Information technology — Relayed multicast protocol: Specification for simplex group applications — Part 2:

ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 specifies the relayed multicast protocol part 2 (RMCP-2), an application‑layer protocol that constructs a multicast tree for data delivery from one sender to multiple receivers over an IP-based network, where IP multicast is not fully deployed. RMCP-2 defines relayed multicast data transport capabilities over IP‑based networks for simplex group applications. This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the following: a) descriptions of the entities, control and data delivery models of RMCP-2; b) description of the functions and procedures of multicast agents (MAs) to construct a one-to-many relayed data path and to relay data for simplex communication; c) description of the security features of the basic RMCP-2; and d) definitions of messages and parameters of the basic RMCP-2 and secure RMCP-2. Annex A defines a membership authentication procedure for use with the secure RMCP-2. Annex B provides a method for sharing information among session managers (SMs) when multiple SMs are used. Annexes C‑G provide informative material related to RMCP-2. Annex H contains an informative bibliography.

Technologies de l'information — Protocole de multidiffusion relayé: Spécification relative aux applications de groupe simplex — Partie 2:

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 16512-2
Third edition
2016-04-01
Information technology — Relayed
multicast protocol: Specification for
simplex group applications
Technologies de l'information — Protocole de multidiffusion relayé:
Spécification relative aux applications de groupe simplex
Reference number
ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016(E)
ISO/IEC 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2016

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ii © ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO

list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT),

see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/IEC 16512-2:2011), which has been

technically revised.

ISO/IEC 16512-2 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in

collaboration with ITU-T. The identical text is published as ITU-T X.603.1 (03/2012).

ISO/IEC 16512 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Relayed

multicast protocol:
 Part 1: Framework
 Part 2: Specification for simplex group applications
© ISO/IEC 2016 – All rights reserved ii-1
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CONTENTS
Page

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 References ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Identical Recommendations | International Standards ........................................................................ 1

2.2 Additional references .......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms defined elsewhere ..................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Terms defined in this Recommendation .............................................................................................. 2

4 Abbreviations and acronyms .......................................................................................................................... 3

5 Conventions .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Overview of basic RMCP-2 ................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Overview of secure RMCP-2 .............................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Types of RMCP-2 messages ............................................................................................................... 12

7 Protocol operation for basic RMCP-2 ............................................................................................................ 13

7.1 Session manager's operation ................................................................................................................ 13

7.2 Multicast agent's operation .................................................................................................................. 16

8 Protocol operation for secure RMCP-2 .......................................................................................................... 31

8.1 Session manager's operation ................................................................................................................ 31

8.2 Multicast agent's operation .................................................................................................................. 35

9 RMCP-2 message format ............................................................................................................................... 40

9.1 Common format of RMCP-2 message ................................................................................................ 41

9.2 Control data format ............................................................................................................................. 41

9.3 RMCP-2 messages .............................................................................................................................. 42

9.4 RMCP-2 controls ................................................................................................................................ 64

10 Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................... 84

10.1 Identifications used in RMCP-2 .......................................................................................................... 85

10.2 Code values used in RMCP-2 ............................................................................................................. 85

10.3 Code values for sub-control types ....................................................................................................... 87

10.4 Code values used in control ................................................................................................................ 89

10.5 Code values related to the security policy for a secure RMCP-2 ........................................................ 90

10.6 Timer related parameters ..................................................................................................................... 91

10.7 Data profile used in RMCP-2 .............................................................................................................. 93

Annex A – Membership authentication mechanism .................................................................................................. 95

A.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 95

A.2 Authentication procedure .................................................................................................................... 95

Annex B – Method for sharing session information among multiple SM domains ................................................... 97

B.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 97

B.2 Session information sharing between SMs.......................................................................................... 97

B.3 Supporting session subscription in RMCP-2 between multiple SMs .................................................. 98

B.4 Supporting a session leave in RMCP-2 between multiple SMs .......................................................... 99

B.5 Other operations of the RMA in RMCP-2 between multiple SMs ...................................................... 100

B.6 RMCP-2 messages for sharing session information between SMs ..................................................... 100

Annex C – Tree configuration rules........................................................................................................................... 102

C.1 Bootstrapping rule ............................................................................................................................... 102

C.2 HMA selection rule ............................................................................................................................. 102

C.3 CMA acceptance rule .......................................................................................................................... 103

C.4 Parent decision rule ............................................................................................................................. 103

C.5 Tree improvement rule ........................................................................................................................ 104

C.6 PMA's expulsion rule .......................................................................................................................... 104

Annex D – Real-time data delivery scheme .............................................................................................................. 105

Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012) iii
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Page

D.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 105

D.2 Data delivery scheme using IP-IP tunnel mechanism ......................................................................... 105

D.3 Data delivery scheme using a non-encapsulation scheme ................................................................... 106

Annex E – Reliable data delivery scheme ................................................................................................................. 108

E.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 108

E.2 Issues for a reliable data delivery scheme ........................................................................................... 108

E.3 Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 109

E.4 Service data unit (SDU) format ........................................................................................................... 111

E.5 Data profile.......................................................................................................................................... 111

Annex F – RMCP-2 API ............................................................................................................................................ 113

F.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 113

F.2 RMCP-2 API functions ....................................................................................................................... 114

Annex G – RMCP-2 service scenario ........................................................................................................................ 117

Annex H – Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................ 119

iv Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012)
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Introduction

This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the relayed multicast protocol part 2 (RMCP-2), which is an

application-layer relayed multicast protocol for simplex group applications. RMCP-2 can construct an optimized and

robust one-to-many relayed multicast delivery path over IP-based networks. Along the relayed multicast delivery path,

several types of data delivery channels can be constructed according to the requirements of the application services.

Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012) v
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ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ITU-T RECOMMENDATION
Information technology – Relayed multicast protocol:
Specification for simplex group applications
1 Scope

This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the relayed multicast protocol part 2 (RMCP-2), an

application-layer protocol that constructs a multicast tree for data delivery from one sender to multiple receivers over an

IP-based network, where IP multicast is not fully deployed. RMCP-2 defines relayed multicast data transport

capabilities over IP-based networks for simplex group applications.
This Recommendation | International Standard specifies the following:
a) descriptions of the entities, control and data delivery models of RMCP-2;

b) description of the functions and procedures of multicast agents (MAs) to construct a one-to-many relayed

data path and to relay data for simplex communication;
c) description of the security features of the basic RMCP-2; and
d) definitions of messages and parameters of the basic RMCP-2 and secure RMCP-2.

Annex A defines a membership authentication procedure for use with the secure RMCP-2. Annex B provides a method

for sharing information among session managers (SMs) when multiple SMs are used. Annexes C-G provide informative

material related to RMCP-2. Annex H contains an informative bibliography.
2 References

The following Recommendations and International Standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this Recommendation | International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated

were valid. All Recommendations and Standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this

Recommendation | International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent

edition of the Recommendations and Standards listed below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently

valid International Standards. The Telecommunication Standardization Bureau of the ITU maintains a list of currently

valid ITU-T Recommendations.
2.1 Identical Recommendations | International Standards

– Recommendation ITU-T X.603 (2012) | ISO/IEC 16512-1:2012, Information technology – Relayed

multicast protocol: Framework.
2.2 Additional references

– ISO/IEC 9797-2:2011, Information technology – Security techniques – Message Authentication Codes

(MACs) – Part 2: Mechanisms using a dedicated hash-function.

– ISO/IEC 9798-3:1998, Information technology – Security techniques – Entity authentication –

Part 3: Mechanisms using digital signature techniques.

– ISO/IEC 18033-2:2006, Information technology – Security techniques – Encryption algorithms – Part 2:

Asymmetric ciphers.

– ISO/IEC 18033-3:2010, Information technology – Security techniques – Encryption algorithms – Part 3:

Block ciphers.

– ISO/IEC 18033-4:2011, Information technology – Security techniques – Encryption algorithms – Part 4:

Stream ciphers.
– IETF RFC 768 (1980), User Datagram Protocol.
– IETF RFC 793 (1981), Transmission Control Protocol.
– IETF RFC 2003 (1996), IP Encapsulation within IP.
– IETF RFC 3830 (2004), MIKEY: Multimedia Internet KEYing.

– IETF RFC 4279 (2005), Pre-Shared Key Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Security (TLS).

– IETF RFC 4535 (2006), GSAKMP: Group Secure Association Key Management Protocol.

Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012) 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)
– IETF RFC 4960 (2007), Stream Control Transmission Protocol.
– IETF RFC 5246 (2008), The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2.

– IETF RFC 6066 (2011), Transport Layer Security (TLS) Extensions: Extension Definitions.

3 Definitions

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the following definitions apply.

3.1 Terms defined elsewhere
The following terms are defined in Rec. ITU-T X.603 | ISO/IEC 16512-1:

3.1.1 IP multicast: Realizes a multicast scheme in an IP network with the help of multicast-enabled IP routers.

3.1.2 multicast: A data delivery scheme where the same data unit is transmitted from a single source to multiple

destinations in a single invocation of service.

3.1.3 multicast agent (MA): An intermediate node which relays group application data.

3.1.4 relayed multicast protocol (RMCP): A protocol to realize the relayed multicast scheme using end hosts.

3.1.5 simplex: Wherein only one sender is send-only and all others are receive-only.

3.1.6 session manager (SM): A relayed multicast protocol (RMCP) entity that is responsible for the overall RMCP

operations.
3.2 Terms defined in this Recommendation
This Recommendation | International Standard defines the following terms:

3.2.1 basic RMCP-2: The relayed multicast protocol for simplex group applications, defined in clause 7.

3.2.2 candidate HMA: The MA that is able to assume the role of an HMA, when the original HMA leaves or is

terminated. In the basic RMCP-2, the MA indicates the RMA while it indicates the DMA in a secure RMCP-2.

3.2.3 child multicast agent (CMA): The next downstream MA in the RMCP-2 data delivery path.

3.2.4 closed group: A member multicast (MM) group in which all the RMAs have been allocated a service user

identifier from the content provider before subscribing to the secure RMCP-2 session.

3.2.5 dedicated multicast agent (DMA): An intermediate MA pre-deployed as a trust server by the session

manager (SM) in an RMCP-2 session.

3.2.6 group attribute (GP_ATTRIBUTE): An attribute that defines whether or not the content provider controls

the admission of RMAs to the secure RMCP-2 session.

3.2.7 head multicast agent (HMA): A representative of the MA inside a local network where the multicast is

enabled.

3.2.8 member multicast region (MM region): A management zone defined by the use of one or more group

keys Kg.
3.2.9 member multicast group (MM group):

1) (in unicast network) a group consisting of one DMA and multiple RMAs sharing the same group key Kg.

2) (in multicast network) a group consisting of one HMA, multiple RMAs together with one or more

candidate HMAs sharing the same group key Kg.

3.2.10 multicast agent ID (MAID): A 64-bit value that identifies the MA. MAID consists of the local IP address,

port number and serial number.

3.2.11 open group: An MM group in which none of the RMAs require a service user identifier before subscribing to

the secure RMCP-2 session.

3.2.12 parent multicast agent (PMA): The next upstream MA in the RMCP-2 data delivery path.

3.2.13 pseudo-HB message: An HB message that indicates a fault in the delivery path of the RMCP-2 tree. The

originator of a pseudo-HB message is the MA that discovers this fault.
2 Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012)
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ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)

3.2.14 receiver multicast agent (RMA): The MA attached to the receiving application in the same system or local

network.

3.2.15 regular HB message: An HB message that is relayed without interruption along the path of the RMCP-2 tree

from the SMA to the receiver of the message. The originator of a regular HB message is the SMA.

3.2.16 relayed multicast: A multicast data delivery scheme that can be used in unicast environments, which is based

on the intermediate nodes to relay multicast data from the media server to media players over a logically configured

network.

3.2.17 relayed multicast region (RM region): A management zone defined by the use of the session key Ks.

3.2.18 RMCP-2: A relayed multicast protocol for simplex group communication applications.

3.2.19 RMCP-2 session: A session which provides a certain RMCP-2 service.

3.2.20 secure RMCP-2 protocol: The relayed multicast protocol supporting the security features for simplex group

applications defined in clause 8.

3.2.21 security policy: The set of criteria for the provision of security services, together with the set of values for

these criteria, resulting from agreement of the security mechanisms defined in clause 8.1.4.

3.2.22 sender multicast agent (SMA): The MA attached to the sender in the same system or local network.

3.2.23 session ID (SID): A 64-bit value that identifies the RMCP-2 session. SID is a combination of the local IP

address of the session manager (SM) and the group address of the session.

3.2.24 TLS_CERT mode: A mode of transport layer security (TLS) defined in IETF RFC 5246 for the

authentication of MAs using a certificate.

3.2.25 TLS_PSK mode: A mode of transport layer security (TLS) defined in IETF RFC 4279 for the authentication

of MAs using a pre-shared key for the TLS key exchange.
4 Abbreviations and acronyms

For the purposes of this Recommendation | International Standard, the following abbreviations apply.

ACL Access Control List
AUTH Authentication
CEK Content Encryption Key
CGSPRBG Cryptographically Secure Pseudo-Random Bit Generator
CMA Child Multicast Agent
CP Content Provider
DMA Dedicated Multicast Agent
FAILCHECK Failure check request message
HANNOUNCE HMA announce message
HB Heartbeat message
HLEAVE HMA Leave message
HMA Head Multicast Agent
HRSANS Head Required Security Answer
HRSREQ Head Required Security Request
HSOLICIT HMA Solicit message
IP-IP IP in IP
KEYDELIVER Key Delivery
LEAVANS Leave Answer message
LEAVREQ Leave Request message
Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012) 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)
MA Multicast Agent
MAID Multicast Agent Identification
MM Member Multicast
PMA Parent Multicast Agent
PPROBANS Parent Probe Answer message
PPROBREQ Parent Probe Request message
RELANS Relay Answer message
RELREQ Relay Request message
RMA Receiver Multicast Agent
RMCP Relayed Multicast Protocol
RTT Round Trip Time
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDU Service Data Unit
SECAGANS Security Agreement Answer
SECAGREQ Security Agreement Request
SECALGREQ Security Algorithms Request
SECLIST selected Security LIST
SID (RMCP-2) Session Identification
SINFO Session Information
SM Session Manager
SMA Sender Multicast Agent
SMNOTI SM Notification
STANS Status report Answer message
STCOLANS Status report Collect Answer message
STCOLREQ Status report Collect Request message
STREQ Status report Request message
SUBSANS Subscription Answer message
SUBSREQ Subscription Request message
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TERMANS Termination Answer message
TERMREQ Termination Request message
TLS Transport Layer Security
UDP User Datagram Protocol
5 Conventions

Code values for message parameters in clause 9 (RMCP-2 messages) and clause 10 (Parameters) are expressed in

hexadecimal notation, e.g., 0x14 for 20 in decimal notation.
4 Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012)
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ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)
6 Overview

The RMCP-2 is an application-level protocol for providing efficient simplex group communication services over

IP-network environment which does not have full deployment of IP multicast. This clause gives an overview of the

basic RMCP-2 service, entities, protocol and control/data modules, simplex data delivery model, and message types. In

addition to the overview of basic RMCP-2, this clause provides the overview of secure RMCP-2 as well. The basic

RMCP-2 refers to the relayed multicast protocol for simplex group applications. The secure RMCP-2 refers to the

relayed multicast protocol supporting security features for basic RMCP-2.
6.1 Overview of basic RMCP-2
6.1.1 RMCP-2 service

The RMCP-2 is an application-layer multicast protocol that supports simplex group communication services in IP

networks without full deployment of IP multicast. In the simplex group communication services, user data is delivered

from a single sender to multiple recipients. To support the simplex group communication, the RMCP-2 uses the relayed

multicast mechanism. The RMCP-2 entities configure the data delivery path for simplex group communication. The

RMCP-2 entities relay multicast data to other RMCP-2 entities along the constructed data delivery path. The RMCP-2

can support various application services that require simplex group communication, such as multimedia streaming

services, file distribution services, e-learning, etc.

Figure 1 shows a typical service model of the RMCP-2 for supporting simplex group communication services in both

unicast and multicast network. In RMCP-2, the local network where IP multicast capability is deployed is called a

multicast network. One such example of a multicast network is a campus network with the IP multicast capability

deployed. For multicast networks, the RMCP-2 constructs a multicast transport connection. In RMCP-2, the network

without an IP multicast capability is called a unicast network. For unicast networks, the RMCP-2 constructs a unicast

transport connection between MAs. Thus, it is possible for RMCP-2 to deliver multicast data to applications in both a

unicast network and multicast network.
Sending
application
Simplex relayed
multicast network
SMA
RMA RMA
Receiving Receiving Receiving
...
application application application
X.603.1(12)_F01
Multicast transport Unicast transport
connection for multicast connection for unicast
network network
Figure 1 – RMCP-2 service model

The entities of the RMCP-2 are multicast agents (MAs) and a session manager (SM). The SM manages the group

membership and RMCP-2 session by providing the configuration-related information to the MA to construct a simplex

relayed multicast network, and by monitoring the RMCP-2 session. The MA is an intermediate node that delivers

multicast data.
The following features of the RMCP-2 support the simplex group communication:

a) The RMCP-2 constructs a logical control path for each RMCP-2 session by using one or more MAs.

b) The control path is the basis of the data delivery path, which supports the delivery of multicast data in a

reliable or real-time manner.
c) The control path consists of logical links between MAs.
Rec. ITU-T X.603.1 (08/2012) 5
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ISO/IEC 16512-2:2016 (E)

d) The RMCP-2 has the capability of selecting optimal peers to configure logical links. The selection of

optimal peers may be based on various metrics. Examples of such metrics include hop count, delay,

and/or bandwidth.
e) The RMCP-2 supports group communication using IP multicasting.
f) The RMCP-2 allows MAs to join or leave at any time during the RMCP-2 session.

g) The RMCP-2 manages the MAs of RMCP-2 session by using membership monitoring and expulsion.

h) The RMCP-2 provides an auto-configuration mechanism in constructing the data delivery path for the

simplex group communication.
i) The RMCP-2 supports network fault detection and service recovery.
6.1.2 RMCP-2 entities

This clause provides a description of RMCP-2 entities, these are SM and MA. The RMCP-2 entities follow the same

definition as defined in Rec. ITU-T X.603 | ISO/IEC 16512-1. The SM manages group membership and RMCP-2

sessions. The MA constructs a multicast data delivery path between senders and receivers and relays the multicast data

along the constructed path. The MA is required to support capabilities in both the sending and receiving of multicast

data. The MA can be implemented as an agent running on an end-system, server or set-top box. The method of

implementation of the MA are out of the scope of this Recommendation | International Standard.

RMCP-2 configures the data delivery path for simplex group communication using the following configuration:

a) one SM;
b) one sender multicast
...

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