Solid-state relays - Safety requirements

IEC 62314:2022 applies to particular all-or-nothing electrical relays denominated solid-state relays intended for performing electrical operations by single step function changes to the state of electric circuits between the OFF-state and the ON-state and vice versa.
This document deals with solid-state relays which are intended for incorporation in other products or equipment. As such, solid-state relays are considered to be components and this document defines the basic safety-related and functional requirements for solid-state relays as stand-alone components.
Such solid-state relays are incorporated in products or equipment which themselves comply with the relevant product and/or application standard(s) to meet their intended application.
Solid state relay as apparatus:
Where the solid-state relay is specified as apparatus with a function to the end-user, requirements on EMC are given in this document.
Solid state relay as component:
There are no EMC requirements for solid-state relays intended for incorporation into the equipment by the equipment manufacturer, because the performance strongly depends on the application into the equipment.
The object of this document is to state:
– the characteristics of solid-state relays
– the requirements which apply to solid-state relays with reference to
a) electrical safety;
b) their operation and behaviour;
c) their dielectric properties;
d) EMC;
– the tests verifying that the requirements have been met, and the test methods to be adopted;
– the information to be given with the solid-state relay or in the product documentation.
Solid-state switching devices with monolithic structures fall within the scope of IEC sub-committee 47E and are not covered in this document.
Semiconductor controllers and contactors fall within the scope of the IEC 60947 series of standards – low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – developed by IEC subcommittee 121A and are not covered in this document.
IEC 62314:2022 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2006. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) addition of load categories for DC load;
b) addition of load category for self-ballasted lamp load;
c) addition of "sockets" terminal;
d) update of references;
e) introduction of the requirement of EMC;
f) restructuring of the whole document.

Relais statiques - Exigences de sécurité

L'IEC 62314:2022 s’applique à des relais électriques de tout-ou-rien particuliers appelés "relais statiques", destinés à exécuter des manœuvres électriques par des changements de fonction en une seule étape entre les états bloqué et passant des circuits électriques, et inversement.
Le présent document traite des relais statiques qui sont destinés à être incorporés dans d’autres produits ou équipements. En tant que tel, les relais statiques sont assimilés à des composants et le présent document définit les exigences de base liées à la sécurité ainsi que les exigences fonctionnelles des relais statiques en tant que composants autonomes.
De tels relais statiques sont intégrés dans des produits ou équipements qui se conforment eux-mêmes à la ou aux normes de produit et/ou d’application correspondantes afin de satisfaire à l’application prévue.
Relais statique utilisé en qualité d’appareillage:
Lorsque le relais statique est spécifié comme un appareillage, avec une fonction pour l’utilisateur final, les exigences relatives à la compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) sont données dans le présent document.
Relais statique utilisé en qualité de composant:
Aucune exigence de CEM ne s’applique aux relais statiques destinés à être intégrés dans l’équipement par le fabricant de l’équipement en question, car les performances dépendent fortement de l’application dans cet équipement.
Le présent document a pour objet de définir:
– les caractéristiques des relais statiques;
- les exigences auxquelles se conforment les relais statiques au regard:
a) de la sécurité électrique;
b) de leur fonctionnement et de leur comportement;
c) de leurs propriétés diélectriques;
d) de la CEM;
– les essais vérifiant que les exigences ont été satisfaites, et les méthodes d’essai à adopter;
– les informations à faire figurer sur le relais statique ou dans la documentation du produit.
Les dispositifs de commutation statiques à structures monolithiques relèvent du domaine d’application du sous comité 47E de l’IEC et ne sont pas couverts par le présent document.
Les gradateurs et les contacteurs à semiconducteurs relèvent du domaine d’application de la série de normes IEC 60947 développées par le sous-comité 121A de l’IEC et ne sont pas couverts par le présent document.
L'IEC 62314:2022 annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2006. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a) ajout de catégories de charge pour les charges pour courant continu;
b) ajout d’une catégorie de charge pour les charges du type lampes à ballast intégré;
c) ajout de la connexion "embase";
d) mise à jour des références;
e) introduction de l’exigence de CEM;
f) réorganisation de l’ensemble du document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Jul-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
13-Jul-2022
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IEC 62314
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Solid-state relays – Safety requirements
Relais statiques – Exigences de sécurité
IEC 62314:2022-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62314
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Solid-state relays – Safety requirements
Relais statiques – Exigences de sécurité
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.120.70 ISBN 978-2-8322-1245-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions related to relays .................................................................. 10

3.2 Terms and definitions related to insulation coordination (see Clause 11) .............. 14

4 Characteristics of solid-state relays ............................................................................... 16

5 Rated values ................................................................................................................. 17

5.1 Rated and limiting values for output circuits and for insulation coordination .......... 17

5.2 Load category ....................................................................................................... 17

5.3 Rated and limiting values for control circuits ......................................................... 18

5.4 Overload current profile ........................................................................................ 19

5.5 Normal service, transport and storage conditions .................................................. 19

5.5.1 Ambient temperature ..................................................................................... 19

5.5.2 Atmospheric conditions .................................................................................. 19

5.6 Normal mounting conditions .................................................................................. 19

6 Provisions for test .......................................................................................................... 19

6.1 Type test ............................................................................................................... 19

6.2 Routine test .......................................................................................................... 20

7 Documentation and marking .......................................................................................... 21

7.1 Data ...................................................................................................................... 21

7.2 Instructions for installation, operation and maintenance ........................................ 22

7.3 Marking ................................................................................................................. 22

8 Temperature-rise ........................................................................................................... 22

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

8.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 23

9 Basic operating function ................................................................................................ 23

9.1 OFF-state leakage current measurement .............................................................. 23

9.2 ON-state voltage drop measurement ..................................................................... 23

10 Electrical endurance ...................................................................................................... 23

10.1 Overload test ........................................................................................................ 23

10.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

10.1.2 Overload capability test procedure ................................................................. 25

10.2 Endurance test ...................................................................................................... 25

10.3 Verification............................................................................................................ 25

11 Clearances and creepage distances .............................................................................. 27

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

11.2 Basis for insulation coordination ........................................................................... 27

11.2.1 Basic principles ............................................................................................. 27

11.2.2 Rated impulse withstand voltage.................................................................... 27

11.2.3 Insulating materials ....................................................................................... 27

11.3 Requirements and dimensioning rules ................................................................... 28

11.3.1 Dimensioning of clearances ........................................................................... 28

11.3.2 Dimensioning of creepage distances .............................................................. 29

11.3.3 Requirements for solid insulating materials .................................................... 31

11.4 Tests and measurements ...................................................................................... 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

11.4.1 Tests ............................................................................................................. 31

11.4.2 Measurement of creepage distances and clearances ..................................... 31

11.4.3 Electrical tests for solid insulation .................................................................. 31

11.5 Alternative test methods ....................................................................................... 32

12 Terminations ................................................................................................................. 32

12.1 Quick-connect terminations ................................................................................... 32

12.1.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 32

12.1.2 Recommended values ................................................................................... 33

12.1.3 Requirements ................................................................................................ 33

12.2 Screw-type and screwless-type clamping-units ..................................................... 34

12.3 Solder terminals – Resistance to soldering heat .................................................... 34

12.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

12.3.2 Solder pins .................................................................................................... 34

12.3.3 Terminals for surface mounting (SMD) ........................................................... 35

12.3.4 Other solder terminations (e.g. soldering lugs) ............................................... 35

12.4 Sockets ................................................................................................................. 35

13 Heat and fire resistance ................................................................................................. 35

13.1 Materials ............................................................................................................... 35

13.2 Glow-wire test ....................................................................................................... 36

13.3 Ball pressure test .................................................................................................. 36

14 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............................................................................. 37

14.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

14.2 Immunity ............................................................................................................... 37

14.3 Emission ............................................................................................................... 37

Annex A (normative) Test for solid-state relays intended for self ballasted lamp loads ......... 38

Annex B (informative) Risk assessment ............................................................................... 41

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

B.2 Risk assessment procedure .................................................................................. 41

B.3 Achieving tolerable risk ......................................................................................... 42

B.4 An application of risk assessment procedures (proposal for the user) ................... 44

Annex C (normative) Pollution degree .................................................................................. 46

Annex D (normative) Rated impulse withstand voltages ....................................................... 47

Annex E (normative) Tests for EMC ..................................................................................... 48

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

E.2 EMC immunity....................................................................................................... 48

E.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 48

E.2.2 Electrostatic discharges ................................................................................. 49

E.2.3 Radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic fields ............................................ 49

E.2.4 Electrical fast transients/bursts ...................................................................... 49

E.2.5 Surges ........................................................................................................... 49

E.2.6 Conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields ............................ 49

E.2.7 Immunity to power-frequency magnetic fields................................................. 49

E.2.8 Voltage dips and voltage interruptions ........................................................... 49

E.2.9 Summary of immunity test conditions ............................................................. 49

E.3 EMC radiated and conducted emission ................................................................. 52

E.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

E.3.2 Conducted radio-frequency emission tests ..................................................... 52

E.3.3 Radiated radio-frequency emission tests ....................................................... 52

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 53

Figure A.1 – Circuit diagram for testing solid-state relay ....................................................... 38

Figure B.1 – Iterative process of risk assessment and risk reduction ..................................... 41

Figure B.2 – Risk reduction ................................................................................................... 43

Table 1 – Load categories ..................................................................................................... 18

Table 2 – Type testing .......................................................................................................... 20

Table 3 – Routine tests ......................................................................................................... 21

Table 4 – Required data ....................................................................................................... 21

Table 5 – Minimum requirements for overload capability test conditions................................ 24

Table 6 – Endurance test ...................................................................................................... 26

Table 7 – Minimum clearance ............................................................................................... 29

Table 8 – Minimum creepage distances for solid-state relays ................................................ 30

Table 9 – Preconditioning ..................................................................................................... 32

Table 10 – Cross-sectional areas for conductors depending on the resistive current

carried by the terminal .......................................................................................................... 34

Table 11 – Test conditions for test Tb ................................................................................... 35

Table A.1 – Values for I and I t depending on the type of distribution system ............... 39

peak

Table A.2 – Calculated circuit parameters ............................................................................. 39

Table A.3 – Number of operations for endurance test ........................................................... 40

Table B.1 – Examples for the relation between failure mode, effects and hazard .................. 44

Table B.2 – Severity of harm ................................................................................................. 44

Table B.3 – Probability of harm ............................................................................................. 45

Table B.4 – Risk category ..................................................................................................... 45

Table D.1 – Rated impulse withstand voltages (waveform: 1,2/50 µs) for solid-state

relays connected directly to the mains .................................................................................. 47

Table E.1 – Selection criteria for environmental conditions ................................................... 48

Table E.2 – Specific performance criteria when electro-magnetic disturbances are

present ................................................................................................................................. 49

Table E.3 – Immunity tests for industrial environments ......................................................... 50

Table E.4 – Immunity tests for residential, commercial and light-industrial

environments ........................................................................................................................ 51

Table E.5 – Terminal disturbance voltage limits for conducted radio-frequency

emission (for control supply input) ........................................................................................ 52

Table E.6 – Radiated emission test limits .............................................................................. 52

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SOLID-STATE RELAYS – SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62314 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 94: All-or-nothing electrical relays.

It is an International Standard.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2006. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) addition of load categories for DC load;
b) addition of load category for self-ballasted lamp load;
c) addition of "sockets" terminal;
d) update of references;
e) introduction of the requirement of EMC;
f) restructuring of the whole document.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
94/670/FDIS 94/701/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
SOLID-STATE RELAYS – SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
1 Scope

This document applies to particular all-or-nothing electrical relays denominated solid-state

relays intended for performing electrical operations by single step function changes to the state

of electric circuits between the OFF-state and the ON-state and vice versa.

This document deals with solid-state relays which are intended for incorporation in other

products or equipment. As such, solid-state relays are considered to be components and this

document defines the basic safety-related and functional requirements for solid-state relays as

stand-alone components.

Such solid-state relays are incorporated in products or equipment which themselves comply

with the relevant product and/or application standard(s) to meet their intended application.

NOTE The following are examples of such applications:
– general industrial equipment;
– electrical facilities;
– electrical machines;
– electrical appliances;
– office communications;
– building automation and environmental control;
– automation and process control;
– electrical installation engineering;
– medical engineering;
– telecommunications;
– vehicle engineering;
– transportation engineering;
– lighting control.
Solid state relay as apparatus:

Where the solid-state relay is specified as apparatus with a function to the end-user,

requirements on EMC are given in this document.
Solid state relay as component:

There are no EMC requirements for solid-state relays intended for incorporation into the

equipment by the equipment manufacturer, because the performance strongly depends on the

application into the equipment.
The object of this document is to state:
– the characteristics of solid-state relays
– the requirements which apply to solid-state relays with reference to
a) electrical safety;
b) their operation and behaviour;
c) their dielectric properties;
d) EMC;
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62314:2022 © IEC 2022

– the tests verifying that the requirements have been met, and the test methods to be adopted;

– the information to be given with the solid-state relay or in the product documentation.

Solid-state switching devices with monolithic structures fall within the scope of

IEC sub-committee 47E and are not covered in this document.

Semiconductor controllers and contactors fall within the scope of the IEC 60947 series of

standards – low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – developed by IEC subcommittee 121A

and are not covered in this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60038:2009, IEC standard voltages

IEC 60050-444:2002, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 444: Elementary

relays (available at www.electropedia.org)
IEC 60068-2-1:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests – Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-14:2009, Environmental testing – Part 2-14: Tests – Test N: Change of

temperature

IEC 60068-2-20:2021, Environmental testing – Part 2-20: Tests – Test Ta and Tb: Test methods

for solderability and resistance to soldering heat o
...

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