Activities and considerations related to wireless power transfer (WPT) for audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment

IEC/TR 62869:2013(E) addresses activities and considerations related to wireless power transfer for audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment. It combines public information, contributions by experts and completed IEC TC 100 WPT survey responses and reviews global market conditions. The TR describes a range of WPT technical approaches with the aid of a system reference model, outlines the impacts on WPT of applicable regulation and surveys standards development organization (SDO) and private industry consortium-led activities in support of WPT technical standards development. The TR concludes with observations and recommendations for potential future technical standards development activities that lie within scope of IEC TC 100.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jul-2013
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
09-Jul-2013
Completion Date
09-Jul-2013
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IEC/TR 62869
Edition 1.0 2013-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside

Activities and considerations related to wireless power transfer (WPT) for audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment
IEC/TR 62869:2013(E)
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TR 62869
Edition 1.0 2013-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside

Activities and considerations related to wireless power transfer (WPT) for audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 29.240.99; 33.160.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-0926-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TR 62869  IEC:2013(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 9

2 Executive summary .......................................................................................................... 9

2.1 Market ..................................................................................................................... 9

2.2 Technology.............................................................................................................. 9

2.3 Regulation ............................................................................................................... 9

2.4 Standards development ......................................................................................... 10

2.5 IEC TC 100 WPT technical standards development ............................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ 11

4 Market ............................................................................................................................ 13

4.1 Use cases ............................................................................................................. 13

4.1.1 General ..................................................................................................... 13

4.1.2 Vehicle ...................................................................................................... 13

4.1.3 Commercial, institutional, retail .................................................................. 13

4.1.4 Residential ................................................................................................ 13

4.1.5 Professional office ..................................................................................... 14

4.1.6 Transportation and public spaces .............................................................. 14

4.1.7 Beyond mobile CE ..................................................................................... 14

4.2 Public benefit, including reduction in e-waste ........................................................ 14

4.3 Overview of products and services ............................................................................ 16

4.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 16

4.3.2 Market segmentation ................................................................................. 16

4.3.3 Market size ................................................................................................ 16

4.3.4 Geographic extent ..................................................................................... 16

4.3.5 Market participation ................................................................................... 16

4.3.6 Current market technologies ...................................................................... 16

4.3.7 Global industry engagement ...................................................................... 17

4.3.8 By underlying technology ........................................................................... 17

4.3.9 By product and use case ........................................................................... 17

4.4 Research activities ................................................................................................ 20

4.4.1 Academic research .................................................................................... 20

4.4.2 Market research and analysis .................................................................... 21

5 Technology ..................................................................................................................... 22

5.1 System reference model ........................................................................................ 22

5.2 The wireless power transfer layer .......................................................................... 24

5.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 24

5.2.2 Electromagnetic induction .......................................................................... 24

5.2.3 Magnetic resonance .................................................................................. 25

5.2.4 Capacitive coupling ................................................................................... 26

5.2.5 Microwave power transfer .......................................................................... 26

5.2.6 Microwave energy harvesting .................................................................... 26

6 Regulation ....................................................................................................................... 27

6.1 Spectrum ............................................................................................................... 27

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TR 62869  IEC:2013(E) – 3 –

6.2 RF emissions ........................................................................................................ 28

6.3 Safety.................................................................................................................... 28

6.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 28

6.3.2 RF exposure .............................................................................................. 28

6.3.3 Heating ...................................................................................................... 30

6.3.4 Electrical safety ......................................................................................... 30

6.4 Compliance ........................................................................................................... 30

6.4.1 Identified regulations and standards .......................................................... 30

6.4.2 Measurement methods .............................................................................. 32

6.5 Impact of regulation ............................................................................................... 32

7 Technical standards development ................................................................................... 32

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

7.2 Global survey industrial consortia .......................................................................... 33

7.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 33

7.2.2 A4WP – Alliance for Wireless Power.......................................................... 33

7.2.3 CE4A – Consumer Electronics for Automotive ........................................... 33

7.2.4 DE – Digital Europe ................................................................................... 33

7.2.5 KWPF – Korea Wireless Power Forum ....................................................... 33

7.2.6 MFAN – Magnetic Field Area Network Forum ............................................ 34

7.2.7 NFC Forum ................................................................................................ 34

7.2.8 PMA – Power Matters Alliance ................................................................... 34

7.2.9 WPC – Wireless Power Consortium ........................................................... 34

7.3 Global survey governmental and standards development organizations ................. 35

7.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 35

7.3.2 APT – Asia Pacific Telecommunity ............................................................ 36

7.3.3 ARIB – Association of Radio Industries and Businesses ............................ 37

7.3.4 BWF – Broadband Wireless Forum ............................................................ 37

7.3.5 CCSA – China Communications Standards Association ............................. 39

7.3.6 CEA – Consumer Electronics Association .................................................. 40

7.3.7 CJK – China, Japan and Korea Standards Coordination ............................ 40

7.3.8 ETSI – European Telecommunications Standards Institute ........................ 40

7.3.9 GSC – Global Standards Collaboration ...................................................... 41

7.3.10 IEC TC 100................................................................................................ 41

7.3.11 ISO/IEC JTC 1 ........................................................................................... 42

7.3.12 ITU-R ........................................................................................................ 42

7.3.13 TTA – Telecommunications Technology Association .................................. 42

7.3.14 UL – Underwriters Laboratories ................................................................. 43

8 Review of WPT opportunities and challenges ................................................................. 43

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 43

8.2 Market ................................................................................................................... 43

8.2.1 Interoperability .......................................................................................... 43

8.2.2 Use cases ................................................................................................. 44

8.3 Technology and technical standards development ................................................. 44

8.3.1 Competing WPT technologies .................................................................... 44

8.3.2 Parallel efforts ........................................................................................... 44

8.3.3 Interoperability and multi-protocol support ................................................. 44

9 Role for IEC TC 100 ....................................................................................................... 44

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

9.2 Market ................................................................................................................... 44

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– 4 – TR 62869  IEC:2013(E)

9.2.1 Increase awareness and impact ................................................................. 44

9.2.2 Nomenclature harmonization ..................................................................... 45

9.3 Technology............................................................................................................ 45

9.3.1 Technology taxonomy, use case and use case category

harmonization ............................................................................................ 45

9.3.2 WPT classification ..................................................................................... 45

9.4 Regulation ............................................................................................................. 45

9.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 45

9.4.2 Product categorization ............................................................................... 45

9.4.3 Spectrum ................................................................................................... 45

9.4.4 RF emissions (EMI/EMC), RF exposure and regulatory engineering .......... 45

9.5 Technical standards development ......................................................................... 46

9.5.1 Framework of WPT standards .................................................................... 46

9.5.2 Interoperability .......................................................................................... 46

9.5.3 Minimum performance testing and certification .......................................... 47

10 Summary and conclusions .............................................................................................. 47

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 49

Figure 1 – Automotive CE WPT products and concepts ......................................................... 18

Figure 2 – CE WPT products and concepts ........................................................................... 19

Figure 3 – Professional office WPT products and concepts ................................................... 19

Figure 4 – Embedded WPT concepts for public spaces ......................................................... 20

Figure 5 – WPT system reference model for single source single device ............................... 23

Figure 6 – Electromagnetic induction .................................................................................... 25

Figure 7 – Magnetic resonance ............................................................................................. 25

Figure 8 – Electric field inductive coupling ............................................................................ 26

Figure 9 – Microwave power transfer .................................................................................... 26

Figure 10 – Radio-exposure protection guidelines details (Japan) ......................................... 30

Figure 11 – Regulatory, technical standards and implementation pipelines ........................... 36

Figure 12 – Relationship between key Japan WPT technical standards stakeholders ............ 38

Table 1 – Academic-type research ........................................................................................ 20

Table 2 – Market planning and analysis ................................................................................ 21

Table 3 – Operating frequencies and power limits ................................................................. 27

Table 4 – GB8702-88 (China) basic restrictions .................................................................... 29

Table 5 – GB 9175-88 (China) maximum permitted exposure ................................................ 29

Table 6 – Identified regulations and standards ...................................................................... 31

Table 7 – Alliance for Wireless Power (A4WP) ...................................................................... 33

Table 8 – Consumer Electronics for Automotive (CE4A) ........................................................ 33

Table 9 – Digital Europe (DE) ............................................................................................... 33

Table 10 – Korea Wireless Power Forum (KWPF) ................................................................. 34

Table 11 – Magnetic Field Area Network Forum (MFAN) ....................................................... 34

Table 12 – NFC Forum ......................................................................................................... 34

Table 13 – Power Matters Alliance (PMA) ............................................................................. 34

Table 14 – Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) ..................................................................... 35

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TR 62869  IEC:2013(E) – 5 –

Table 15 – Asia Pacific Telecommunity (APT) ....................................................................... 37

Table 16 – Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) ....................................... 37

Table 17 – Broadband Wireless Forum (BWF) ...................................................................... 39

Table 18 – China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) ....................................... 39

Table 19 – Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) ............................................................ 40

Table 20 – China, Japan and Korea Standards Coordination (CJK) ....................................... 40

Table 21 – European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)................................... 41

Table 22 – Global Standards Collaboration (GSC) ................................................................ 41

Table 23 – IEC TC 100 ......................................................................................................... 41

Table 24 – ISO/IEC JTC 1..................................................................................................... 42

Table 25 – ITU-R .................................................................................................................. 42

Table 26 – Telecommunications Technologies Association (TTA) ......................................... 43

Table 27 – Underwriters Laboratories (UL) ............................................................................ 43

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– 6 – TR 62869  IEC:2013(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ACTIVITIES AND CONSIDERATIONS RELATED
TO WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER (WPT) FOR AUDIO,
VIDEO AND MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC 62869, which is a technical report, has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100:

Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
100/2134/DTR 100/2166/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TR 62869  IEC:2013(E) – 7 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

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related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
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colour printer.
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– 8 – TR 62869  IEC:2013(E)
INTRODUCTION

IEC TC 100 established a Stage 0 project on wireless power transfer (WPT) to develop a

technical report on WPT technical standardization in relation to audio, video and multimedia

systems and equipment. A survey was developed to investigate the global positioning of the

technology and its uptake. Twelve National Committees provided responses. Four National

Committees (China, Japan, Korea, USA) provided responses to all questions. The key

research undertaken and information gathered from the survey responses included: a) terms

and definitions used for WPT by IEC TC 100 members; b) regulations, national laws, public

policies and industry practices related to WPT; c) status of activities and discussions in

various organizations relating to regulatory activities, standards projects, and market research;

d) potential topics to be addressed in IEC TC 100 TR: and e) potential role for IEC TC 100 in

the domain of WPT technical standards development.

This Technical Report combines survey results with Stage 0 project expert group contributions

and extensive public information to develop and present a holistic understanding of WPT and,

in so doing, respond to the Stage 0 TR objectives. This understanding is developed through a

progression of four interrelated topics.

• Clause 4 considers the overall WPT market, including use cases, public benefit, academic

research activities, and an overview of WPT products and services.

• Clause 5 discusses leading commercial WPT technical approaches and briefly surveys

additional WPT technologies by reviewing a system reference model. The system

reference model can be understood at a very high level as consisting of the lowest layer of

a power handling layer, where upper layers implement signalling and systems interfaces.

• Clause 6 presents the major elements of the applicable international and regional

regulatory frameworks, one of whose key outputs is product categorization. Product

categorization, in turn, is closely related to the topic of spectrum. Key regulatory drivers

for WPT products and services as well as technical standards development include RF

emissions, RF exposure and compliance.

• Clause 7 reviews global industrial consortium and standards development organization

(SDO) activities, and critically discusses WPT technical standard development challenges

and opportunities.

With market, technology, regulatory and standards development foundations established, the

TR concludes in Clauses 8-10 with observations and recommendations about the potential for

future WPT technical standards development within the scope of IEC TC 100.
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TR 62869  IEC:2013(E) – 9 –
ACTIVITIES AND CONSIDERATIONS RELATED
TO WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER (WPT) FOR AUDIO,
VIDEO AND MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
1 Scope

This technical report addresses activities and considerations related to wireless power

transfer for audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment. It combines public

information, contributions by experts and completed IEC TC 100 WPT survey responses and

reviews global market conditions. The TR describes a range of WPT technical approaches

with the aid of a system reference model, outlines the impacts on WPT of applicable

regulation and surveys standards development organization (SDO) and private industry

consortium-led activities in support of WPT technical standards development. The TR

concludes with observations and recommendations for potential future technical standards

development activities that lie within scope of IEC TC 100.
2 Executive summary
2.1 Market

A variety of metrics indicate that the commercial market is in its early phases. Annual revenue

projections range from a current level of a few hundred millions to some
...

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