Safety of toys — Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

ISO 8124-4:2014 specifies requirements and test methods for activity toys for domestic family use intended for children under 14 years to play on or in. Products covered by ISO 8124-4:2014 include swings, slides, seesaws, carousels, rocking toys, climbing frames, fully enclosed toddler swing seats and other products intended to bear the mass of one or more children. Inflatable activity toys are included in the scope of ISO 8124-4:2014.

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 4: Balançoires, glissoires et jouets à activité similaire à usage domestique familial intérieur et extérieur

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Oct-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
06-Mar-2020
Completion Date
06-Mar-2020
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-4
Second edition
2014-10-01
Safety of toys —
Part 4:
Swings, slides and similar activity
toys for indoor and outdoor family
domestic use
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 4: Balançoires, glissoires et jouets à activité similaire à usage
domestique familial intérieur et extérieur
Reference number
ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

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ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Barriers .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.3 Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways .....................................................................................................................11

4.4 Entrapment .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Stability of activity toys other than slides, swings and toys with crossbeams .............................14

4.6 Slides .............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

4.7 Swings ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.8 Seesaws ......................................................................................................................................................................................................21

4.9 Carousels and rocking toys ........................................................................................................................................................22

4.10 Inflatable activity toys ...................................................................................................................................................................22

4.11 Paddling pools ......................................................................................................................................................................................24

5 Warnings and labelling ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

5.1 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.2 Assembly and installation instructions ..........................................................................................................................25

5.3 Maintenance instructions ...........................................................................................................................................................26

5.4 Warnings ...................................................................................................................................................................................................27

6 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.1 Stability .......................................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.2 Static strength .......................................................................................................................................................................................37

6.3 Dynamic strength of barriers and handrails ..............................................................................................................38

6.4 Determination of impact from swing elements .......................................................................................................39

6.5 Test for head and neck entrapment ...................................................................................................................................42

6.6 Toggle test ................................................................................................................................................................................................47

6.7 Test for protrusions .........................................................................................................................................................................50

6.8 Durability test for suspension connectors and means of suspension ..................................................53

6.9 Deflation of inflatable activity toys .....................................................................................................................................55

6.10 Static load test for paddling pools with non-inflatable walls ......................................................................55

Annex A (informative) Rationale ...........................................................................................................................................................................56

Annex B (informative) Consumer information sheet for playground surfacing materials .......................60

Annex C (informative) Safety labelling guidelines for certain types of activity toys .......................................61

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first.edition (ISO 8124-4:2010) and amendment 1

(ISO 8124-4:2010/Amd.1:2012). This edition incorporates the amendments ISO 8124-4:2010/Amd.1:2012

and ISO 8124-4:2010/Amd.2:2014.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

— Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
— Part 2: Flammability
— Part 3: Migration of certain elements

— Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

— Part 6: Certain phthalate esters in toys and children’s products
— Part 8: Age determination guidelines
The following parts are under preparation:
— Part 5: Determination of total concentration of certain elements in toys
— Part 7: Requirements and test methods for finger paints
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 8124 is largely based upon existing standards in the European Union (EN 71-8) and in

the United States (ASTM F1148).

However, it should not be construed that a toy manufactured in compliance with this part of ISO 8124

will be in full compliance with relevant national toy safety requirements in the market where the

product is intended to be distributed. The user of this part of ISO 8124 is therefore advised to be aware

of relevant national requirements.

Compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124 will minimize potential hazards associated

with toys resulting from their use in their intended play modes (normal use) as well as unintended play

modes (reasonable foreseeable abuse).

This part of ISO 8124 will not, nor is it intended to, eliminate parental responsibility in the appropriate

selection of toys. In addition, this part of ISO 8124 will not eliminate the need for parental supervision

in situations where children of various ages may have access to the same toy(s).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 4:
Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and
outdoor family domestic use
1 Scope

This part of ISO 8124 specifies requirements and test methods for activity toys for domestic family use

intended for children under 14 years to play on or in.

Products covered by this part of ISO 8124 include swings, slides, seesaws, carousels, rocking toys,

climbing frames, fully enclosed toddler swing seats and other products intended to bear the mass of one

or more children.
Products not included within the scope of this part of ISO 8124 are:
a) fitness and sporting equipment unless attached to the activity toy;

b) equipment intended for use in schools, day care centres, kindergartens, public playgrounds,

restaurants, shopping centres and similar public places;

c) juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, playpens/enclosures, beds or furniture

including picnic tables, cradle rockers and products specifically designed for therapeutic use.

Inflatable activity toys are included in the scope of this part of ISO 8124. However, a powered blower

used to continuously inflate the toy is not covered by this part of ISO 8124 since it is considered to be a

household appliance and covered by requirements given in IEC 60335-2-80.
See A.1.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8124-1, Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8124-1 and the following apply.

3.1
activity toy

toy intended for family domestic use, intended to bear the mass of one or more children, the support

structure of which remains stationary while the activity is taking place and which is intended for the

performance by a child of any of the following activities: climbing, swinging, sliding, rocking, spinning,

jumping, bouncing, crawling and creeping, or any combination thereof
EXAMPLE Swings, slides, carousels and climbing frames (see Figure 1).

Note 1 to entry: Aquatic toys, paddling pools, trampolines and ride-on vehicles are not considered as activity toys

in the context of this part of ISO 8124.
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
“Not to scale”
Figure 1 — Examples of activity toys
3.2
anchor
device used to fix the toy to the ground surface
3.3
attachment slide

slide for which access to the starting section is possible only by passing via other equipment or parts of

other equipment
3.4
barrier
device intended to prevent children from falling from elevated surfaces
3.5
crossbeam
bar or beam which forms a main load-bearing part of the toy
3.6
entrapment

condition in which a body, part of a body or clothing becomes caught and impedes withdrawal

3.7
forced movement

movement where the direction and the extent of the child’s movement is determined by the operation of

the equipment, for example swinging, sliding, rocking or revolving
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
3.8
free height of fall

greatest vertical distance from the intended body support, for example from the seat of a swing to the

impact area below
3.9
free space

space in, on or around the activity toy that can be occupied by a user undergoing a forced movement by

the equipment, for example swinging, sliding, rocking or revolving

Note 1 to entry: The definition of free space does not include the three-dimensional area in which a falling

movement takes place.
3.10
fully enclosed toddler swing seats

fully enclosed single occupancy swing intended for young children who can sit upright unaided

Note 1 to entry: A seat is considered fully enclosed when a containment system is employed to support the child

on all sides and in between the legs (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 — Examples of fully enclosed toddler swing seat
3.11
impact area

area of a swing element that comes into contact with the test mass during an impact test in accordance

with 6.4 (determination of impact from swing elements)
3.12
infant swing

stationary unit with a frame and a powered mechanism enabling an infant to swing in a seated position

Note 1 to entry: An infant swing is intended for use with infants from birth until the child is able to sit upright unassisted.

3.13
handrail
rail intended to assist the users to balance or steady themselves
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
3.14
platform

any elevated substantially horizontal surface intended to be used by a child as a place for play or as a

transition between components

Note 1 to entry: Slide starting sections less than 129 000 mm are not considered platforms.

3.15
slide
structure with inclined surface(s) on which the user slides in a defined track
See Figure 3.

Note 1 to entry: Note1 to entry: Inclined planes, designed primarily for other purposes, such as roofs and ramps,

do not constitute slides.
Key
A starting section
B sliding section
C run-out section
D height of slide
B+ C slide length

NOTE The dimensions A, B, and C are measured at the centreline of the sliding surface. Each of these sizes

represents one of the zones of the sliding surface. Each zone of the sliding surface is determined by the intersection

of the curve of the sliding surface (taken at the bottom of the sliding surface) and the bisecting line of the angle

formed between the zones of the sliding surfaces.
Figure 3 — Diagrammatic representation of a slide
3.16
suspension connector
device that forms the direct contact between a crossbeam and the swing device
See Figure 4.
3.17
swing

structure, normally intended to be attached to or incorporating a crossbeam, suspension connectors

and a swing device with swing element, means of suspension and suspension coupling

See Figure 4.
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Key
1 crossbeam/support member
2 suspension connector
3 suspension coupling
4 means of suspension
5 swing device
6 swing element (e.g. seat, rings, bar, gondola)
Figure 4 — Diagrammatic representation of a swing
3.18
inflatable activity toy

activity toy, with a structure made of flexible material, inflated by air, intended for children to play on or in

EXAMPLE Bouncy castle, inflatable slides (see Figure 5).

Note 1 to entry: There are two types of inflatable activity toys: one is kept inflated by a closure (valve) once

inflated; the other is kept inflated only by the continuous input of air from a blower.

Figure 5 — Examples of inflatable activity toys
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
3.19
paddling pool

toy pool with a maximum depth of water of 400 mm measured between the overflow level and the

deepest point within the pool

Note 1 to entry: A permanently installed pool would not be considered to be a toy.

Note 2 to entry: Examples of typical paddling pools can be found in the guidance document on the application

of the European directive on the safety of toys (2009/48/EC), (http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/toys/

files/gd_doc8pools_en.pdf).
4 Requirements
4.1 General
See A.4.1.
4.1.1 Static strength

Activity toys, other than swings, shall not collapse when tested in accordance with 6.2.1 (strength of

toys other than swings). After testing, the toy shall continue to comply with the relevant requirements

of this part of ISO 8124. Requirements for swings are given in 4.7 (swings).
4.1.2 Maximum height
See A.4.1.2.

There shall be no part of the activity toy designed to encourage the child to climb, sit on or stand on, with

a height of 2 500 mm or more when measured from the ground.

This does not include barriers, roofs, etc., that are not intended to be climbed, sat on or stood on.

Barriers, roofs, etc., that are not intended to be climbed shall be designed in such a way that climbing is

not encouraged.
4.1.3 Corners and edges
See A.4.1.3.
Exposed corners and edges shall be rounded.

Corners and exposed edges on moving parts shall have a minimum radius of 3 mm. This does not apply

to swing elements with a mass of 1 000 g or less, the corners and edges of which shall be rounded.

4.1.4 Protruding parts
4.1.4.1 General

Protruding parts (such as bolt ends and nuts) shall be recessed or be protected in such a way that they

do not constitute an entrapment hazard or other hazard to users.

If protrusions cannot be placed within the 50 mm outside diameter test gauge defined in 6.7.1 (all protrusions),

they are considered to be inaccessible and are exempted from these requirements (see Figure 6).

Rope protrusions are specifically exempted from the requirements of 4.1.4.
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 inaccessible protrusion (excluded)
2 test gauge (50 mm diameter)
Figure 6 — Example of excluded protrusion
4.1.4.2 All protrusions

No protrusion shall extend beyond the full depth of the test gauges when tested in accordance with 6.7.1.

No protrusion shall terminate in a dimension greater than that of the base dimension (see Figure 7). In

the case of hardware, the base dimension shall be defined as the major dimension of the attachment nut

or bolt head.
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Key
Pass (y ≤ x).
Fail (y > x).
Figure 7 — Examples of protrusion configurations
4.1.4.3 Upright protrusions

Protrusions that fit within any of the gauges defined in 6.7.1 and that project upwards from a horizontal

plane shall have no projection perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface

extending more than 3 mm in height (see Figure 8).

For example, the hemispherical ends of bolts are exempt from this requirement because they do not

project perpendicular to the plane of the initial surface.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key

Protrusions that project perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface with the axis

inclined upward from the horizontal plane shall comply with the 3 mm maximum requirement.

Hemispherical end exempted from the 3 mm maximum requirement.

Protrusions with axis horizontal or below horizontal shall not extend beyond the face of the test gauges

defined in 6.7.1.
Horizontal plane.

Protrusions that project at an obtuse angle to the plane of the initial surface are exempt from the 3 mm

maximum requirement.
Figure 8 — Upright protrusion test
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
4.1.4.4 Motion rides

Protrusions on the front and rear surfaces of suspended members of swinging elements and those on

the interior surface of slides shall not protrude beyond the full depth of the test gauge when tested in

accordance with 6.7.2 (protrusions in motion rides).
4.1.4.5 Slides

Slides, including protective barriers and their means of attachment, and transition areas pose a greater

risk of entrapment than other areas of play equipment. Therefore, the following requirements apply to

slides and sliding devices.

Any accessible protrusion that allows the 77 mm test gauge defined in 6.7.1.2 to pass over it shall have

no projection perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface extending more than

3 mm. The areas subject to this requirement are outlined in Figure 9. The outside surface of tunnel slides

that are completely enclosed are exempt from this requirement.
Dimensions in millimetres
R535
R535
R535
Key
1 sliding surface 4 starting section
2 shaded areas representing non-entrapment/ 5 run-out section
protrusion zone
3 standing height 6 slide side rail
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Pass (3 mm or less).
Fail (more than 3 mm).
Figure 9 — Non-entrapment/protrusion zone and protrusion examples

Slides shall be constructed in such a way as to provide a smooth continuous sliding surface with no gaps

or spaces that might create an entrapment hazard such as, but not limited to, the space created between

sidewalls when two single slides are combined to create a doubly wide slide, or the point where a hood

is attached to the sidewalls of a slide. Roller slides are exempt from the requirements of this subclause.

See 4.6.4 (roller slides) for specific requirements for roller slides.
4.1.5 Climbing and swinging ropes, chains and cables
See A.4.1.5.

A suspended climbing rope, chain or cable shall be secured at both ends to prevent the rope, chain or

cable from being looped back on itself creating a loop with an interior perimeter of 130 mm (diameter

41,4 mm) or more.

A rope, chain or cable used to support a swing seat is exempt from these requirements.

4.1.6 Open tubing

All open tubing ends that are not resting on the ground or otherwise covered shall be provided with

caps or plugs that have a smooth finish and are tight-fitting. The protective cap or cover shall not become

detached when tested in accordance with the torque test and the tension test for protective components

specified in ISO 8124-1.
4.2 Barriers
See A.4.2.

Any platform intended for sitting or standing 760 mm or more above the ground shall be equipped with

a barrier on all sides that face outward from the toy.

Openings in barriers to give access to slides, climbing frames and ladders are allowed.

Barriers for platforms from 760 mm to 1 000 mm above the ground shall have a minimum height of 630 mm.

Barriers for platforms greater than 1 000 mm and up to 1 830 mm above the ground shall have a

minimum height of 720 mm.

Barriers for platforms more than 1 830 mm above the ground shall have a minimum height of 840 mm.

Barriers for platforms from 760 mm to 1 000 mm above the ground shall have a maximum vertical

opening of 610 mm between the lowermost member of the barrier and the platform that it surrounds.

Barriers for platforms more than 1 000 mm above the ground shall be designed to minimize the

likelihood of climbing. Openings within these barriers or between the barrier and the platform surface

shall not permit the passage of the torso probe defined in 6.5.1 (head and neck entrapment in completely

bound openings).

For barriers with an uneven top design, a straightedge of (200 ± 5) mm shall be used for measuring

minimum height. Place the straightedge horizontally on top of the barrier. Measure the vertical distance

between the platform and the bottom of the straightedge. The distance shall in no place be less than the

minimum heights specified in this part of ISO 8124.

NOTE Special requirements apply to slides (see 4.6.2 (retaining sides for slides) and 4.6.3 (starting, sliding

and run-out section on slides)).
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)

When tested in accordance with 6.3 (dynamic strength of barriers and handrails), no part of the

barrier or handrail shall collapse, such that the toy does not comply with the relevant requirements of

this part of ISO 8124.
4.3 Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways

These requirements do not apply to toys with a platform height of 600 mm or less.

Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways shall comply with the following requirements.

a) The rung or tread shall have a substantial horizontal stepping surface with a lateral width of 240 mm

or more (see Figure 10).

b) The distance between the upper surface of the rungs or treads on rung ladders or stepladders

shall not be more than 310 mm and on stairways not more 230 mm when measured vertically in

accordance with Figure 10.
c) The surface of the tread shall not be slippery.

NOTE This can be achieved by corrugation of the tread or by use of non-slip materials.

d) The diameter or cross-sectional dimension of the rungs on rung ladders shall be at least 16 mm but

not more than 45 mm. Care should be taken when using designs other than circular cross-sections

to ensure that gripping potential is not seriously impaired.

e) The depth of treads on stepladders with closed risers or stairways shall be 180 mm or more.

f) The inclination of stairways shall not be more than 50°. The inclination of stepladders shall not be

less than 65° and not more than 75°. The inclination of rung ladders shall not be less than 60° and

not more than 90°.

g) Stairways and stepladders with a height of 1 200 mm or more above the ground shall be provided

with a means of continuous hand support from a height of 760 mm (see Figure 10).
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ISO 8124-4:2014(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
≥240
Key
Angle of inclination:
- for stepladders ≥ 65° and ≤ 75°;
- for rung ladders ≥ 60° and ≤ 90°
Figure 10 — Dimensions of ladders
4.4 Entrapment
See A.4.4.
4.4.1 Head and neck entrapment

These requirements do not apply to openings where the ground forms the lower boundary.

Activity toys shall be constructed
...

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