Photovoltaic devices - Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to measured I-V characteristics

IEC 60891:2021 defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics (also known as I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant to these corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of PV devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1 and its relevant subparts.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- adds guidance on which correction procedure shall be used depending on application;
- introduces translation procedure 4 applicable to c-Si technologies with unknown temperature coefficients;
- introduces various clarifications in existing procedures to improve measurement accuracy and reduce measurement uncertainty;
- adds an informative annex for supplementary methods that can be used for series resistance determination.

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la température et de l'éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées

IEC 60891:2021 définit des procédures à suivre pour les corrections en fonction de la température et de l'éclairement appliquées aux caractéristiques I-V (courant-tension) mesurées (également appelées courbes I-V) des dispositifs photovoltaïques (PV). Il définit également les procédures utilisées pour déterminer les facteurs appropriés pour ces corrections. Les exigences pour le mesurage I-V des dispositifs PV sont données dans l'IEC 60904-1 et ses sous-parties applicables.
Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2009. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- ajout de recommandations concernant la procédure de correction à utiliser selon l'application;
- introduction de la procédure de transposition 4 applicable aux technologies c-Si avec des coefficients de température inconnus;
- introduction de différentes classifications dans les procédures existantes afin d'améliorer la précision de mesure et de réduire l'incertitude de mesure;
- ajout d'une annexe informative qui présente des méthodes supplémentaires qui peuvent être utilisées pour déterminer la résistance-série.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Oct-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
27-Oct-2021
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IEC 60891
Edition 3.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Photovoltaic devices – Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to
measured I-V characteristics
Dispositifs photovoltaïques – Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la
température et de l'éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées
IEC 60891:2021-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60891
Edition 3.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Photovoltaic devices – Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections
to measured I-V characteristics
Dispositifs photovoltaïques – Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la
température et de l'éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-1036-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................... 7

4 Correction procedures ..................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Correction procedure 1 ......................................................................................... 11

4.3 Correction procedure 2 ......................................................................................... 12

4.4 Correction procedure 3 ......................................................................................... 14

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

4.4.2 Correction for the irradiance and temperature from two measured I-V

curves ........................................................................................................... 14

4.4.3 Correction to various irradiances and temperatures from three I-V

curves ........................................................................................................... 17

4.4.4 Correction to various irradiances and temperatures from four measured

I-V curves ...................................................................................................... 17

4.5 Correction procedure 4 ......................................................................................... 18

5 Determination of temperature coefficients ...................................................................... 20

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

5.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 20

5.3 Procedure in natural or steady-state simulated sunlight ........................................ 22

5.4 Procedure with a pulsed solar simulator ................................................................ 23

5.5 Calculation of temperature coefficients ................................................................. 23

6 Determination of internal series resistance R and R′ .................................................. 24

S S

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

6.2 Determination of R in correction procedures 1 and 4 ........................................... 25

6.3 Determination of B and B in correction procedure 2 ........................................... 27

1 2

6.4 Determination of R′ in correction procedure 2 ..................................................... 28

6.5 Determination of R in correction procedure 4 ...................................................... 30

7 Determination of the curve correction factor κ and κ′ ..................................................... 31

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

7.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 31

8 Reporting ...................................................................................................................... 32

Annex A (informative) Alternative procedures for series resistance determination ................ 34

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

A.2 Differential resistance at V against inverse irradiance method .......................... 34

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 35

Figure 1 – Example of the correction of the I-V characteristics by formulae (10) and

(11) ...................................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of the relation of G and T which can be chosen in the

3 3

simultaneous correction for irradiance and temperature, for a fixed set of T , G , T ,

1 1 2

and G by formulae (12) and (13) ......................................................................................... 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

Figure 3 – Schematic diagram of the processes for correcting the I-V characteristics to

various ranges of irradiance and temperature based on three measured

characteristics ...................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of the processes for correcting the I-V characteristics to

various ranges of irradiance and temperature based on four measured characteristics ......... 18

Figure 5 – Example positions for measuring the temperature of the test module behind

the cells ................................................................................................................................ 21

Figure 6 – Determination of internal series resistance ........................................................... 26

Figure 7 – Determination of internal series resistance when the corrected I-V

characteristics intersect ........................................................................................................ 27

Figure 8 – Determination of irradiance correction factors B and B and internal series

1 2

resistance, R′ ...................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 9 – Determination of internal series resistance of a PV module from a single I-V

curve .................................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 10 – Determination of curve correction factor ............................................................. 32

Figure A.1 – Determination of internal series resistance ....................................................... 34

Table 1 – Overview of correction procedures for irradiance corrections (i.e. T = T ) .............. 9

1 2

Table 2 – Overview of correction procedures for temperature corrections (i.e. G = G ) ....... 10

1 2
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES – PROCEDURES FOR TEMPERATURE AND
IRRADIANCE CORRECTIONS TO MEASURED I-V CHARACTERISTICS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60891 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar

photovoltaic energy systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2009. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

– adds guidance on which correction procedure shall be used depending on application;

– introduces translation procedure 4 applicable to c-Si technologies with unknown

temperature coefficients;

– introduces various clarifications in existing procedures to improve measurement accuracy

and reduce measurement uncertainty;

– adds an informative annex for supplementary methods that can be used for series resistance

determination.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
82/1936/FDIS 82/1957/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES – PROCEDURES FOR TEMPERATURE AND
IRRADIANCE CORRECTIONS TO MEASURED I-V CHARACTERISTICS
1 Scope

This document defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to

the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics (also known as I-V curves) of photovoltaic

(PV) devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant to these

corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of PV devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1

and its relevant subparts.

The PV devices include a single solar cell with or without a protective cover, a sub-assembly of

solar cells, or a module. A different set of relevant parameters for I-V curve correction applies

for each type of device. The determination of temperature coefficients for a module (or sub-

assembly of cells) may be calculated from single cell measurements, but this is not the case for

the internal series resistance and curve correction factor, which should be separately measured

for a module or subassembly of cells. Refer to Annex A for alternative procedures for series

resistance determination.

The use of I-V correction parameters is valid for the PV device for which they have been

measured. Variations may occur within a production lot or the type of class.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60904-1, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1: Measurements of photovoltaic current-voltage

characteristics

IEC TS 60904-1-2, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1-2: Measurement of current-voltage

characteristics of bifacial photovoltaic (PV) devices

IEC 60904-2, Photovoltaic devices – Part 2: Requirements for reference solar devices

IEC 60904-7, Photovoltaic devices – Part 7: Computation of the spectral mismatch correction

for measurements of photovoltaic devices

IEC 60904-8, Photovoltaic devices – Part 8: Measurement of spectral responsivity of a

photovoltaic (PV) device

IEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices – Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics

IEC 60904-10:2020, Photovoltaic devices – Part 10: Methods of linear dependence and linearity

measurements

IEC 61215-2, Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval –

Part 2: Test procedures

IEC TS 61836, Solar photovoltaic energy systems – Terms, definitions, and symbols

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC TS 61836, together

with the following, apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1

irradiance correction factor for open-circuit voltage which is linked with the diode thermal

voltage, V of the p-n junction and n
t S
Note 1 to entry: It is used in correction procedure 2.
3.2

irradiance correction factor for open-circuit voltage which accounts for non-linearity of V with

irradiance scaling
Note 1 to entry: It is used in correction procedure 2.
3.3
DUT
device under test
3.4
internal series resistance of the DUT employed by correction procedures 1 and 4
3.5
internal series resistance of the DUT employed by correction procedure 2

Note 1 to entry: Although determined by a different method than R , both quantities share the same physical

meaning and therefore their values for the same DUT are similar.
3.6
number of cells serially connected in the DUT
3.7

interpolation constant employed in correction procedure 3, that has a relation with the irradiance

and temperature
3.8

product of ideality factor of the DUT with the bandgap of the photovoltaic material divided by

electron’s elementary charge
Note 1 to entry: It is used in correction procedure 4.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021
4 Correction procedures
4.1 General
This document provides four procedures for correcting measured current-voltage

characteristics to other conditions of temperature and irradiance, such as Standard Test

Conditions (STC), that can be applied. The first procedure describes a system of linear

equations for current and voltage, which is best applicable for irradiance corrections within

±40% of the target irradiance. The second procedure is an alternative algebraic correction

method which yields better results for large irradiance corrections (exceeding ±40 %). Both

procedures require that correction parameters of the PV device are known. If not known they

need to be determined prior to performing the correction. The third procedure is an interpolation

method which does not require correction parameters as input. It can be applied when a

minimum of two current-voltage curves have been measured for the DUT. This correction

method is applicable in the temperature and irradiance range spanned by the two current

voltage curves. The fourth procedure is based on the single-diode model and provides a

methodology for determining a correction parameter R from a single I-V curve, when the

parameter is unknown. The method is best applicable to irradiance corrections when the

2 2

measured and target irradiance are both in the range 300 W/m to 1 200 W/m and the series

resistance R is unknown. It is suitable for translations when the characteristics under STC

have to be estimated from a single experimental I-V curve.

Table 1 and Table 2 provide an overview of the four different correction procedures, and

describe qualitatively the advantages, disadvantages and required correction parameters for

each procedure. The purpose of these tables is to provide guidance to the user of this document

on which correction procedure to use for different applications.

For simultaneous corrections of irradiance and temperature, the benefits and limitations listed

in Table 1 and Table 2 apply concurrently.

Common to all procedures is that I-V characteristics of the PV device are to be measured in

accordance with IEC 60904-1 and its relevant subparts.

All PV devices should be linear at least within the range of irradiances and device temperature

over which corrections are made. Details on how to assess the deviation from the ideal linear

dependence are described in IEC 60904-10.
An estimate of the translation accuracy is required (see Clause 8).

Usually, the total irradiance G shall be calculated from the measured short-circuit current of the

PV reference device (I ) as defined in IEC 60904-2, and its calibration value at STC (I ).

RC RC,STC

A correction should be applied to account for the actual temperature of the reference device

T using the specified relative temperature coefficient of short-circuit current of the reference

device (𝛼𝛼 ) which is given at 25 °C and 1 000 W/m .
RC,rel
1000 𝑊𝑊𝑚𝑚 ×𝐼𝐼
𝐺𝐺 =
(1)
𝐼𝐼 ×�1 +𝛼𝛼 × (𝑇𝑇 − 25°𝐶𝐶)�
RC,STC RC,rel RC
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

Ideally, the reference device shall be linear in short-circuit current over the entire irradiance

range of interest, as defined in IEC 60904-10. In practice, even for linear devices it is

recommended to apply a correction for linearity of the reference device according to

IEC 60904-10. If the device is not linear according to IEC 60904-10 over the entire irradiance

range of interest, then corrections shall be applied to avoid errors in the corrections of its I-V

characteristics. The PV reference device shall either be spectrally matched to the DUT, or a

spectral mismatch (SMM) correction shall be performed in conformance with IEC 60904-7.

Since the spectral responsivity of the device can vary with temperature, the apparent change

in temperature coefficient with spectra should be taken into account in the correction. An

interpolation method of temperature against SMM correction can minimize the error sources.

Table 1 – Overview of correction procedures for irradiance corrections (i.e. T = T )

1 2
Procedure 1
Correction parameter requirement: R
Advantages Disadvantages

• Suitable where R is determined (typically • Assumes superposition of current at all voltages

within ± 40 % of the irradiance at which R was
determined)

• Works reasonably well over a broader range of • Cannot produce complete I-V curves for higher

irradiance (typically within ± 80 % of the irradiance corrections (part of I-V curve between

irradiance at which R was determined) for
P and V is missing), when the I-V curve is not
max OC

devices that are linear with respect to measured sufficiently far into the negative current

irradiance according to IEC 60904-10. This is regime. In this case extrapolation for V is

typically the case for c-Si.
necessary
Procedure 2
Correction parameter requirement: B , B , R′ . κ′ and β
1 2 S rel
Advantages Disadvantages
• Requires more parameters to be known than
• Suitable in the irradiance range where R′ is
procedures 1 and 4
determined (typically within ± 40 % of the
irradiance at which R′ was determined)

• Works reasonably well over a broader range of • Not recommended for I-V translation over

irradiance (typically within ± 80 % of the irradiance exceeding ± 40 % of the target

irradiance at which R′ was determined) for irradiance, when the DUT has significant leakage

current (low shunt resistance)
devices that are linear with respect to
irradiance according to IEC 60904-10. This is
typically the case for c-Si.
• Can produce complete I-V curves for higher
irradiance corrections
• Provides information for relative comparison of
the DUT modelling parameters used in single-
diode model (ideality factor and R′ )
Procedure 3
Correction parameter requirement: None
Advantages Disadvantages

• Best accuracy for I-V corrections when • Requires knowledge of I-V curves at higher and

interpolating lower levels of irradiance compared to target
irradiance
• Fitting parameters not required • Not possible to perform comparison between
different technologies, because fitting parameters
cannot be extracted
• Least technology specific method • Interpolation gives better results than
extrapolation. Extrapolation should be practiced
with caution
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60891:2021 © IEC 2021
Procedure 4
Correction parameter requirement: None
Advantages Disadvantages

• Suitable when the correction parameter R is • Approximate R is determined from a single I-V

S S
unknown curve

• Does not require multiple I-V curves measured • Not suitable for technologies which do not follow

at different levels of irradiance for R the single-diode model
determination

Table 2 – Overview of correction procedures for temperature corrections (i.e. G = G )

1 2
Procedure 1
Correction parameter requirement: R , κ, α and β
Advantages Disadvantages
• Suitable as long as
...

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