDR. When the HDR video signal is rendered on an HDR display, it is possible to see greater luminance

ranges and wider colour gamuts

Note 2 to entry: HDR video can provide an enhanced viewer experience and can more accurately reproduce scenes

that include, within the same image, dark areas and bright highlights, such as emissive light sources and reflections.

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IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.1.3
standard dynamic range video
SDR video

capability of components in a video pipeline to capture, process, transport or display luminance

levels and tone gradations that can be characterized by the dynamic range, colour rendering

and tone gradation capabilities essentially compatible with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays

EXAMPLE ITU-R BT.709 [6]/BT.1886 [7] and IEC 61966-2-1 (sRGB) [8]
2 2

Note 1 to entry: The luminance range of an SDR image is typically constrained between 0,1 cd/m to 100 cd/m .

3.1.4
wide colour gamut
WCG

colour space that covers a larger percentage of visible colours compared to the sRGB/Rec.

ITU-R BT.709 colour space

EXAMPLE ITU-R BT.2020 [9] is considered to provide WCG while BT.709 [6] does not.

3.1.5
television set

equipment for the reception and display of television broadcast and similar services for

terrestrial, cable, satellite and broadband network transmission of analogue and/or digital

signals

Note 1 to entry: A television set can include additional functions that are not required for its basic operation.

[SOURCE: IEC 62087-3:2015, 3.1.19]
3.1.6
high definition
spatial video resolution ranging from 1 280 × 720 to 1 920 × 1 080
3.1.7
ultra high definition
UHD
Ultra HD
spatial video resolution above 1 920 × 1 080
3.1.8
signal identification metadata
identifiers describing the properties of an image stream

EXAMPLE Format, resolution, colour space, chroma subsampling, bit-depth, image compression, image transport.

3.1.9
image-related metadata

identifiers describing intrinsic image properties in form of both static metadata valid throughout

the content and dynamic metadata for frame-specific image parameters

EXAMPLE 1 Minimum and maximum luminance, average picture level, properties of the grading display.

EXAMPLE 2 HDR image related static metadata are MaxCLL and MaxFall as specified in CTA-861-G [10], section

6.9.1 and Appendix P, sections P.1 and P.2 for algorithms to calculate each.

EXAMPLE 3 Dynamic metadata is utilized by Dolby Vision® (SMPTE ST 2094-10 [11]) and HDR10+

(SMPTE ST 2094-40 [12]).

Note 1 to entry: They can be used as recommendations and guidance for image rendering and display.

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– 10 – IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021
3.1.10
average picture level
APL

average level of all the pixels of a single video signal frame in the linear luminance domain

EXAMPLE Display equipment such as television sets or computer monitors that internally use linear encoding after

undoing the non-linearity of the input signal.
3.1.11
average picture level based on non-linear input signal
APL′

average level of all pixels of a single video signal frame in the non-linear luminance domain

EXAMPLE Display equipment such as television sets or computer monitor receive input signals that encode

luminance in a non-linear way. Examples for such non-linear encoding are PQ or HLG EOTFs (ITU-R BT.2100-1) [5].

Note 1 to entry: APL′ is defined as a percentage of the range between reference black and reference white level.

Note 2 to entry: This is not a measure of the linear signal that might be available inside of some display equipment

and delivered to the display device. The external and internal video signals are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 – Occurrence of linear and non-linear signal encodings in context of a typical

display processing pipeline and how they can be used to compute APL and APL’
3.1.12
hybrid log-gamma
HLG

one set of transfer functions offering a degree of backwards compatibility by more closely

matching the previously established television transfer curves

Note 1 to entry: Sets of transfer functions related to HDR signals are specified in Rec. ITU-R BT.2100-1.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 23008-15:2018, 3.4]
3.1.13
perceptual quantizer

one set of transfer functions addressing a very wide range of absolute luminance levels for a

given bit depth using a non-linear transfer function that is finely tuned to match the sensitivity

of the human visual system

Note 1 to entry: Sets of transfer functions related to HDR signals are specified in Rec. ITU-R BT.2100-1 [5].

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 23008-15:2018, 3.8]
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IEC TR 63274:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
3.2 Abbreviated terms
ABC automatic brightness control
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
CLASP non-profit organisation supporting the development and implementation of
policies and programs to improve the energy and environmental performance
of appliances and equipment we use every day (Collaborative Labelling and
Standards Program)
CLL content light level
CRT cathode ray tube
CTA Consumer Technology Association (formerly Consumer Electronics
Association)
FALD full array local dimming
FALL frame average light level
FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association
FPS frames per second

HD+ (HD-Plus) high-definition satellite television platform for German-speaking users, owned

by SES
HDMI High Definition Multimedia Interface
HEVC high efficiency video coding
Hz hertz
ICDM International Committee on Display Metrology
ICtCp patented colour representation format specified in ITU-R BT.2100-2 [5]
ITU-R International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector
MDD motion-based dynamic dimming
NC+ Polish satellite platform
NEEA Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
NOS Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (Du
...

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