Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control, selection and detection - Glossary - Part 2: Piezoelectric and dielectric filters

IEC/TS 61994-2:2011 is a technical specification that gives the terms and definitions for piezoelectric and dielectric filters representing the present state of the art, which are intended for use in the standards and documents of IEC technical committee 49. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
- definitions updated,
- terminology given in orderly sequence,
- new terminologies are added,
- drawings inserted for easier understanding.

Dispositifs piézoélectriques, diélectriques et électrostatiques et matériaux associés pour la commande, le choix et la détection de la fréquence - Glossaire - Partie 2: Filtres piézoélectriques et diélectriques

La CEI/TS 61994-2:2011 est une spécification technique qui contient les termes et définitions pour les filtres piézoélectriques et diélectriques représentant la pointe de la technologie, destinés à être utilisés dans les normes et documents du comité d'études 49 de la CEI. Les modifications principales par rapport à l'édition antérieure sont les suivantes:
- mise à jour des définitions,
- terminologie donnée selon un schéma bien ordonné,
- ajout de nouvelles terminologies,
- insertion de schémas pour une meilleure compréhension.

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Publication Date
16-Jun-2011
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
17-Jun-2011
Completion Date
17-Jun-2011
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IEC/TS 61994-2
Edition 2.0 2011-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for
frequency control, selection and detection – Glossary –
Part 2: Piezoelectric and dielectric filters
Dispositifs piézoélectriques, diélectriques et électrostatiques et matériaux
associés pour la commande, le choix et la détection de la fréquence –
Glossaire –
Partie 2: Filtres piézoélectriques et diélectriques
IEC/TS 61994-2:2011
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TS 61994-2
Edition 2.0 2011-06
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for
frequency control, selection and detection – Glossary –
Part 2: Piezoelectric and dielectric filters
Dispositifs piézoélectriques, diélectriques et électrostatiques et matériaux
associés pour la commande, le choix et la détection de la fréquence –
Glossaire –
Partie 2: Filtres piézoélectriques et diélectriques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX R
ICS 31.140; 01.040.31 ISBN 978-2-88912-535-7
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 5

Figure 1 – Apodized IDT ......................................................................................................... 6

Figure 2 – Configuration of an interdigital transducer for dispersive filter ................................ 7

Figure 3 – Interdigited interdigital transducer (IIDT) ................................................................ 9

Figure 4 – Frequency response of Insertion attenuation of a filter ......................................... 10

Figure 5 – Configuration of a ladder filter .............................................................................. 10

Figure 6 – Configuration of a lattice filter .............................................................................. 11

Figure 7 – Multiphase transducer (unidirectional transducer) ................................................ 12

Figure 8 – Configuration of a resonator filter ......................................................................... 15

Figure 9 – Transversal filter .................................................................................................. 18

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PIEZOELECTRIC, DIELECTRIC AND ELECTROSTATIC
DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED MATERIALS
FOR FREQUENCY CONTROL, SELECTION
AND DETECTION – GLOSSARY –
Part 2: Piezoelectric and dielectric filters
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

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– the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

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– the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.

Technical specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011

IEC 61994-2, which is a technical specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 49: Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for

frequency control, selection and detection.

This second edition of IEC 61994-2 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000

This edition constitutes a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– definitions updated,
– terminology given in orderly sequence,
– new terminologies are added,
– drawings inserted for easier understanding.
The text of this technical specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
49/922/DTS 49/931/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the IS0/lEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of IEC 61994 series under the general title : Piezoelectric, dielectric and

electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency control, selection and detection –

Glossary, can be found on the IEC website.

NOTE Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing standards in

this series will be updated at the time of next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
___________

The general title is changed from Piezoelectric and dielectric devices for frequency control and selection –

Glossary: to this title based on the change of the title of TC49 in 2009.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 5 –
PIEZOELECTRIC, DIELECTRIC AND ELECTROSTATIC
DEVICES AND ASSOCIATED MATERIALS
FOR FREQUENCY CONTROL, SELECTION
AND DETECTION – GLOSSARY –
Part 2: Piezoelectric and dielectric filters
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61994 is a technical specification that gives the terms and definitions for

piezoelectric and dielectric filters representing the present state of the art, which are intended

for use in the standards and documents of IEC technical committee 49.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applied. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050(561):1991, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Chapter 561:

Piezoelectric devices for frequency control and selection

IEC 60368-1:2000, Piezoelectric filters of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 60368-2-2:1996, Piezoelectric filters – Part 2: Guide to the use of piezoelectric filters –

Section 2: Piezoelectric ceramic filters

IEC 60862-1:2003, Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic

specification

IEC 60862-2:2002, Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters of assessed quality – Part 2:

Guidance on use

IEC 61261-1:1994, Piezoelectric ceramic filters for use in electronic equipment –

A specification in the IEC quality assessment system for electronic components (IECQ) –

Part 1: Generic specification – Qualification approval

IEC 61337-1:2004, Filters using waveguide type dielectric resonators – Part 1: Generic

specification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-561

as well as the followings apply.
3.1
apodisation (of an interdigital transducer)
IDT
weighting produced by the change of finger overlap over the length of the IDT
NOTE An apodization of IDT is shown in Figure 1.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.1.18]
IEC 1199/11
Figure 1 – Apodized IDT
3.2
available power

maximum power obtainable from a given source by suitable adjustment of the load impedance

[IEC 60862-1:2003, 2.2.2.35]
3.3
band-pass filter
filter having a single pass band between two specified stop bands
3.4
band-stop filter
filter having a single stop band between two specified pass band
3.5
centre frequency
arithmetic mean of the cut-off frequencies
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.2]
3.6
comb filter
filter having two or more pass-bands between three or more stop-bands
[IEC 60862-2 :2002, 3.3.5]
3.7
coupling factor for dielectric filters,

degree of coupling between two resonators. The coupling between dielectric resonators

is mainly made either magnetically or electrically. According to each case, the equivalent

circuit of coupling is expressed by inductive or capacitive coupling, respectively.

The coupling factor by inductive or capacitive coupling is defined by the following equations

respectively:
k = M / L × L k = C / C × C
1 2 1 2
where
, C and L , C are the resonance circuit elements;
1 1 2 2
M is the mutual inductance;
is the coupling capacitance;
k is the coupling factor.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 7 –

In the case of a symmetric circuit of coupling, the coupling factor can be obtained from two

resonance frequencies calculated or measured for the coupled resonators:
2 2 2 2
k = ( f – f  ) / (f + f )
0 e 0 e
where

f is the resonance frequency in the case of even mode excitation (open-circuited symmetric plane);

f is the resonance frequency in the case of odd mode excitation (short-circuited symmetric plane).

The coupling factor of a band-stop filter is the degree of coupling between the resonator and

the transmission line. The coupling factor k is defined as the ratio of the external power loss

(P ) of the resonator system to the internal power loss (P ) of the resonator and can be

e u
expressed by a function of quality factor as follows:
k = P /P = Q /Q = Q /Q – 1
e u u e u L
where
Q is the unloaded quality factor of resonator;
Q is the external quality factor of resonator;
Q is the loaded quality factor of resonator.
[IEC 61337-1: 2004, 2.2.6, modified]
3.8
cut-off frequency

frequency of the pass band at which the relative attenuation of a piezoelectric filter reaches a

specified value
NOTE See Figure 4.
3.9
dispersive filter

filter designed so as to have group delay which is a function of frequency, usually by varying

the finger periodicity
NOTE An interdigital transducer for a dispersive filter is shown in Figure 2.
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.3.4]
l l < l l
2 1
1 2
IEC 1200/11
Figure 2 – Configuration of an interdigital transducer for dispersive filter
3.10
distortion of envelope delay time (in an electrical network)

unwanted variation of the envelope delay time of a signal in an electrical network as a

function of frequency
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
3.11
envelope delay time

time of propagation of a certain characteristic of a signal envelope between two points, for a

certain frequency
3.12
feedthrough signals (signals of electromagnetic interference)

unwanted signals from the input appearing at the filter output due to stray capacitances and

other electromagnetic couplings
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.1.29 ]
3.13
feedthrough signal suppression

relative attenuation which implies the suppression of directly coupled signals by the

electromagnetic and electrostatic coupling between the input and output electrodes

[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.27]
3.14
fractional bandwidth (of a band-pass filter)

ratio of the pass bandwidth to the mid-band frequency in the case of band-pass filter

[IEC 61337-1: 2004, 2.2.14, modified]
3.15
fractional bandwidth (of a band-stop filter)

ratio of the stop bandwidth to the mid-band frequency in the case of band-stop filter

[IEC 61337-1: 2004, 2.2.14, modified]
3.16
frequency asymmetrical filter

filter having a specified asymmetrical pass-band or stop-band characteristic in relation to the

reference frequency
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.3.3]
3.17
frequency symmetrical filter

filter having a symmetrical frequency characteristic in relation to the reference frequency

[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.3.2]
3.18
group delay

time equal to the first derivative of the phase shift, in radians, between these points with

respect to the angular frequency
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.18]
3.19
group delay distortion

difference between the lowest and highest value of group delay in a specified frequency band

[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.19]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 9 –
3.20
high-pass filter

filter having a single pass band above a cut-off frequency and a stop band for lower

frequencies
3.21
Interdigitated interdigital transducer
IIDT

SAW transducer made of a combination of three or more interdigital transducers. Same as a

multi-interdigital transducer
NOTE 1 An interdigitated interdigital transducer (IIDT) is shown in Figure 3.
Out IEC 1201/11
Figure 3 – Interdigited interdigital transducer (IIDT)

NOTE 2 IIDT (or multi-interdigital transducer) resonator filters are referred to as SAW resonator filters composed

of a number of interdigital transduces for input and output in a line alternating with grating reflectors confirming the

interdigital transducer structure at both ends.
[IEC 60862-2 : 2002, 3.1.13]
3.22
input impedance

impedance presented by a filter to the signal source when terminated by a specified load

impedance
3.23
input level
power, voltage or current level applied to the input terminal pair of a filter
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.29]
3.24
insertion attenuation (of a filter)

ratio, generally expressed in decibels, of the power delivered to the load impedance before

insertion of the filter to the power delivered to the load impedance after insertion of the filter

NOTE An example of frequency responses of filter is shown in Figure 4. In this figure, various insertion

attenuation levels are shown.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.2.6]
Attenuation
Specified
pass band
Group delay
Specified
stop band
Cut-off Centre Reference Cut-off
Frequency
frequency frequency frequency frequency (MHz)
IEC 1202/11
Figure 4 – Frequency response of Insertion attenuation of a filter
3.25
intermodulation distortion

distortion resulting from the combination within the filter of two independent input signals

3.26
ladder filter

filter having a cascade or tandem connection of alternating series and shunt SAW resonators

NOTE A typical ladder filter is shown in Figure 5.
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.3.7]
R1′
R1 R1 R1
R2′ R2 R2 R2
IEC 1203/11
Figure 5 – Configuration of a ladder filter
Attenuation (dB)
Minimum
Relative
insertion
attenuation
attenuation
TTE ripple
Group delay
distortion
Nominal
insertion
attenuation
Pass-band
ripple
Nominal
group delay
Group delay (µs)
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 11 –
3.27
lattice filter

filter having at least four SAW resonators connected in series to form a mesh, two

nonadjacent junction points are used as input terminals, while the remaining two junction

points are used as output terminals (bridge circuit).

NOTE Preferably it can used for balanced circuits. A typical lattice filter is shown in Figure 6.

[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.3.8]
R1
R2 R2
IEC 1204/11
Figure 6 – Configuration of a lattice filter
3.28
low-pass filter

filter having a single pass band below a cut-off frequency and a stop band for higher

frequencies
3.29
maximum level

power, voltage or current value above which unacceptable distortion of the signal or

irreversible changes may occur in a piezoelectric filter
3.30
mid-band frequency (of a band-pass or band-stop filter)

geometric mean of the cut-off frequencies limiting a single pass band or single stop band

NOTE In practice, the arithmetic mean is often used as a good approximation to the geometric mean for

piezoelectric filters with relatively narrow pass bands or stop bands.
3.31
minimum insertion attenuation
minimum value of insertion attenuation in the pass band (see Figure 4).
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.13]
3.32
multiphase transducer

interdigital transducer having more than two inputs which are driven in different phases.

Usually used as a unidirectional transducer
NOTE A example of multiphase transducer is shown in Figure 7.
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.1.11]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
90° phase shifter
SAW forward
IEC 1205/11
Figure 7 – Multiphase transducer (unidirectional transducer)
3.33
nominal frequency
frequency given by the manufacturer or the specification to identify the filter
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.1]
3.34
nominal group delay
group delay at a specified reference frequency (see Figure 4).
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.19]
3.35
nominal insertion attenuation
insertion attenuation at a specified reference frequency (see Figure 4).
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.7]
3.36
nominal level

power, voltage or current level at which the performance measurement is specified

[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.31]
3.37
operable temperature range (of a piezoelectric filter)

range of temperatures over which the piezoelectric filter continues to provide its specified

response characteristics, though not necessarily within the specified tolerances
[IEC 60368-1: 2000, 2.2.43]
3.38
operating temperature range

range of temperatures over which the piezoelectric filter will function maintaining its specified

characteristics within specified tolerances
[IEC 60368-1: 2000, 2.2.42]
3.39
output impedance

impedance presented by the filter to the load when the input is terminated by specified source

impedance
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 13 –
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.33]
3.40
output level
power, voltage or current level delivered to the load
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.30]
3.41
pass band

band of frequencies in which the relative attenuation of a piezoelectric filter is equal to, or

less than, a specified value
3.42
pass bandwidth

separation of frequencies between which the attenuation of a piezoelectric filter shall be equal

to, or less than, a specified value
3.43
pass-band ripple (of a filter)

difference between the peak value and the minimum value of attenuation within the pass-band

of a filter
[IEC 60368-1: 2000, 2.2.36]
3.44
pass-band attenuation deviation

maximum variation of the attenuation within a defined portion of the pass-band of a filter

[IEC 60368-1: 2000, 2.2.37]
3.45
phase delay time

time of propagation of a sinusoidal oscillation of a certain frequency between two points

3.46
power flow vector

vector, analogous to a Poynting vector, characterizing energy propagation caused by a

surface acoustic wave
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.1.3]
3.47
power flow angle

angle between the direction of the power flow vector and the direction of the propagation

vector
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.1.5]
3.48
phase distortion (in an electrical network)

unwanted variation of phase difference in an electrical network as a function of frequency

3.49
rated level

power, voltage or current value at which the characteristics of a piezoelectric filter are

specified
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – TS 61994-2  IEC:2011
3.50
reference frequency

frequency defined by the specification to which other frequencies may be referred

[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.3]
3.51
reference temperature

temperature at which certain filter performance parameters are measured, normally

(25 ± 2) °C
[IEC 60368-1: 2000, 2.2.41]
3.52
reflected wave signal suppression

relative attenuation of unwanted signals caused by reflection of SAW or bulk waves from

substrate edges or electrodes within a specified time window
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.26]
3.53
reflector

SAW reflecting component which normally makes use of the periodic discontinuity provided by

a metal strip array (shorted metal strip aray or open metal strip array ) or a grooved array.

[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.1.25, modified]
3.54
reflection coefficient

dimensionless measure of the degree of mismatch between two impedances Z and Z given

a b
Z − Z
a b
by the expression: dB
Z + Z
a b
where

Z and Z represent respectively the input and source impedance or the output and load

a b
impedance
[IEC 60862-1: 2003, 2.2.2.24]
3.55
relative attenuation

difference between the attenuation at a given frequency and the attenuation at the reference

frequency
NOTE See Figure 4.
3.56
resonator filter
filter in which two or more SAW resonators are incorporated

NOTE There are many types of resonator filters. An example of resonator filter is shown in Figure 8.

[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.3.6]
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TS 61994-2  IEC:2011 – 15 –
IDT
Reflector Reflector
Out IEC 1206/11
Figure 8 – Configuration of a resonator filter
3.57
roll-off rate

index describing the rise-up characteristics for digital communication SAW roll-off filters. It is

a ratio of the transition band to the ideal cut-off frequency, which is equal to half of the

sampling frequency, in the case of cosine roll-off frequency characteristics
[IEC 60862-2: 2002, 3.2.25]
3.58
return attenuation

value of the reciprocal of modulus of the reflection coefficient, expressed in decibels.

Z + Z
a b
Quantitatively,
...

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