Unmanned aircraft systems

This document specifies requirements for ensuring the quality and safety of the design and manufacture of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) that include unmanned aircraft (UA), remote pilot stations (RPS), datalinks, payloads, and associated support equipment. This document includes information regarding the unmanned aircraft, any associated remote pilot station (RPS)(s), the command and control links (C2 Link), any other required data links (e.g. payload, traffic management information, vehicle identification) and any other system elements as can be required. This document does not cover passenger carrying UAS or technical requirements for the design and manufacturing for UAS components. This document does not include equipment considerations unique to compliance with UA traffic management systems. The document is applicable to the reasonable expected use of a UAS. This document is applicable: a) to UAS designed for use where a State aviation authority has determined a Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) is not required; b) where a C of A is required, to complement technical standards published by the aviation authority for the purposes of building the certification basis; or c) as an alternative means of compliance if acceptable to the aviation authority.

Aéronefs sans pilote

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
04-Nov-2021
Completion Date
03-Nov-2021
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ISO 21384-2:2021 - Unmanned aircraft systems
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21384-2
First edition
2021-12
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 2:
UAS components
Aéronefs sans pilote —
Partie 2: Composants des UAS
Reference number
ISO 21384-2:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21384-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21384-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General design requirements for UAS........................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Function and reliability .................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.1 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Components ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Maintainability and supportability ...................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.2 Documentation..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.3 Support ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Fatigue durability ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Aircraft identification features ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.6 Transportation, storage and packaging ........................................................................................................................... 6

6 Aircraft structures ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Damage tolerance assessment .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 UA construction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Moving parts ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.5 Attached parts ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Propulsion ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Propulsion risk management ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Engines and motors ........................................................................................................................................... ................................. 8

7.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Mounting and installation .......................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Combustion engines ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.4 Electric motors ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.5 Electronic speed controller (ESC) requirements .................................................................................. 9

7.3 Thrust mechanisms ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 Propellers and rotors ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Turbine and fans .............................................................................................................................................................. 10

8 Electrical systems ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

8.2 Electrical safety .................................................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.3 Airborne electrical systems ..................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.4 Ground electrical systems ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.4.1 UAS electrical components on the ground ............................................................................................... 10

8.4.2 RPS power system .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.3 Labelling ................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

9 Energy sources ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Batteries .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.2 Protective measures .................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.1.3 Precautions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

9.2 Combustible fuels .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

9.3 Fuel cells ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.3.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................12

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21384-2:2021(E)

9.3.2 General safety requirements ................................................................................................................................12

9.3.3 Protective measures ....................................................................................................................................................12

10 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.1 Avionic equipment (general)................................................................................................................................................... 12

10.2 Flight control system (FCS) ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

10.2.1 General requirement ........................................................................................................................................... .........13

10.2.2 Flight control hardware ............................................................................................................................................13

10.2.3 Flight control software .............................................................................................................................................. 14

10.2.4 Course accuracy ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

10.2.5 Airspeed .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.3 Flight control actuators ...............................................................................................................................................................15

10.4 Diagnostics .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

10.5 Navigation systems ......................................................................................................................................................................... 15

10.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.5.2 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver ........................................................................ 15

10.5.3 Real time kinematic (RTK) augmentation................................................................................................ 15

10.5.4 Inertial measurement unit (IMU) .................................................................................................................... 16

10.5.5 Magnetic compass .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

10.6 Attitude sensors ................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

10.6.1 Altimeter ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16

10.6.2 Airspeed sensor................................................................................................................................................................ 16

10.6.3 Optical sensor .................................................................................................................................................................... 17

10.7 Hardware and software redundancy .............................................................................................................................. 17

10.8 Failure modes ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

11 C2 Link .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.1 Performance and design ............................................................................................................................................................. 18

11.2 Antenna module design ............................................................................................................................................................... 18

11.3 Operations ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

11.4 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.5 Protocol ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.6 Data features ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.6.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.6.2 UA status data .................................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.6.3 Delay requirements ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

11.7 Reliability requirements ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

11.8 Security requirements ......... ......................................................................................................................................................... 20

12 Remote pilot station ......................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

12.2 Features ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

12.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.2.2 Data monitoring systems requirements .................................................................................................... 20

12.3 Design requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 20

12.3.1 System ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

12.3.2 Structure ................................................................................................................................................................................ 21

12.3.3 Human factors engineering and ergonomics design ....................................................................... 21

12.4 Functional requirements ........................................................................................................................................... ................. 21

12.4.1 Mission planning ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

12.4.2 Data link control .............................................................................................................................................................. 21

12.4.3 Flight Control Commands........................................................................................................................................ 21

12.5 Displays ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

12.5.1 Instrumentation............................................................................................................................................................... 22

12.5.2 Readability ............................................................................................................................................................................ 22

12.5.3 Accuracy ................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

12.5.4 Warnings, cautions, and advisories ................................................................................................................ 22

12.5.5 Display/interface failures ........................................................................................................................................ 22

12.5.6 Track and parameter display ............................................................................................................................... 23

12.5.7 C2 Link status display ................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21384-2:2021(E)

12.5.8 Telemetry parameter record ................................................................................................................................ 23

12.6 Performance requirements ...................................................................................................................................................... 23

12.6.1 Environmental adaptability .................................................................................................................................. 23

12.6.2 Reliability ............................................................................................................................................................................... 24

12.7 Safety............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24

12.8 Collision avoidance (CA) systems ....................................................................................................................................... 24

13 Payload ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

13.1 General requirements ................................................................................................................................................................... 24

13.2 Safety marking .................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

13.3 Wiring design........................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

13.4 Payload power supply ................................................................................................................................................................... 25

13.5 Storage requirement.......................................................................................................................................................................25

14 Airworthiness ......................................................................................................................................................................................................25

14.1 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

14.1.1 Instructions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 25

14.1.2 Manuals and handbooks ........................................................................................................................................... 25

14.1.3 Procedural changes ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

14.2 Composition of an operator’s manual ............................................................................................................................. 26

14.2.1 Technical specifications ............................................................................................................................................ 26

14.2.2 Flight performance ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

14.2.3 Aircraft weights ...............................................................................................................................................................26

14.2.4 Flight control accuracy ..............................................................................................................................................26

14.2.5 Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 27

14.2.6 Atmospheric and other environments adaptability ........................................................................ 27

14.3 Electromagnetic compatibility considerations ...................................................................................................... 27

14.4 Noise ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27

14.5 Built-in test and monitoring .................................................................................................................................................... 27

14.6 System safety program ................................................................................................................................................................28

14.6.1 Selection of design materials ...............................................................................................................................28

14.6.2 Properties and processes ........................................................................................................................................28

14.6.3 Mass properties ................................................................................................................................................................28

14.6.4 Corrosion ................................................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.5 Material limitations ......................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.6 Fire hazards .........................................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.7 Equipment separation ................................................................................................................................................29

15 UAS software .........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1 Software architecture and design .....................................................................................................................................29

15.2 Safety............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30

15.3 Security ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30

15.4 Software compliance......................................................................................................................................................................30

15.5 Software development life cycle .......................................................................................................................................... 30

16 Other considerations .............................................................................................................................................................................

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 21384-2
ISO/TC 20/SC 16
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on:
Part 2:
2021-09-08
UAS components
Voting terminates on:
2021-11-03
IMPORTANT — Please use this updated version dated 2021-08-25,
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
and discard any previous version of this FDIS.
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 21384-2:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 General design requirements for UAS ............................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Function and reliability ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.2 Components ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Maintainability and supportability ....................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3.2 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3.3 Support ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Fatigue durability .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Aircraft identification features .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.6 Transportation, storage and packaging ............................................................................................................................. 6

6 Aircraft structures .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Damage tolerance assessment .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 UA construction ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Moving parts ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.5 Attached parts ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Propulsion ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Propulsion risk management ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Engines and motors ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2.2 Mounting and installation ........................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2.3 Combustion engines...................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.4 Electric motors .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.5 Electronic speed controller (ESC) requirements ................................................................................. 9

7.3 Thrust mechanisms ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3.1 Propellers and rotors ................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Turbine and fans ...........................................................................................................................................................10

8 Electrical systems .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Electrical Safety ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Airborne electrical systems ......................................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Ground electrical systems ..........................................................................................................................................................10

8.4.1 UAS electrical components on the ground ..............................................................................................10

8.4.2 RPS power system .......................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.3 Labelling ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Energy sources .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Batteries .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1.2 Protective measures ........................................................................................................................................... ........11

9.1.3 Precautions ........................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Combustible fuels ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Fuel cells ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.3.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-2:2021(E)

9.3.2 General safety requirements ..............................................................................................................................12

9.3.3 Protective measures ........................................................................................................................................... ........12

10 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

10.1 Avionic equipment (general) ...................................................................................................................................................12

10.2 Flight control system (FCS) .......................................................................................................................................................13

10.2.1 General requirement .................................................................................................................................................13

10.2.2 Flight control hardware ..........................................................................................................................................13

10.2.3 Flight control software ............................................................................................................................................14

10.2.4 Course accuracy .............................................................................................................................................................14

10.2.5 Airspeed ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

10.3 Flight control actuators ................................................................................................................................................................15

10.4 Diagnostics ..............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.5 Navigation systems ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

10.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.5.2 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver ......................................................................15

10.5.3 Real time kinematic (RTK) augmentation ..............................................................................................15

10.5.4 Inertial measurement unit (IMU) ...................................................................................................................16

10.5.5 Magnetic compass........................................................................................................................................................16

10.6 Attitude sensors ..................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.6.1 Altimeter ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

10.6.2 Airspeed sensor .............................................................................................................................................................16

10.6.3 Optical sensor ..................................................................................................................................................................17

10.7 Hardware and software redundancy ................................................................................................................................17

10.8 Failure modes ........................................................................................................................................................................................17

11 C2 Link ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.1 Performance and design ..............................................................................................................................................................18

11.2 Antenna module design ................................................................................................................................................................18

11.3 Operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.4 Monitoring ...............................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.5 Protocol ......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.6 Data features ..........................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

11.6.2 UA status data ..................................................................................................................................................................19

11.6.3 Delay requirements ....................................................................................................................................................19

11.7 Reliability requirements ..............................................................................................................................................................19

11.8 Security requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................20

12 Remote pilot station .......................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.2 Features ......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.2.2 Data monitoring systems requirements ...................................................................................................20

12.3 Design requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................20

12.3.1 System ....................................................................................................................................................................................20

12.3.2 Structure ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

12.3.3 Human factors engineering and ergonomics design .....................................................................21

12.4 Functional requirements .............................................................................................................................................................21

12.4.1 Mission planning ...........................................................................................................................................................21

12.4.2 Data link control ............................................................................................................................................................21

12.4.3 Flight Control Commands .....................................................................................................................................21

12.5 Displays ......................................................................................................................................................................................................22

12.5.1 Instrumentation ............................................................................................................................................................22

12.5.2 Readability .........................................................................................................................................................................22

12.5.3 Accuracy ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

12.5.4 Warnings, cautions, and advisories ..............................................................................................................22

12.5.5 Display/interface failures......................................................................................................................................22

12.5.6 Track and parameter display .............................................................................................................................23

12.5.7 C2 Link status display ...............................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-2:2021(E)

12.5.8 Telemetry parameter record ..............................................................................................................................23

12.6 Performance requirements .......................................................................................................................................................23

12.6.1 Environmental adaptability ................................................................................................................................23

12.6.2 Reliability ............................................................................................................................................................................24

12.7 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................24

12.8 Collision avoidance (CA) systems ........................................................................................................................................24

13 Payload.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

13.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................24

13.2 Safety marking......................................................................................................................................................................................25

13.3 Wiring design ........................................................................................................................................................................................25

13.4 Payload power supply ....................................................................................................................................................................25

13.5 Storage requirement .......................................................................................................................................................................25

14 Airworthiness .......................................................................................................................................................................................................25

14.1 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................25

14.1.1 Instructions .......................................................................................................................................................................25

14.1.2 Manuals and handbooks ........................................................................................................................................25

14.1.3 Procedural changes ....................................................................................................................................................26

14.2 Composition of an operator’s manual ..............................................................................................................................26

14.2.1 Technical specifications ..........................................................................................................................................26

14.2.2 Flight performance .....................................................................................................................................................26

14.2.3 Aircraft weights..............................................................................................................................................................26

14.2.4 Flight control accuracy ............................................................................................................................................26

14.2.5 Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................................................27

14.2.6 Atmospheric and other environments adaptability .......................................................................27

14.3 Electromagnetic compatibility considerations ........................................................................................................27

14.4 Noise .............................................................................................................................................................................................................27

14.5 Built-in test and monitoring .....................................................................................................................................................27

14.6 System safety program ..................................................................................................................................................................28

14.6.1 Selection of design materials .............................................................................................................................28

14.6.2 Properties and processes ......................................................................................................................................28

14.6.3 Mass properties .............................................................................................................................................................28

14.6.4 Corrosion .............................................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.5 Material limitations ....................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.6 Fire hazards .......................................................................................................................................................................29

14.6.7 Equipment separation ........................................................................................................................................... ...29

15 UAS software ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

15.1 Software architecture and design ........................................................................................................................................29

15.2 Safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................30

15.3 Security .......................................................................................................................................................................................................30

15.4 Software compliance .............................................................

...

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