Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective measures - Part 12: Power metering and monitoring devices (PMD)

IEC 61557-12:2018 is available as IEC 61557-12:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 61557-12:2018 specifies requirements for power metering and monitoring devices (PMD) that measure and monitor the electrical quantities within electrical distribution systems, and optionally other external signals. These requirements also define the performance in single- and three-phase AC or DC systems having rated voltages up to 1 000 V AC or up to 1 500 V DC. These devices are fixed or portable. They are intended to be used indoors and/or outdoors. Power metering and monitoring devices (PMD), as defined in this document, give additional safety information, which aids the verification of the installation and enhances the performance of the distribution systems. The power metering and monitoring devices (PMD) for electrical parameters described in this document are used for general industrial and commercial applications. This document does not address functional safety and cyber security aspects. This document is not applicable for:
– electricity metering equipment that complies with IEC 62053-21, IEC 62053-22, IEC 62053-23 and IEC 62053-24. Nevertheless, uncertainties defined in this document for active and reactive energy measurement are derived from those defined in IEC 62053 (all parts);
– the measurement and monitoring of electrical parameters defined in IEC 61557-2 to IEC 61557-9 and IEC 61557-13 or in IEC 62020;
– power quality instrument (PQI) according IEC 62586 (all parts);
– devices covered by IEC 60051 (all parts) (direct acting analogue electrical measuring instrument). IEC 61557-12:2018 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) PMD-A has been withdrawn due the fact these devices are now mainly covered by the IEC 62586 series of standards.
b) Three categories of PMD have been created with a list of minimum required functions for each category.
c) Added a new Annex A explaining the different applications linked to the relevant standards and devices, and another new Annex C about the power factor conventions.

Sécurité électrique dans les réseaux de distribution basse tension jusqu'à 1 000 V c.a. et 1 500 V c.c. - Dispositifs de contrôle, de mesure ou de surveillance de mesures de protection - Partie 12: Dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD)

IEC 61557-12:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 61557-12:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.L'IEC 61557-12:2018 spécifie des exigences relatives aux dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD) qui mesurent et surveillent les grandeurs électriques dans les réseaux de distribution électrique et, facultativement, d’autres signaux externes. Ces exigences définissent également les performances dans les réseaux alternatifs ou continus monophasés et triphasés ayant des tensions assignées inférieures ou égales à 1 000 V en courant alternatif ou inférieures ou égales à 1 500 V en courant continu. Ces dispositifs sont fixes ou portables. Ils sont destinés à être utilisés à l’intérieur et/ou à l’extérieur. Les dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD) tels que définis dans le présent document donnent des informations supplémentaires sur la sécurité, ce qui facilite la vérification de l'installation et augmente les performances des réseaux de distribution. Les dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD) relatifs aux paramètres électriques décrits dans le présent document sont utilisés pour des applications industrielles et commerciales générales. Le présent document ne traite pas des aspects liés à la sécurité fonctionnelle et à la cybersécurité. Le présent document n’est pas applicable:
– aux appareils de comptage d’électricité conformes à l’IEC 62053-21, à l’IEC 62053-22, à l’IEC 62053-23 et à l’IEC 62053-24. Néanmoins, les incertitudes définies dans le présent document pour le mesurage de l’énergie active et réactive sont tirées de celles définies dans l'IEC 62053 (toutes les parties);
– au mesurage et à la surveillance des paramètres électriques définis dans l'IEC 61557-2 à l'IEC 61557-9 et dans l'IEC 61557-13 ou dans l’IEC 62020;
– aux instruments de qualité de l’alimentation (PQI – power quality instrument) conformes à l'IEC 62586 (toutes les parties);
– aux dispositifs relevant des domaines d’application de l'IEC 60051 (toutes les parties) (appareils de mesure électriques analogique à action directe). L'IEC 61557-12:2018 annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2007. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) Suppression des PMD-A du fait que ces dispositifs sont à présent largement couverts par la série de normes IEC 62586.
b) Création de trois catégories de PMD accompagnées d’une liste des fonctions minimales exigées pour chacune des catégories.
c) Ajout d’une nouvelle Annexe A décrivant les différentes applications associées aux normes et dispositifs correspondants et d’une autre nouvelle Annexe C portant sur les conventions du facteur de puissance.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Oct-2018
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IEC 61557-12:2018 - Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective measures - Part 12: Power metering and monitoring devices (PMD)
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IEC 61557-12
Edition 2.0 2018-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 V AC and
1 500 V DC. – Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective
measures –
Part 12: Power metering and monitoring devices (PMD)
Sécurité électrique dans les réseaux de distribution basse tension jusqu’à
1 000 V c.a. et 1 500 V c.c. – Dispositifs de contrôle, de mesure ou de
surveillance de mesures de protection –
Partie 12: Dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD)
IEC 61557-12:2018-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61557-12
Edition 2.0 2018-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 V AC and
1 500 V DC. – Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective
measures –
Part 12: Power metering and monitoring devices (PMD)
Sécurité électrique dans les réseaux de distribution basse tension jusqu’à
1 000 V c.a. et 1 500 V c.c. – Dispositifs de contrôle, de mesure ou de
surveillance de mesures de protection –
Partie 12: Dispositifs de comptage et de surveillance du réseau électrique (PMD)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20; 29.080.01; 29.240.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-6077-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61557-12:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................... 10

2 Normative references................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms, definitions and notations................................................................................... 11

3.1 General definitions .............................................................................................. 11

3.2 Definitions related to uncertainty and performance ............................................... 13

3.3 Definitions related to electric phenomena ............................................................ 17

3.4 Definitions related to measurement techniques .................................................... 20

3.5 Notations ............................................................................................................ 21

3.5.1 Functions ..................................................................................................... 21

3.5.2 Symbols and abbreviations ........................................................................... 21

3.5.3 Indices ......................................................................................................... 22

4 Requirements .............................................................................................................. 22

4.1 General requirements .......................................................................................... 22

4.2 PMD general architecture .................................................................................... 22

4.3 Classification of PMD .......................................................................................... 23

4.4 Structure of PMD................................................................................................. 24

4.4.1 Structure of PMD related to sensors ............................................................. 24

4.4.2 Requirements for self-powered PMD ............................................................ 24

4.5 List of applicable performance classes ................................................................. 25

4.6 Operating and reference conditions for PMD ........................................................ 25

4.6.1 Reference conditions ................................................................................... 25

4.6.2 Rated operating conditions ........................................................................... 26

4.7 Start-up conditions .............................................................................................. 28

4.8 Requirements for PMD functions ......................................................................... 28

4.8.1 General requirements ................................................................................... 28

4.8.2 Active power (P) and active energy (E ) measurements ................................ 29

4.8.3 Reactive power (Q , Q ) and reactive energy (E , E ) measurements ....... 35

A V rA rV
4.8.4 Apparent power (S , S ) and apparent energy (E , E )
A V apA apV

measurements ............................................................................................. 38

4.8.5 Frequency (f) measurements ........................................................................ 40

4.8.6 RMS phase current (I) and neutral current (I , I ) measurements .............. 41

N Nc

4.8.7 RMS voltage (U) measurements ................................................................... 45

4.8.8 Power factor (PF , PF ) measurements ....................................................... 47

A V

4.8.9 Short term flicker (P ) and long term flicker (P ) measurements ................... 47

st lt

4.8.10 Voltage dip (U ) and voltage swell (U ) measurements ........................... 48

dip swl

4.8.11 Voltage interruption (U ) measurements ..................................................... 53

int

4.8.12 Transient overvoltage (U ) measurements ................................................... 54

4.8.13 Voltage unbalance (U , U ) measurements ............................................ 54

nb nba
4.8.14 Voltage harmonics (U ) and voltage THD (THD and THD-R )
h u u

measurements ............................................................................................. 55

4.8.15 Current unbalance (I , I ) measurements ............................................... 56

nb nba
4.8.16 Current harmonics (I ) and current THD (THD and THD-R )
h i i

measurements ............................................................................................. 57

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61557-12:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –
4.8.17 Minimum, maximum, peak, three-phases average and demand

measurements ............................................................................................. 58

4.9 General mechanical requirements ........................................................................ 58

4.9.1 Vibration requirements ................................................................................. 58

4.9.2 IP requirements ........................................................................................... 58

4.10 Safety requirements ............................................................................................ 59

4.10.1 Protection against electrical hazards ............................................................ 59

4.10.2 Protection against mechanical hazards ......................................................... 60

4.10.3 Protection against other hazards .................................................................. 60

4.11 EMC requirements .............................................................................................. 60

4.11.1 Immunity ...................................................................................................... 60

4.11.2 Emission ...................................................................................................... 60

4.12 Inputs and/or outputs .......................................................................................... 60

4.12.1 General ....................................................................................................... 60

4.12.2 Analog outputs ............................................................................................. 60

4.12.3 Pulse outputs ............................................................................................... 61

4.12.4 Control outputs ............................................................................................ 61

4.12.5 Analog inputs ............................................................................................... 61

4.12.6 Pulse and control inputs ............................................................................... 61

5 Marking and operating instructions ............................................................................... 61

5.1 General ............................................................................................................... 61

5.2 Marking ............................................................................................................... 61

5.3 Operating, installation and maintenance instructions ............................................ 62

5.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 62

5.3.2 General characteristics ................................................................................ 62

5.3.3 Essential characteristics ............................................................................... 62

6 Tests ........................................................................................................................... 64

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 64

6.2 Type tests of PMD ............................................................................................... 65

6.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 65

6.2.2 Tests of intrinsic uncertainty ......................................................................... 65

6.2.3 Tests of variation of uncertainty with influence quantities .............................. 65

6.2.4 Test of temperature influence ....................................................................... 65

6.2.5 Active power ................................................................................................ 66

6.2.6 Apparent power ............................................................................................ 68

6.2.7 Power factor ................................................................................................ 69

6.2.8 Common mode voltage rejection test ............................................................ 69

6.2.9 Frequency.................................................................................................... 69

6.2.10 Measurement of voltage harmonics and THD .............................................. 70

6.2.11 Measurement of current harmonics and THD ................................................ 70

6.2.12 Dips and swells ............................................................................................ 71

6.2.13 Voltage interruptions .................................................................................... 71

6.2.14 Outputs tests ............................................................................................... 71

6.2.15 Climatic tests ............................................................................................... 72

6.2.16 EMC tests .................................................................................................... 73

6.2.17 Start-up tests ............................................................................................... 73

6.2.18 Gapless measurement test ........................................................................... 73

6.2.19 Safety tests .................................................................................................. 73

6.3 Routine tests ....................................................................................................... 73

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61557-12:2018 © IEC 2018

6.3.1 Protective bonding test ................................................................................. 73

6.3.2 Dielectric strength test ................................................................................. 74

6.3.3 Uncertainty test ............................................................................................ 74

Annex A (informative) Metering, measuring and monitoring applications .............................. 75

A.1 Applications on demand side and supply side ...................................................... 75

A.2 Link between applications, devices and standards ............................................... 75

Annex B (informative) Definitions of electrical parameters ................................................... 77

B.1 General ............................................................................................................... 77

B.2 Definitions in the presence of a neutral ................................................................ 77

B.3 Power measurement in three-phase three-wire systems using the two-

wattmeter method ............................................................................................... 81

B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 81

B.3.2 Total active power ........................................................................................ 82

B.3.3 Total vector reactive power using quadrature phase shift definition ............... 82

B.3.4 Total vector reactive power using Budeanu’s definition ................................. 83

B.4 Additional relationships in case of sinusoidal voltage ........................................... 83

Annex C (informative) Convention about the sign of the power factor .................................. 84

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 84

C.2 Convention for power factor (consumer perspective) ............................................ 84

C.3 Convention for power factor (producer reference frame) ....................................... 85

Annex D (normative) Definitions of minimum, maximum, peak and demand values .............. 87

D.1 Demand quantities .............................................................................................. 87

D.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 87

D.1.2 Power demand ............................................................................................. 87

D.1.3 Current demand ........................................................................................... 87

D.1.4 Thermal current demand (or bi-metal current demand) .................................. 87

D.1.5 Specified intervals for demand calculation .................................................... 87

D.2 Peak demand quantities ...................................................................................... 88

D.3 Three-phase average quantities .......................................................................... 88

D.4 Maximum and minimum quantities ....................................................................... 88

Annex E (informative) Intrinsic uncertainty and operating uncertainty .................................. 89

E.1 General ............................................................................................................... 89

E.2 Operating uncertainty calculation ......................................................................... 89

Annex F (informative) Recommended sensor classes for the different kinds of PMD ............ 91

F.1 General considerations ........................................................................................ 91

F.2 Specific case of an active power and energy measurement, achieved by a

PMD associated with an external current sensor or/and a voltage sensor ............. 91

F.3 List of functions affected by uncertainty of external sensors ................................. 91

Annex G (informative) Notion of measurement uncertainty .................................................. 93

G.1 General considerations ........................................................................................ 93

G.2 Computing the expanded uncertainty ................................................................... 93

G.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 93

G.2.2 Estimated standard deviation ....................................................................... 93

G.2.3 Expanded uncertainty ................................................................................... 94

G.3 Determining the measurement uncertainty ........................................................... 95

G.3.1 Systematic error ........................................................................................... 95

G.3.2 Measurement uncertainty ............................................................................. 95

G.4 Using the measurement uncertainty as a pass/fail criterion .................................. 96

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61557-12:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

G.4.1 Intrinsic uncertainty tests ............................................................................. 96

G.4.2 Tests with influence quantities ...................................................................... 96

G.4.3 Overall pass/fail criterion .............................................................................. 96

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 98

Figure 1 – PMD generic measurement chain ....................................................................... 23

Figure 2 – Description of different types of PMD .................................................................. 24

Figure 3 – Relationship between ambient air temperature and relative humidity ................... 28

Figure 4 – Waveform for odd harmonics influence test on active power measurement ......... 66

Figure 5 – Spectral content for odd harmonics influence test on active power

measurement ...................................................................................................................... 67

Figure 6 – Waveform for sub-harmonics influence test on active power measurement .......... 68

Figure 7 – Spectral content for sub-harmonics influence test on active power

measurement ...................................................................................................................... 68

Figure 8 – Common mode voltage influence testing ............................................................. 69

Figure 9 – Waveform for harmonics influence test on frequency measurement ..................... 70

Figure A.1 – Simplified overview of measurement applications on supply side and

demand side ....................................................................................................................... 75

Figure B.1 – Arithmetic and vector apparent powers in sinusoidal situation .......................... 81

Figure B.2 – Three-phase circuit without neutral .................................................................. 82

Figure C.1 – Formatting of power factor with a consumer perspective .................................. 84

Figure C.2 – Convention for power factor with a producer perspective .................................. 85

Figure D.1 – Thermal current demand ................................................................................. 87

Figure D.2 – Fixed block interval ......................................................................................... 88

Figure D.3 – Sliding block interval ....................................................................................... 88

Figure E.1 – Different kinds of uncertainties ........................................................................ 89

Figure E.2 – Flowchart for the determination of the operating uncertainty ............................. 90

Figure G.1 – Illustration of the notion of measurement uncertainty ....................................... 95

Figure G.2 – Overview of the uncertainty test procedure ...................................................... 97

Table 1 – Functional classification of PMD with minimal required functions .......................... 23

Table 2 – Structure of PMD ................................................................................................. 24

Table 3 – List of applicable performance classes ................................................................. 25

Table 4 – Reference conditions for testing ........................................................................... 26

Table 5 – Rated operating temperatures for portable equipment .......................................... 26

Table 6 – Rated operating temperatures for fixed installed equipment .................................. 27

Table 7 – Humidity and altitude operating conditions ........................................................... 27

Table 8 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for active power and active energy measurement .......... 30

Table 9 – Influence quantities for active power and active energy measurement (1 of 3) ....... 31

Table 10 – Minimum test period .......................................................................................... 34

Table 11 – Starting current for active power and active energy measurement ....................... 35

Table 12 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for reactive power and reactive energy

measurement ...................................................................................................................... 35

Table 13 – Influence quantities for reactive power and reactive energy measurement ........... 36

Table 14 – Minimum test period .......................................................................................... 37

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61557-12:2018 © IEC 2018

Table 15 – Starting current for reactive energy measurement ............................................... 38

Table 16 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for apparent power and apparent energy

measurement ...................................................................................................................... 38

Table 17 – Influence quantities for apparent power and apparent energy measurement ........ 39

Table 18 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for frequency measurement ........................................ 40

Table 19 – Influence quantities for frequency measurement ................................................. 41

Table 20 – Rated range of operation for phase current measurement ................................... 41

Table 21 – Rated range of operation for neutral current (calculated or measured) ................ 42

Table 22 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for phase current ........................................................ 42

Table 23 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for neutral current measurement ................................. 42

Table 24 – Intrinsic uncertainty table for neutral current calculation ..................................... 43

Table 25 – Influence quantities for phase current and neutral current measurement ............. 44

Table 26 – Rated range of operation for RMS voltage measurement
...

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