Measurement techniques of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators - Part 2: Phase jitter measurement method

IEC 62884-2:2017 specifies the methods for the measurement and evaluation of the phase jitter measurement of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators, including dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) and oscillators using a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) (hereinafter referred to as an "Oscillator") and gives guidance for phase jitter that allows the accurate measurement of RMS jitter.
In the measurement method, phase noise measurement equipment or a phase noise measurement system is used.
NOTE Dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) and oscillators using FBAR are under consideration.

Techniques de mesure des oscillateurs piézoélectriques, diélectriques et électrostatiques - Partie 2 : Méthode de mesure de la gigue de phase

L'IEC 62884-2:2017 spécifie les méthodes de mesure et d'évaluation du mesurage de la gigue de phase des oscillateurs piézoélectriques, diélectriques et électrostatiques, y compris les oscillateurs à résonateur diélectrique (DRO - dielectric resonator oscillators) et les oscillateurs utilisant un résonateur à ondes acoustiques de volume à couches fines (FBAR - film bulk acoustic resonator) (appelés ici « oscillateur ») et donne des recommandations relatives à la gigue de phase permettant de mesurer avec exactitude la gigue efficace.
Dans la méthode de mesure, un matériel ou système de mesure du bruit de phase est utilisé.
NOTE Les oscillateurs à résonateur diélectrique (DRO - dielectric resonator oscillator) et les oscillateurs utilisant un FBAR sont à l'étude.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Aug-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
30-Aug-2017
Completion Date
30-Aug-2017
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IEC 62884-2
Edition 1.0 2017-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Measurement techniques of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic
oscillators –
Part 2: Phase jitter measurement method
Techniques de mesure des oscillateurs piézoélectriques, diélectriques
et électrostatiques –
Partie 2: Méthode de mesure de la gigue de phase
IEC 62884-2:2017-08(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 62884-2
Edition 1.0 2017-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Measurement techniques of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic
oscillators –
Part 2: Phase jitter measurement method
Techniques de mesure des oscillateurs piézoélectriques, diélectriques
et électrostatiques –
Partie 2: Méthode de mesure de la gigue de phase
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-7553-5

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Test and measurement procedures .................................................................................. 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Test methods of phase jitter .................................................................................... 8

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 8

4.2.2 Measurement in the time domain ..................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Measurement in the data domain ..................................................................... 9

4.2.4 Measurement in the frequency domain ............................................................ 9

4.3 Input and output impedances of the measurement system .................................... 13

4.4 Measurement equipment ....................................................................................... 13

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.4.2 Jitter floor ...................................................................................................... 13

4.4.3 Output wave form .......................................................................................... 13

4.4.4 Output voltage ............................................................................................... 14

4.5 Test fixture............................................................................................................ 14

4.6 Cable, tools and instruments, and so on ............................................................... 14

5 Measurement and the measurement environment .......................................................... 14

5.1 Set-up before taking measurements ...................................................................... 14

5.2 Points to be considered and noted at the time of measurement ............................. 14

5.3 Treatment after the measurement ......................................................................... 14

6 Measurement ................................................................................................................. 15

6.1 Reference temperature ......................................................................................... 15

6.2 Measurement of temperature characteristics ......................................................... 15

6.3 Measurement under vibration ................................................................................ 15

6.4 Measurement at the time of impact ....................................................................... 15

6.5 Measurement in accelerated ageing ...................................................................... 15

7 Other points to be noted ................................................................................................ 15

8 Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (normative) Calculation method for the amount of phase jitter ............................... 16

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

A.2 Explanation ........................................................................................................... 16

A.3 Relations between phase noise and phase jitter .................................................... 16

A.4 Commentary on theoretical positioning of phase jitter ........................................... 18

A.5 Description ........................................................................................................... 18

A.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

A.5.2 RMS jitter ...................................................................................................... 19

A.5.3 Peak-to-peak jitter ......................................................................................... 19

A.5.4 Random jitter ................................................................................................. 20

A.5.5 Deterministic jitter .......................................................................................... 20

A.5.6 Period (periodic) jitter .................................................................................... 20

A.5.7 Data-dependent jitter ..................................................................................... 20

A.5.8 Total jitter ...................................................................................................... 21

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IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

A.6 Points to be considered for measurement ............................................................. 21

A.6.1 Measurement equipment ............................................................................... 21

A.6.2 Factors of measurement errors ...................................................................... 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Phase jitter measurement with sampling oscilloscope ............................................ 9

Figure 2 – Block diagram of a jitter and wander analyser according to ITU-T O.172 ............. 11

Figure 3 – Equivalent block diagram ..................................................................................... 13

Figure A.1 – Concept diagram of SSB phase noise ............................................................... 18

Figure A.2 – Voltage versus time .......................................................................................... 19

Figure A.3 – Explanatory diagram of the amount of jitter applied to RMS jitter ...................... 21

Figure A.4 – Explanatory diagrams of random jitter, deterministic jitter, and total jitter .......... 22

Table 1 – Fourier frequency range for phase noise test ......................................................... 10

Table 2 – Standard bit rates for various applications ............................................................. 12

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES OF PIEZOELECTRIC,
DIELECTRIC AND ELECTROSTATIC OSCILLATORS –
Part 2: Phase jitter measurement method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62884-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.

This bilingual version (2019-11) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2017-08.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
49/1212/CDV 49/1243/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62884 series, published under the general title Measurement

techniques of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators, can be found on the IEC

website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

A crystal oscillator as a highly efficient and highly precise source of a frequency oscillation is

widely used for fields such as the electronic equipment, communication equipment,

measurement equipment and a clock. Also recently, digitalization of these equipments is

advancing rapidly. In this situation, the frequency of crystal oscillator requires high precision

and high stability and reduction of noise with oscillating phenomenon. A phase jitter is one of

the noise characteristic in oscillation characteristic and precise measurement which is needed

when shipping a component to a customer.
For advance application in electronic information and communication technology,

(e.g. advanced satellite communications, control circuits for electric vehicle (EV)), necessity

arises for the measurement method for common guidelines of phase jitter. In these days,

measurement method of phase jitter also becomes more important from the electromagnetic

influence (EMI) point of view.
This document has been restructured from IEC 60679-1:2007 (third edition) and

IEC 60679-6:2011 (first edition). The test methods for oscillators have been separated from

IEC 60679-6:2011 into IEC 62884 (all parts). This document covers the phase jitter

measurement.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES OF PIEZOELECTRIC,
DIELECTRIC AND ELECTROSTATIC OSCILLATORS –
Part 2: Phase jitter measurement method
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62884 specifies the methods for the measurement and evaluation of the

phase jitter measurement of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators, including

dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) and oscillators using a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator

(FBAR) (hereinafter referred to as an "Oscillator") and gives guidance for phase jitter that

allows the accurate measurement of RMS jitter.
In the measurement method, phase noise measurement equipment or a phase noise
measurement system is used.

NOTE Dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) and oscillators using FBAR are under consideration.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60050-561, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 561: Piezoelectric, dielectric

and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control, selection and

detection

IEC 60679-1:2017, Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic oscillators of assessed quality –

Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 60469, Transitions, pulses and related waveforms – Terms, definitions and algorithms

IEC 60617, Graphical symbols for diagrams (available at http://std.iec.ch/iec60617)

IEC 62884-1:2017, Measurement techniques of piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic

oscillators – Part 1: Basic methods for the measurement
ISO 80000-1, Quantities and units – Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60027 (all parts),

IEC 60050-561, IEC 60469, IEC 60617, IEC 60679-1 and ISO 80000-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Test and measurement procedures
4.1 General

The test and measurement procedures are given in Clause 4 of IEC 62884-1:2017 and shall

be applied as indicated in 4.2 to Clause 8.
4.2 Test methods of phase jitter
4.2.1 General
As the measurement method, the phase noise measurement equipment (system) or the
specially designed phase jitter measurement equipment shall be used.
Three basic methods are described:

a) measurement in the time domain by use of a digital real-time or sampling oscilloscope;

b) measurement in the data domain (BER test set);
c) measurement in the frequency domain using
1) a phase noise test set, or
2) a jitter and wander test set.

Method c) 1) using a phase noise test set is the recommended measurement method because

it allows sufficient accuracy for arbitrary oscillator output frequencies.

– In the measurement of phase jitter and wander of oscillator circuits, attention should be

paid to relative measurement reproducibility.
– A user and a manufacturer should deepen understanding through discussion about
relative measurement reproducibility.

– Measurement equipment (including software program) should be made clear between a

manufacturer and a user through a contract.

– When phase jitter and wander is calculated from phase noise, the range of frequency

deviation should be made clear between a user and a manufacturer through a contract.

4.2.2 Measurement in the time domain

Digital real-time or sampling oscilloscopes with wide bandwidth, fast sampling rates, and large

data memories are commercially available (see Figure 1), in some cases with special jitter

evaluation software.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
Sampling
Delay line
scope
スコープ
Trigger
Input
Power
Oscillator
splitter
IEC
Figure 1 – Phase jitter measurement with sampling oscilloscope

The time variation of the edges of the clock signal relative to the trigger edge is displayed and

stored over a large number (typically thousands) of cycles. Instrument software allows the

determination of the peak-to-peak jitter value and a statistical evaluation of its distribution.

The sampling oscilloscope method does not allow an accurate evaluation of the spectral

content of the jitter. Also, jitter larger than one unit interval (UI) cannot be distinguished.

The measured jitter value is worse than the jitter of the device under test due to the internal

jitter of the instrument’s clock.
2 2
J = (J ) − (J )
DUT meas int
where
J is the measured jitter;
DUT
J is the jitter of the device under test;
meas
J is the internal jitter of the instrument’s clock.
int

High stability/low noise Oscillator exhibits a significantly lower jitter than the instrument’s

clock jitter and trigger stability. Therefore, this technology is currently not suitable for accurate

jitter measurement of such Oscillator.
4.2.3 Measurement in the data domain

Bit-error rate (BER) test sets are used for measuring bit-error rate to characterise the overall

system performance of a communication subsystem. It is difficult to deduct the contribution of

the Oscillator jitter to the system BER. This method also does not yield quantitative jitter

performance values for the Oscillator.
4.2.4 Measurement in the frequency domain
4.2.4.1 Methods of phase noise test set

Phase jitter can be tested in the frequency domain using the well-established phase noise test

method with a phase locked loop as described in 4.5.25 of IEC 62884-1:2017.

The range of detuned frequency shall be determined by contracts between customers and

suppliers after discussion between them. The formula for calculating the RMS jitter from a

phase noise is based on the calculation method for the amount of phase jitter shown in

Annex A.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017
For given SDH/SONET applications, the Fourier frequency range (f ... f ) may be
min max

selected as described in 3.2.53 of IEC 60679-1:2017. If not specified in the relevant data

sheet, the recommended Fourier frequency range is as given by f to f in Table 1.
3 4
Table 1 – Fourier frequency range for phase noise test
Oscillator output frequency f = f f f = f
0 min 3 4 max
1 MHz to < 10 MHz 10 Hz 10 kHz 100 kHz
10 MHz to < 50 MHz 20 Hz 20 kHz 500 kHz
50 MHz to < 200 MHz 100 Hz 50 kHz 1,5 MHz
200 MHz to < 1 000 MHz 1,0 kHz 200 kHz 5,0 MHz
1 000 MHz to < 5 000 MHz 5,0 kHz 500 kHz 15 MHz
≥ 5 000 MHz 20 kHz 2 MHz 80 MHz

From Table 1, it can be seen that the most stringent requirement applies over the range f to

f .
Jitter performance over a frequency-band other than f to f may also be defined.
3 4

To compute the phase jitter, the phase noise data L(f) have to be integrated in the considered

frequency ranges and evaluated as follows.

Compute the spectral density of phase fluctuations S (f) from the single-sideband phase noise

plot 10 log L (f):
S( f)= 2L( f)

Integrate S (f) over the specified Fourier frequency range f to f to get the mean squared

φ min max
phase jitter in that bandwidth:
max
( ) ( )
∆ϕ f = S f df
min

The mean square phase jitter can be approximated by stepwise integration over the specified

Fourier frequency range f to f segmented by n, for example:
min max
∆φ( f) ≈ S( f)∆f
∑ φ i i
where
Δf = f – f (i = 1...n - 1)
i i+1 i
with
f = f and f = f
1 min n max
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62884-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 11 –

The square root Δφ(f) of the integral is the effective or RMS phase jitter in radians. It can be

converted into degrees, fractions of unit interval (UI), or time (in seconds) by multiplication

with the following factor k:
Degree Unit interval Time
° UI s
k =
360/2π 1/(2π) 1/(2πf )

For random jitter, the peak-to-peak value is assumed to be 7 times the value computed above

(see 3.2.53 of IEC 60679-1:2017).
Accuracy:

A 1 dB error of the phase noise data 10 log L(f) over the full Fourier frequency range causes

a jitter inaccuracy of approximately 10 %.
4.2.4.2 Methods of communication analyser

Commercially available communication analyser may be used to measure jitter and wander of

clock sources with the method described in ITU-T Recommendation O.172 (see Figure 2). The

working principle is similar to the phase noise measurement technique using the quadrature

method. Softwares supplied with the test sets deliver directly all characteristic values for jitter

and wander in numeric and graphical presentation.
Jitter free
Demodulator
Clock with
reference clock
output
jitter and
generation
wander
ψ U ~ Δψ
Digital signal
Pattern pp
Ext.
(with jitter UI
Clock
RMS
Jitter
and wander) Int. Weighting
Phase detector
filters Result
Peak-peak
evaluation
RMS
and
display
External clock
TIE
PLL
PLL LP
(wander
10 Hz
measurement)
MTIE
Internal reference
Lowpass
clock generation
IEC
Figure 2 – Block diagram of a jitter and wander analyser
according to ITU-T O.172

The advantage of these systems over the phase noise test is that a measurement of both

RMS and peak-to-peak jitter is possible. The disadvantage is that these systems require an

input signal (Oscillator frequency) according to the standard data bit rates for optical

communication systems (SONET, SDH) – see Table 2.
---------------------- Page: 13 --------
...

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