Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement - Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters

IEC 62037-5:2021 is available as IEC 62037-5:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 62037-5:2021 defines test fixtures and procedures recommended for measuring levels of passive intermodulation generated by filters, typically used in wireless communication systems. The purpose is to define qualification and acceptance test methods for filters for use in low intermodulation (low IM) applications. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2013. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. dynamic testing requirements updated to define impact energy and locations to apply impacts to devices under test.

Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d'intermodulation - Partie 5: Mesure de l'intermodulation passive dans les filtres

IEC 62037-5:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 62037-5:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.L'IEC 62037-5:2021 définit les dispositifs et les procédures d’essai recommandés pour mesurer des niveaux d’intermodulation passive générés par des filtres, généralement utilisés dans des systèmes de communication sans fil. L’objectif est de définir des méthodes d’essai de qualification et de réception pour des filtres destinés à être utilisés dans des applications de faible intermodulation (faible IM). Cette seconde édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2013.Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a. mise à jour des exigences d’essais dynamiques pour définir l’énergie de choc et les emplacements auxquels les chocs doivent être appliqués aux dispositifs en essai.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
19-Nov-2021
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IEC 62037-5
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 5: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les filtres
IEC 62037-5:2021-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5
Edition 2.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
Dispositifs RF et à micro-ondes passifs, mesure du niveau d’intermodulation –
Partie 5: Mesure de l’intermodulation passive dans les filtres
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.040.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1049-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 5

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 5

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 5

4 General comments on PIM testing of filter assemblies ...................................................... 6

4.1 Sources of error: back-to-back filters ...................................................................... 6

4.2 Environmental and dynamic PIM testing .................................................................. 6

4.3 General test procedure ........................................................................................... 7

5 Example of test equipment schematics for filter testing .................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Transmit band testing ............................................................................................. 8

5.3 Receive band testing – Dual high-power carriers .................................................... 9

5.4 Receive band testing – Injected interferer ............................................................. 11

Figure 1 – Typical receive band PIM test set-up ...................................................................... 6

Figure 2 – Example of a striking element for ≤ 1 J ................................................................... 7

Figure 3 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring transmit-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT using two high-power carriers ..................................... 9

Figure 4 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers .................................. 10

Figure 5 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers .................................. 10

Figure 6 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, passive IM

products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers.................................................... 11

Figure 7 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ..................... 12

Figure 8 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ..................... 12

Figure 9 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, passive IM

products on an N-port DUT, using the injected interferer technique ....................................... 13

Table 1 – Summary table referencing examples of test equipment schematics for

measuring PIM on filter-type devices ...................................................................................... 8

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62037-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 46: Cables, wires, waveguides, RF

connectors, RF and microwave passive components and accessories. It is an International

Standard.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2013. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) dynamic testing requirements updated to define impact energy and locations to apply

impacts to devices under test.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
46/837/FDIS 46/858/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62037 series, published under the general title Passive RF and

microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
PASSIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES,
INTERMODULATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT –
Part 5: Measurement of passive intermodulation in filters
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62037 defines test fixtures and procedures recommended for measuring levels

of passive intermodulation generated by filters, typically used in wireless communication

systems. The purpose is to define qualification and acceptance test methods for filters for use

in low intermodulation (low IM) applications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60068-2-75:2014, Environmental testing – Part 2-75: Tests – Test Eh: Hammer tests

IEC 62037-1, Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement – Part 1:

General requirements and measuring methods
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Abbreviated terms
DUT Device under test
IM Intermodulation
PIM Passive intermodulation
VSWR Voltage standing wave ratio
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021
4 General comments on PIM testing of filter assemblies
4.1 Sources of error: back-to-back filters

Testing filter assemblies for PIM can be error prone if certain precautionary guidelines are not

followed. Since PIM can be a frequency-dependent phenomenon, mathematically related to the

harmonics of the input signals and combinations thereof, consideration should be given not only

to the behaviour of the test set-up under fundamental stimulation, but also its harmonic

performance. In particular, consider a receive-band PIM test set-up as shown in Figure 1. As

shown, this set-up could be used to measure the PIM in a two-port device under test (DUT);

however, the accuracy of the measurement could be in question due to the back-to-back filters

(diplexers) used.
Figure 1 – Typical receive band PIM test set-up

While the diplexers certainly appear as a matched load around the fundamental frequencies and

receive-band IM products, they can be very poorly matched at the harmonics of the fundamentals.

A poor match will set up a standing wave at the harmonic frequencies which can re-illuminate

any PIM sources within the DUT with higher-than-typical current densities. Furthermore, the

measured IM response will become highly dependent upon the electrical length of the DUT

because the locations of the peaks and valleys of any standing waves will move with respect to

the PIM sources as the electrical length of the DUT changes.
4.2 Environmental and dynamic PIM testing

Environmental and dynamic PIM testing, which can include placing vibrational or thermal

stresses upon filter assemblies while concurrently measuring the PIM produced, may not give

accurate or repeatable results. There are several significant factors affecting the results of these

types of PIM tests.

a) DUT/test system isolation – it is highly desirable that any environmental and dynamic

stresses placed upon a DUT be isolated from the test system such that there are no

measurable residual effects. This not only addresses the practical issues of test system

reliability and maintenance, but it directly affects the issue of measurement repeatability.

That is, should a particular piece of the test system require replacement after a set number

of trials, then the results of subsequent measurements may be skewed by the performance

of the replaced part.

b) Measurement repeatability – it should be possible to repeat the results obtained from a

particular measurement within a specific precision. However, the inherent sensitivity of the

PIM response can prevent a desired precision from being achieved.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

c) Stress repeatability – the particular stress placed upon the DUT shall be repeatable both

between tests upon the same DUT and tests between different DUTs. However, in the

experience of many, it is likely that the repeatability of the particular stress will be far worse

than that of the particular PIM test results so that the standard specifying the stress may not

be unnecessarily rigorous.

Based upon these factors, measuring PIM from a filter assembly whilst it undergoes thermal or

vibrational stresses is not currently recommended.

A less vigorous form of dynamic testing should be performed on a filter assembly in order to

demonstrate that stability of the PIM level is maintained after certain stresses have been applied.

This style of dynamic test typically takes the form of striking the assembly with an instrument

that will not damage the surface of the assembly. The impact of this tapping shall be at least

that described in IEC 60068-2-75:2014, Clause 7 for the 0,14 J drop, with conditions given in

IEC 60068-2-75:2014, Table 1 and Table 2, that is, a 0,25 kg striking element of polyamide

(Rockwell hardness: 85 < HRR < 100) dropped from a height of 56 mm.

The impact shall be applied as close as possible to each of the connectors of the filter, while

still impacting the filter body. The impact near each connector shall be repeated three times.

Also, for any side of the filter that has no connectors, three impacts shall be applied along one

edge of that side. The shape of the striking element shall be the same as described in

IEC 60068-2-75, for ≤ 1 J. An example, taken from IEC 60068-2-75:2014, Annex A, is shown

Figure 2.
Dimensions in millimetres
SOURCE: IEC 60068-2-75:2014, Figure A.1.
Figure 2 – Example of a striking element for ≤ 1 J

The results of the PIM tests shall be documented in a report. That report shall state

1) the test severity level, i.e. the weight and drop height for the impact test,

2) the frequency range(s) of the PIM test(s), the greatest PIM value after the application of the

impacts.

If something other than the vertical hammer test method is applied, then there shall be

documentation showing that the alternative test method produces an impact at least as great

as the vertical hammer test.
4.3 General test procedure

An appropriate test set-up shall be selected from the example schematics described in Clause 4,

according to the specific test requirements called for. The procedure is as follows:

a) calibrate the test set-up for correct carrier signal level and IM receiver level as described in

IEC 62037-1;
b) connect the filter DUT in the test set-up;
c) measure the IM performance of the DUT on the receiver.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021

The results obtained shall be expressed in one of the forms indicated in IEC 62037-1.

5 Example of test equipment schematics for filter testing
5.1 General

Several examples of schematics are presented. Each figure corresponds to a particular test

scenario as indicated in the matrix in Table 1. It will be noted that some of the example

schematics are modifications of the test configurations shown in IEC 62037-1. These

modifications allow the operator to satisfactorily perform a range of tests which are more specific

to the requirement of filter assemblies.

It is imperative that the residual PIM level of the test system be verified prior to measurement of

the filter assembly. It is strongly recommended that this level be at least 10 dB below the PIM

level requirement of the filter assembly, in order to minimize errors due to the system itself. This

measurement can be carried out in the following example set-ups by excluding the DUT from the

measurement system and monitoring the resultant PIM level under the normal test conditions.

The only systems which deviate slightly from this are Figure 6 and Figure 9 and notes are

provided for these two set-ups, indicating the test point at which the system residual

intermodulation distortion can be measured with the DUT removed.
Table 1 – Summary table referencing examples of test equipment
schematics for measuring PIM on filter-type devices
Tx band Rx band

Measurement type Two high-power carriers Two high-power carriers One high-power carrier +

injected interferer
N-port, forward IM Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 7
N-port, reverse IM Figure 5 Figure 8
N-port, receive port IM Figure 6 Figure 9

Figure 6 and Figure 9 outline equipment set-ups which measure the PIM present at a receive

port of the filter assembly. These set-ups are distinct from those measuring PIM in the reverse

direction (Figure 5 and Figure 8) and can give quite different results. It is therefore important

that consideration is given to using the appropriate measurement system, in order to measure

the required PIM performance.
5.2 Transmit band testing

Passive IM testing within the transmit band is typically performed on isolators and other relatively

high PIM components. For this test, two carriers are combined into a single transmission line and

then passed through the DUT. Once these are through the DUT, it is advisable to sufficiently

attenuate the two carriers to prevent the generation of active IM products and possible damage

within the receiver. A low noise amplifier is typically not required due to the high PIM signal levels

present from the DUT in these tests. This is described in Figure 3.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

The combiner port-to-port isolation plus band stop/low pass filters should be optimized to set the test bench system

residual to an acceptable level.

Consideration should be given to the possible generation of IM products within the receiver/spectrum analyzer and

whether a sufficient dynamic range can be obtained. An optional IM band pass filter may be used to allow these

conditions to be met.
Unused DUT ports shall be terminated in a matched load.

The low IM directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate diplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and

Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement diplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized that

there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.

Figure 3 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring transmit-band, forward,

passive IM products on an N-port DUT using two high-power carriers
5.3 Receive band testing – Dual high-power carriers

When testing for PIM products in the receive band, a much greater measurement sensitivity is

required than for transmit band testing. For this reason, a low-noise amplifier and bandpass filter

are typically utilized before the measurement receiver (or spectrum analyzer).

Examples of schematics for both forward and reverse PIM testing on N-port devices are shown

in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021

The low IM directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate diplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and Rx

bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement diplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized that

there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.

The combiner and diplexer could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate triplexer.

1) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement triplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and

Rx bands.

2) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement triplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized that

there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.
Figure 4 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, forward,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
Figure 5 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band, reverse,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

Point A can be used as a test point to monitor the system residual level (with the DUT removed). To be terminated

during DUT measurement.

The combiner and diplexer could alternatively be replaced by an appropriate triplexer.

a) In this instance, it is strongly recommended that the replacement triplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and

Rx bands.

b) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the replacement triplexer and DUT, it should also be recognized that

there would be a mechanism that supports multipathing.
Figure 6 – Typical test equipment schematic for measuring receive-band,
passive IM products on an N-port DUT, using two high-power carriers
The following remarks apply to Figure 5 and Figure 6:

1) The combiner port-to-port isolation plus diplexer should be optimized to set the test bench

system residual to an acceptable level.

2) Consideration should be given to the possible generation of IM products within the

receiver/spectrum analyzer and whether a sufficient dynamic range can be obtained. An

optional IM band pass filter plus low noise amplifier may be used to allow these conditions to

be met.

3) Due to the potentially reflective nature of the diplexer and DUT, it should be recognized that

there is a mechanism that supports multipathing.

4) It is strongly recommended that the diplexer has a good VSWR in both the Tx and Rx bands.

5) Unused DUT ports shall be terminated in a matched load.
5.4 Receive band testing – Injected interferer

To simulate the PIM performance of filters due to signals originating both internally to the system

and externally to the system, injected interferer testing may be performed. For these tests, one

carrier remains at full power. The other carrier is typically reduced in power by some 20 dB to

40 dB relative to the strongest carrier. Typical test equipment schematics are shown in Figure 7,

Figure 8 and Figure 9.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62037-5:2021 © IEC 2021

The low IM dual directional coupler could alternatively be replaced by an appropriat

...

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