Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 2: System boundary and inventory data

ISO 13315-2:2014 provides a general framework, principles, and requirements related to the determination of system boundaries and the acquisition of inventory data necessary for conducting a life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete, precast concrete, and concrete structures.

Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton — Partie 2: Limite du système et données d'inventaire

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Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Apr-2014
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
24-Sep-2021
Completion Date
24-Sep-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13315-2
First edition
2014-05-01
Environmental management for
concrete and concrete structures —
Part 2:
System boundary and inventory data
Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton —
Partie 2: Limite du système et données d’inventaire
Reference number
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 System boundary .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Constituents............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel ........................................................................................................................................ 7

4.4 Formwork, falsework, and machinery ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.5 Concrete ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.6 Precast concrete ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Execution of concrete structures ..........................................................................................................................................11

4.8 Use of concrete structures .........................................................................................................................................................13

4.9 End phase of concrete and concrete structures ......................................................................................................14

5 Inventory data ......................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.2 Constituents............................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel .....................................................................................................................................21

5.4 Formwork, falsework, and machinery .............................................................................................................................22

5.5 Production of concrete ..................................................................................................................................................................23

5.6 Execution of concrete structures ..........................................................................................................................................24

5.7 Use of concrete structures .........................................................................................................................................................25

5.8 End phase of concrete and concrete structures ......................................................................................................26

6 Critical review and its storage .............................................................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed

concrete, Subcommittee SC 8, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures.

ISO 13315 consists of the following parts, under the general title Environmental management for concrete

and concrete structures:
— Part 1: General principles
— Part 2: System boundary and inventory data

NOTE The ISO 13315 series provides specifications for concrete and ensures consistency with the

existing environmental ISO 14000 series, ISO 15392, ISO 21930, etc.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Environmental management for concrete and concrete
structures —
Part 2:
System boundary and inventory data
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13315 provides a general framework, principles, and requirements related to the

determination of system boundaries and the acquisition of inventory data necessary for conducting a

life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete, precast concrete, and concrete structures.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13315-1, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 1: General principles

ISO 14025, Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and

procedures
ISO 14050, Environmental management — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13315-1 and ISO 14050 and

the following apply.
3.1
data collection boundary

boundary between the region, within which data shall be collected, and another region

3.2
input
resources, energy, materials, or components which enter a product system
3.3
inventory data

set of items that should be considered in an LCA and the corresponding quantitative measurements

3.4
life cycle inventory analysis

phase of LCA involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a given product

system throughout its life cycle
3.5
output

products, byproducts, emissions to air and water, wastes, and other releases which leave a product

system
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
3.6
system boundary

boundary between the system under assessment and the outer region, specifying which unit processes

are part of a product system
3.7
unit-based inventory data
inventory data per unit quantity in time, mass, length, area, volume, etc.
4 System boundary
4.1 General

When conducting an LCA of concrete or a concrete structure, its system boundary shall be demarcated.

Demarcation of a system boundary means defining the range of consideration for the assessment. For

comparison among multiple alternatives, the system boundary shall be the same for all alternatives.

When the acquisition of inventory data are difficult or cost-constrained, the target data can be excluded

from the system boundary, but the exclusion should be expressly indicated.

For system boundary demarcation, the life cycle stages and geographical system ranges to consider

should be appropriately defined.

The system boundary of concrete and concrete structures shall be based on a cradle-to-gate or cradle-

to-grave basis and shall precisely describe what is included in the following activities: production of

cement, water, additions, admixtures, and aggregates, which are constituents of concrete; production

of reinforcing steel; production of concrete; construction of concrete structures; use of concrete

structures; demolition of concrete structures; reuse of concrete members; recycling and disposal of

demolished concrete.

It is not necessary in principle to include in the system boundary the environmental impacts related to

the production of equipment/machinery necessary for the production of concrete or the construction,

use, demolition, and recycling of concrete structures.

When explicit consideration of environmental impacts related to the production of equipment/machinery

is deemed necessary, care shall be taken to eliminate double counting or omissions.

Activities indirectly related to the production of each material or to the construction of concrete

structures, such as sales/administration, might have to be included in the system boundary.

4.2 Constituents
4.2.1 Cement

The system boundary related to the production of cement is generally expressed in Figure 2.

The system boundary for the production of cement shall include the following:

— the processes of quarrying, transporting, and treating raw materials necessary for the production

of clinker;
— transportation of the fuel necessary for the production of clinker;
— transportation of byproducts;
— transportation related to waste-derived fuels;

— all of the processes of material/fuel treatment, calcination, and finishing of cement;

— the process of additional treatment to byproducts used for the production of clinker;

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)

— the process of additional treatment to waste-derived fuels for the production of clinker;

— transportation of cement from cement plants to supply stations (SS).

NOTE 1 The material/fuel treatment process includes crushing and adjustment of the materials/fuels.

NOTE 2 The finishing process includes clinker crushing and addition blending.

The system boundary for the production of cement shall not include transportation of cement from SS

or cement plants to the place of use.
Natural
resources Byproducts
(Limestone,
(Slag, coal
clay, etc.) ash, etc.)
System boundary
Quarrying
Data collection Trans.
Trans.
boundary
Releases
Electricity
Raw materials processing (CO , etc.)
•Crushing
• Pre-homogenization
Utility
• Raw meal grinding
Intermediate
Trans.
Waste treatment plant
Fuels
Final disposal sites
Trans.
Alternative fuels
Clinker production in kiln
Trans.
(Tires, plastics, (Trans.)
• Preheating
biomass, etc.)
• Pre-calcining
•Burning fuel
Finish and storing process
• Cooling
•Grinding
•Blending
•Storing
•Packing
Cement
Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 2 — System boundary of cement production
4.2.2 Additions and admixtures

The system boundary related to the production of additions and admixtures is generally expressed in

Figures 3 and 4, respectively.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
Clinker
Trans.
Slag, fly ash,
natural pozzolans
Trans.
Gypsum
Trans.
•Activities related to sales/administration
•Other related activities in plant operation
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)

The system boundary for the production of additions and admixtures shall include the following:

— transportation and storage of raw materials;

— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of additions and admixtures;

— physicochemical treatment of raw materials at addition and admixture production plants;

— transportation of waste to intermediate treatment sites and/or final disposal sites.

NOTE Since the combinations of raw materials for concrete admixtures widely vary, it is advisable to define

the system boundary based on whether the raw materials are supplied at the expense of the user or the supplier.

Transportation of additions and admixtures from their production plants to the place of use shall not be

included in the system boundary.
Byproducts
(Granulated
blast furnace
slag, byproduct
Natural gypsum,
desulfurized
resources
(Limestone, gypsum, coal
silica stone, ash, silica
gypsum, etc.) fume, etc.)
Trans.
System boundary
Trans. Storage
Data collection
Storage
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Physical/Chemical treatment and/or burning Waste
treatment plant
Final disposal sites
Utility
•Activities related
Releases
Fuels to sales/
Products
(CO , etc.)
Trans.
administration
(Ground granulated blast-furnace
•Other related
slag, fly ash, silica fume, limestone
activities in plant
powder, etc.)
operation
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 3 — System boundary of additions
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Industrial products
(rosin, cornstarch,
caustic soda,
calcium hydroxide,
naphthalene, sulfuric
acid, formalin,
sodium hydroxide,
methanol, ethylene
oxide, methacrylic
Byproducts
acid, etc.)
(Black liquor,
etc.)
Trans.
System boundary
Trans. Storage
Data collection
Storage
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Physical/Chemical treatment Waste
treatment plant
Final disposal sites
Utility
•Activities related
Releases
Fuels to sales/
Products
(CO , etc.)
Trans.
administration
(Air-entraining agent, water-reducing
•Other related
agent, superplasticizer, etc.)
activities in plant
operation
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 4 — System boundary of admixtures
4.2.3 Aggregate

The system boundary related to the production of aggregate is generally expressed in Figures 5, 6, and 7.

The system boundary for the production of aggregate shall include the following:
— mining and transportation of natural resources;
— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of aggregate;
— all processes related to the production of aggregate;

— transportation of waste generated in the process of aggregate production to intermediate treatment

plants and/or final disposal sites.

The system boundary for the production of aggregate shall not include the following:

— transportation of crushed concrete and byproducts necessary for the production of aggregate;

— transportation of aggregate from aggregate production plants to the place of use.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Natural resources
(Sand, gravel, rock, etc.)
System boundary
Quarrying
Data collection
Trans.
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Production of aggregate Waste treatment plant
• Crushing Final disposal sites
Utility
• Screening
•Washing
•Activities related
Releases
to sales/
Fuels
(CO , etc.)
Trans.
administration
• Other related
activities in plant
Fine aggregate/Coarse aggregate
operation
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 5 — System boundary of natural resource-derived aggregate
Crushed concrete
Trans.
System boundary
Data collection
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Production of aggregate
Waste
treatment plant
• Crushing
Final disposal sites
Utility
• Screening
•(Washing)
•Activities related
Releases
Fuels
to sales/
(CO , etc.)
Trans. 2
administration
• Other related
activities in plant
Recycled fine aggregate/
operation
Recycled coarse aggregate
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 6 — System boundary of recycled aggregate
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Byproducts
(Slags)
Trans.
System boundary
Data collection
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Production of aggregate
Waste
treatment plant
• Crushing
Final disposal sites
Utility
• Screening
•(Washing)
Releases
Fuels
(CO , etc.)
Trans. 2
•Activities related
to sales/
Byproduct-derived fine
administration
aggregate/
• Other related
Byproduct-derived coarse
activities in plant
aggregate
operation
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 7 — System boundary of byproduct-derived aggregate
4.2.4 Other materials

The system boundary related to the production of other materials such as non-metallic fibres, non-

metallic fibre-reinforced plastics, etc., shall be appropriately set.
4.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel

The system boundary related to the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel is generally

expressed in Figure 8.
NOTE Relevant standards such as ISO 14404-1 and ISO 14404-2 can be used.

The system boundary for the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel shall include the following:

— transportation of raw materials;

— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel;

— all processes related to the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel;

— transportation of waste generated in the process of reinforcing and prestressing steel production to

intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites;

— transportation of reinforcing and prestressing steel from plants to supply stations (SS).

Transportation of reinforcing and prestressing steel from the production plants or SS to the place of use

shall not be included in the system boundary.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Natural
resources Byproducts
Trans.
System boundary
Trans. Storage
Data collection
Storage
boundary
Intermediate
Trans.
Electricity
Production of reinforcing &
Waste
treatment plant
prestressing steel
Final disposal sites
Utility
•Activities related
to sales/
Releases
Fuels
administration
(CO , etc.)
Trans. 2
• Other related
Reinforcing & prestressing
activities in plant
steel
operation
Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 8 — System boundary of reinforcing and prestressing steel
4.4 Formwork, falsework, and machinery

The system boundary related to the production of formwork/falsework components and machinery is

generally expressed in Figure 9.

The system boundary for the production of formwork/falsework components and machinery shall

include the following:
— transportation of natural resources;

— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of formwork/falsework components and

machinery;

— all processes related to the production of formwork/falsework components and machinery;

— transportation of waste generated in the process of the production of formwork/falsework

components and machinery to the intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites;

— transportation of formwork/falsework components and machinery from their production plants to

supply stations (SS).

The system boundary for the production of formwork/falsework components and machinery shall not

include the following:

— transportation of formwork/falsework components and machinery from their production plants or

SS to the place of use;

— transportation of byproducts used for production of formwork/falsework components and

machinery.
8 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Natural Industrial
Byproducts
resources products
Trans.
System boundary
Trans. Trans. Storage
Data collection
Storage Storage
boundary
Electricity Intermediate
Trans.
Production of formwork/falsework
Waste
treatment plant
components & machinery
Final disposal sites
Utility
•Activities related
Fuels to sales/
Releases
Trans.
administration
(CO , etc.)
Formwork/falsework components &
•Other related
machinery
activities in plant
operation
Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
User

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 9 — System boundary of formwork/falsework components, and machinery
4.5 Concrete

The system boundary related to the production of concrete is generally expressed in Figure 10.

The system boundary for the production of concrete shall include the following:
— transportation and storage of constituents;
— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of concrete;
— all processes related to the production of fresh concrete;

— in-plant treatment of waste generated in the production/supply process of concrete and

transportation of such waste to intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites.

Transportation of concrete from production plants to the place of use shall not be included in the system

boundary.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Additions and
Cement Water Aggregate
admixtures
System boundary
Trans. (Trans.) Trans. Trans.
Data collection
Storage (Storage) Storage Storage
boundary
Intermediate
Sludge Waste
treatment plant
Electricity
Production of concrete
Trans.
Final disposal sites
• Measuring
• Batching
Utility
Reusable water and
•Mixing
Aggregates
Releases
Fuels (CO , etc.)
Trans.
•Activities related to sales/
administration
Ready-mixed concrete
•Other related activities in
plant operation
Trans.
Construction sites
Precast concrete plants

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 10 — System boundary of concrete production
4.6 Precast concrete

The system boundary related to the production of precast concrete is generally expressed in Figure 11.

The system boundary for the production of precast concrete shall include the following:

— transportation and storage of constituents;
— transportation of fuels necessary for the production of precast concrete;
— all processes related to the production of fresh concrete;

— in-plant treatment of waste generated in the production/supply process of concrete and

transportation of such waste to intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites;

— in the production of precast concrete, the placement, consolidation, curing, and demoulding of

concrete.

Transportation of precast concrete from production plants to the place of use shall not be included in

the system boundary.
10 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Ready-mixed concrete
Reinforcing &
Additions and
prestressing steel
Forms Cement Water Aggregate admixtures
System boundary
Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans.
Data
Storage Storage Storage
Storage
collection
Intermediate
boundary
Sludge Waste treatment plant
Production of concrete
Trans.
Electricity Final disposal sites
• Measuring
• Batching
Reusable water and
• Mixing
Utility
Aggregates
Releases
Fuels
(CO , etc.)
Trans.
Production of precast concrete
• Placing (Form assembly, arrangement of reinforcement)
• Curing
• Demolding
•Activities related to
sales/ administration
•Other related
activities in plant
Precast concrete
operation
Trans.
Construction sites

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities in plant operation might have

to be considered.
Figure 11 — System boundary of precast concrete production
4.7 Execution of concrete structures
4.7.1 Composing items

The system boundary related to the execution of concrete structures is generally expressed in Figure 12.

The execution of concrete structures is composed of
— earthwork and foundation work,
— formwork,
— reinforcement work,
— concreting work, and
— waste treatment.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 13315-2:2014(E)
Form panel, timbers,
Ready-mixed concrete
form ties, etc.
Reinforcing &
Heavy equipment Scaffolding
Piles Precast concrete
and machinery materials
prestressing steel
System boundary
Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans. Trans.
Data Storage Storage
collection
Earth work process
boundary
Waste
Electricity
•Soil
•Solid waste
Foundation work process
Utility •Dust
•Waste water
•Used form
Fuels
•Steel waste
Trans.
Form work process
•Concrete waste
Waste treatment
Reinforcement work process
Intermediate
•Collection
• Cutting
treatment plant
• Segregation
•Bending
•Storage of waste Final disposal sites
• Assembling
Concrete work process
Releases
•Placement and consolidation of ready-mixed concrete (CO , etc.)
•Form removal and curing of concrete
•Placement of precast concrete
•Activities related to sales/ administration
•Other related activities in plant operation
Reinforced concrete structure

NOTE Activities related to sales/administration and/or other related activities might have to be considered.

Figure 12 — System boundary of execution of concrete structures
4.7.2 Earthwork and foundation work

The system boundary related to the earthwork and foundation work shall include the following:

— transportation of scaffolding materials, piles, and other materials to the construction site;

— assembly of scaffolding materials for earthwork and foundation work;

— transportation, storage, and operation of heavy equipment and machinery necessary for earthwork

and foundation work.
4.7.3 Formwork
The system boundary related to the formwork shall include the following:
— tr
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 13315-2
ISO/TC 71/SC 8 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on Voting terminates on
2013-05-17 2013-08-17

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ • ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Environmental management for concrete and concrete
structures —
Part 2:
System boundary and inventory data
Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton —
Partie 2: Limite du système et données d'inventaire
ICS 13.020.10; 91.080.40; 91.100.30

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee

secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at

publication stage.

Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au

Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO

WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN NATIONAL REGULATIONS.

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
© International Organization for Standardization, 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13315-2
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission.

Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 13315-2
Contents Page

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 System boundary ...................................................................................................................................2

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................2

4.2 Constituents ...........................................................................................................................................2

4.2.1 Cement ....................................................................................................................................................2

4.2.2 Additions and admixtures .....................................................................................................................3

4.2.3 Aggregate ...............................................................................................................................................4

4.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel ......................................................................................................6

4.4 Formwork, falsework and machinery ..................................................................................................7

4.5 Concrete .................................................................................................................................................7

4.6 Precast concrete ....................................................................................................................................8

4.7 Execution of concrete structures .........................................................................................................9

4.7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................9

4.7.2 Earthwork and piling work ................................................................................................................. 10

4.7.3 Form work ............................................................................................................................................ 10

4.7.4 Reinforcement work ........................................................................................................................... 11

4.7.5 Concreting work.................................................................................................................................. 11

4.7.6 Waste treatment .................................................................................................................................. 11

4.8 Use of concrete structures ................................................................................................................ 11

4.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.8.2 Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 12

4.8.3 Maintenance and remedial activity ................................................................................................... 12

4.9 End phase of concrete and concrete structures ............................................................................. 13

4.9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.9.2 Demolition work .................................................................................................................................. 13

4.9.3 Intermediate treatment ....................................................................................................................... 13

4.9.4 Final disposal ...................................................................................................................................... 14

5 Inventory data ..................................................................................................................................... 14

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.2 Constituents ........................................................................................................................................ 15

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.2.2 Cement ................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.2.3 Additions and admixtures .................................................................................................................. 17

5.2.4 Aggregate ............................................................................................................................................ 18

5.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel ................................................................................................... 19

5.4 Formwork, falsework and machinery ............................................................................................... 21

5.5 Production of concrete ...................................................................................................................... 22

5.6 Execution of concrete structures ...................................................................................................... 23

5.7 Use of concrete structures ................................................................................................................ 24

5.8 End phase of concrete and concrete structures ............................................................................. 26

6 Critical review and its storage ........................................................................................................... 27

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ISO/DIS 13315-2
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13315-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and

prestressed concrete, Subcommittee SC 8, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures.

ISO 13315 consists of the following parts, under the general title Environmental management for concrete and

concrete structures:
 Part 1: General principles
 Part 2: System boundary and inventory data
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ISO/DIS 13315-2
Introduction

Concrete is a material that is indispensable for the construction of infrastructure including civil structures and

buildings. Massive amounts of resources are used for construction of this infrastructure and large amounts of

concrete rubble are generated when these structures are demolished. Concrete can therefore be regarded as

a material having a critical impact on the formation of a recycling-based society from the aspect of not only

resource consumption but also future waste generation. Meanwhile, a significant amount of CO , a

greenhouse gas, is discharged from activities related to architecture and civil engineering. Various documents

indicate that concrete sector is emitting 5 to 10% of the global CO by producing and conveying cement and

concrete and by construction of concrete structures. On the other hand, concrete can absorb CO . Concrete

should therefore play an important role for solving the resource recycling and global warming problems.

Consideration should also be given to the emission of air pollutants, noise, vibration, etc. during transportation

of materials and concrete, and the construction and demolition of concrete structures.

Application of optimum environmental load-mitigating techniques and use of environmentally-conscious

products are important issues for concrete structures at each stage of their lifecycle -- the production of

cement and aggregate, the production and transportation of concrete, and the construction, use, and

demolition of concrete structures. To meet these requirements, it is necessary to compare the environmental

loads resulting from different concretes and also the structural forms, using lifecycle inventory analysis (LCI)

and lifecycle assessment (LCA). LCI and LCA should be conducted under the same conditions. In other

words, it is important to clearly define a temporal and geographical system range for assessment, and

quantitatively grasp the types and amounts of resources, energy, constituents, and components input into the

range, as well as the products and structures output as a result of activities within the range, and also the

byproducts, waste, and other releases discharged. As shown in Figure 1, the boundary between the system

under assessment and the outer region is referred to as a ‘system boundary,’ and the input/output data

transferred between the assessment system and the outer region are referred to as ‘inventory data.’ When

conducting LCI and LCA, a system boundary should be defined, and inventory data should be quantitatively

developed. ISO 13315-2 provides fundamental rules for defining system boundaries and acquiring inventory

data.
System boundary

Entire lifecycles or respective stages of the lifecycles of concrete & concrete structures

Inventory data (Output)
Production of constituents
Production of concrete
Products, Structures
Transportation of constituents or concrete
Byproducts, Waste substances
Execution of a concrete structure
Inventory data (Input) with environmental impact
Operation of a concrete structure
Maintenance of a concrete structure
Resources & Energy
Remedial activity of a concrete structure
Materials & Components
Demolition of a concrete structure
Transportation of concrete waste
Recycle or disposal of concrete waste
Figure 1 — System boundary and inventory data
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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WORKING DRAFT ISO/CD 13315-2
Environmental management for concrete and concrete
structures — Part 2: System boundary and inventory data
1 Scope

This standard provides a general framework, principles, and requirements related to the determination of

system boundaries and the acquisition of inventory data necessary for conducting a life cycle assessment

(LCA) of concrete, precast concrete and concrete structures.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13315-1, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part1: General principles

ISO 14040, Environmental management — life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044, Environmental management — life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO 14050, Environmental management — Vocabulary

ISO 15686-6, Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning — Part 6: Procedures for considering

environmental impacts

ISO 21930, Sustainability in building construction — Environmental declaration of building products

ISO 21931-1, Sustainability in building construction — Framework for methods of assessment for

environmental performance of construction works — Part 1: Buildings
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and those given in ISO 13315-1 and ISO 14050 apply.

3.1
input
resources, energy, materials or components which enter a product system
3.2
inventory data

a set of items that should be considered in a LCA, and the corresponding quantitative measurements

3.3
life cycle inventory analysis

phase of LCA involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a given product system

throughout its life cycle
3.4
output
products, byproducts, wastes and other releases which leave a product system
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ISO/DIS 13315-2
3.5
system boundary
boundary between the system under assessment and the outer region
3.6
unit-based inventory data
inventory data per unit quantity in time, mass, length, area, volume, etc.
4 System boundary
4.1 General

When conducting an LCA of concrete or a concrete structure, its system boundary shall be demarcated.

Demarcation of a system boundary means defining the range of consideration for the assessment. For

comparison among multiple alternatives, the system boundary shall be the same for all alternatives. When the

acquisition of inventory data is difficult or cost-constrained, the target data may be excluded from the system

boundary, but the exclusion should be expressly indicated.

For system boundary demarcation, the life cycle stages and geographical system ranges to consider should

be appropriately defined.

The system boundary of concrete and concrete structures shall delineate the ranges to be considered in the

following activities: production of cement, water, additions, admixtures and aggregates, which are constituents

of concrete; production of reinforcing steel; production of concrete; construction of concrete structures: use of

concrete structures; demolition of concrete structures; reuse of concrete members; and recycling and disposal

of demolished concrete.

It is not necessary in principle to include in the system boundary the environmental loads related to the

production of equipment/machinery necessary for the production of concrete or the construction, use,

demolition, and recycling of concrete structures.

NOTE When explicit consideration of environmental loads related to the production of equipment/machinery is

deemed necessary, care must be taken to eliminate double counting or omissions.

Activities indirectly related to the production of each material or to the construction of concrete structures,

such as sales/administration shall in principle be included in the system boundary.

4.2 Constituents
4.2.1 Cement

The system boundary related to the production of cement is generally expressed in Figure 2.

The system boundary for the production of cement shall include the following:

 the processes of quarrying, transporting, and treating raw materials necessary for the production of

clinker;
 transportation of the fuel necessary for the production of clinker;

 all of the processes of material/fuel treatment, calcination, and finishing of cement;

 the process of additional treatment to byproducts used for the production of clinker;

 the process of additional treatment to waste-derived fuels for the production of clinker;

 transportation of cement from cement plants to supply stations (SS).

NOTE 1 The material/fuel treatment process includes crushing and adjustment of the materials/fuels.

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ISO/DIS 13315-2
NOTE 2 The finishing process includes clinker crushing and addition blending.

The system boundary for the production of cement shall not include the following:

 transportation of byproducts;
 transportation related to waste-derived fuels;
 transportation of cement from SS or cement plants to the place of use.

NOTE Byproducts for the production of clinker (slag, coal ash, sewage sludge, etc.) are generally supplied to cement

plants at the expense of suppliers.
System boundary
Natural Raw materials processing
Trans.
resources
Quarrying ・Crushing
(Trans.)
・Limestone
・Prehomonization Byproducts*
Trans.
・Clay
・Raw meal grinding
・Others
Activities related to
Clinker production in kiln Trans.
sales/administration (Trans.)
・Preheating
Byproducts**
・Precalcining
・Burning fuel
Other related
Trans.
activities in plant
Clinker
Finish and storing process
operation
・Cooling
Trans.
Slag, FA, Natural pozzolans
・Grinding
・Blending
Trans.
・Storing
Electricity
Gypsum
・Packing
Cement
Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
*slag, fly ash, etc.
Fuels Releases
**tires, plastics, biomass, etc.
(CO , etc.)
Trans.
User
Figure 2 — System boundary of cement production
4.2.2 Additions and admixtures

The system boundary related to the production of additions and admixtures is generally expressed in Figures

3 and 4, respectively.

The system boundary for the production of additions and admixtures shall include the following:

 transportation, and storage of raw materials;
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ISO/DIS 13315-2

 transportation of fuels necessary for the production of additions and admixtures;

 physicochemical treatment of raw materials at addition and admixture production plants;

 transportation of waste to intermediate treatment sites and/or final disposal sites.

NOTE Since the combinations of raw materials for concrete admixtures widely vary, it is advisable to define the

system boundary based on whether the raw materials are supplied at the expense of the user or the supplier.

Transportation of additions and admixtures from their production plants to the place of use shall not be

included in the system boundary.
System boundary
Raw materials Activities related to
Natural resources sales/administration
Products
(lime stone, silica
Trans.
(ground granulated
Storage
stone, gypsum, etc.) User
Physicochemical
Trans.
blast-furnace slag,
treatment
Storage fly ash, silica fume,
Raw materials
lime stone powder
Trans.
Byproducts
etc.)
(granulated blast
Other related
furnace slag, by-
activities
product gypsum, coal
Intermediate
Trans.
ash, desulfurized
treatment plants
Waste
gypsum, silica fume,
Final disposal sites
Trans.
etc.)
Fuels
Electricity
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 3 — System boundary of additions
Raw materials
System boundary
Industrial products
(rosin, cornstarch, caustic
Activities related to
soda, calcium hydroxide,
Products
sales/administration
naphthalene, sulfuric acid,
(air entraining
Trans.
formalin, sodium hydroxide,
agent, air entraining
Storage User
methanol, ethylene oxide,
and water, high-
Physico-
Trans.
methacrylic acid, etc.)
range water
chemical
Storage reducing, air
treatment
Raw materials
entraining and high-
Trans.
Byproducts
range, etc.)
(black liquor, etc.)
Other related
Intermediate
activities
Trans.
Waste
treatment plants
Final disposal sites
Trans.
Fuels
Electricity
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 4 — System boundary of admixtures
4.2.3 Aggregate

The system boundary related to the production of aggregate is generally expressed in Figures 5, 6 and 7.

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ISO/DIS 13315-2
The system boundary for the production of aggregate shall include the following:
 mining and transportation of natural resources;
 transportation of fuels necessary for the production of aggregate;
 all processes related to the production of aggregate;

 transportation of waste generated in the process of aggregate production to intermediate treatment plants

and/or final disposal sites.

The system boundary for the production of aggregate shall not include the following:

 transportation of crushed concrete and byproducts necessary for the production of aggregate;

 transportation of aggregate from aggregate production plants to the place of use.

System boundary
Activities related to
Other related activities
Raw materials
sales/administration
Natural resources
Trans.
(sand, gravel,
Mining Production
Aggregate User
crushed stone,
Trans.
etc.)
aggregate
Storage
Trans. Intermediate treatment plants
Waste
Water Final disposal sites
Trans.
Trans.
Electricity
Fuels
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 5 — System boundary of sand, gravel, and crushed stone
System boundary
Activities related to
Other related activities
sales/administration
Trans. Trans.
Raw materials
User
Production Recycled
Storage
(Crushed
aggregate
concrete)
recycled
aggregate
Trans.
Intermediate treatment plants
Water
Waste
Trans. Final disposal sites
Trans.
Electricity
Fuels
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 6 — System boundary of recycled aggregate
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ISO/DIS 13315-2
System boundary
Activities related to
Other related activities
sales/administration
Trans.
Trans.
Raw materials
Waste-
Production
User
(Byproducts)
Storage derived
of waste-
aggregate
derived
aggregate
Water
Trans.
Intermediate treatment plants
Trans.
Waste
Final disposal sites
Trans.
Electricity
Fuels
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 7 — System boundary of waste-derived aggregate
4.3 Reinforcing and prestressing steel

The system boundary related to the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel is generally expressed in

Figure 8.
NOTE Relevant ISO standards shall as a rule be observed where applicable.

The system boundary for the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel shall include the following:

 transportation of raw materials;

 transportation of fuels necessary for the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel;

 all processes related to the production of reinforcing and prestressing steel;

 transportation of waste generated in the process of reinforcing and prestressing steel production to

intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites;

 transportation of reinforcing and prestressing steel from plants to supply stations (SS).

Transportation of reinforcing and prestressing steel from the production plants or SS to the place of use shall

not be included in the system boundary.
System boundary
Activities related to
Other related activities
Raw materials
sales/administration
(Natural
Trans.
Trans.
resources)
Reinforcing &
Production of
Storage
User
prestressing
reinforcing &
Trans. SS
Raw materials steel Trans. Trans.
prestressing
(Byproducts)
Storage
steel
Trans.
Waste Intermediate treatment plants
Final disposal sites
Trans.
Fuels Electricity
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 8 — System boundary of reinforcing and prestressing steel
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ISO/DIS 13315-2
4.4 Formwork, falsework and machinery

The system boundary related to the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery is generally expressed

in Figure 9.

The system boundary for the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery shall include the following:

 transportation of natural resources;

 transportation of fuels necessary for the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery;

 all processes related to the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery;

 transportation of waste generated in the process of the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery

to the intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites;

 transportation of formwork, falsework, and machinery from their production plants to supply stations (SS).

The system boundary for the production of formwork, falsework, and machinery shall not include the

followings:

 transportation of formwork, falsework, and machinery from their production plants or SS to the place of

use;

 transportation of byproducts used for production of formwork, falsework, and machinery.

System boundary
Raw materials Activities related to
Other related activities
sales/administration
(Natural
resources)
Trans.
Trans.
Formwork,
Production
Storage
falsework, User
Raw materials
Storage
machinery
Trans.
(Byproducts) Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
Trans.
Products
Intermediate treatment plants
Storage
Waste
(Industrial
Final disposal sites
Trans.
products)
Fuels Electricity
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 9 — System boundary of formwork, falsework, and machinery
4.5 Concrete

The system boundary related to the production of concrete is generally expressed in Figure 10.

The system boundary for the production of concrete shall include the following:
 transportation and storage of constituents;
 transportation of fuels necessary for the production of concrete;
 all processes related to the production of fresh concrete;
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ISO/DIS 13315-2

 in-plant treatment of waste generated in the production/supply process of concrete and transportation of

such waste to intermediate treatment plants and/or final disposal sites.

Transportation of concrete from production plants to the place of use shall not be included in the system

boundary.
Electricity Fuel
System boundary
Trans.
Activities related to
Trans.
Water
sales/administration
Production of
Construction sites
concrete
Additions
Concrete
Precast concrete plants
(measuring,
and
Trans.
batching, mixing
admixtures
etc.)
Sludge Waste
Intermediate
Cement
Trans.
treatment plants
Aggregate Final disposal sites
Reusable water
Solid
Releases (CO , etc.)
Figure 10 — System boundary of concrete production
...

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