Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of cone penetration of lubricating greases and petrolatum

This document specifies several methods for the empirical estimation of the consistency of lubricating greases and petrolatum by measuring the penetration of a standardized cone.

Produits pétroliers et lubrifiants — détermination de la pénétrabilité au cône des graisses lubrifiantes et des pétrolatums

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes destinées à une estimation empirique de la consistance des graisses lubrifiantes et des pétrolatums par détermination de la pénétrabilité d'un cône normalisé.

Naftni proizvodi in maziva - Določevanje penetracije s stožcem za mazalne masti in vazeline

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-May-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Apr-2020
Completion Date
13-May-2020

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 2137:2021
English language
28 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day
Standard
ISO 2137:2020 - Petroleum products and lubricants -- Determination of cone penetration of lubricating greases and petrolatum
English language
22 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ISO 2137:2020 - Produits pétroliers et lubrifiants -- détermination de la pénétrabilité au cône des graisses lubrifiantes et des pétrolatums
French language
24 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 2137:2021
01-november-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 2137:2008
Naftni proizvodi in maziva - Določevanje penetracije s stožcem za mazalne masti
in vazeline

Petroleum products and lubricants - Determination of cone penetration of lubricating

greases and petrolatum

Produits pétroliers et lubrifiants - détermination de la pénétrabilité au cône des graisses

lubrifiantes et des pétrolatums
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2137:2020
ICS:
75.100 Maziva Lubricants, industrial oils and
related products
75.140 Voski, bitumni in drugi naftni Waxes, bituminous materials
proizvodi and other petroleum products
SIST ISO 2137:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2137
Fourth edition
2020-05
Petroleum products and lubricants —
Determination of cone penetration of
lubricating greases and petrolatum
Reference number
ISO 2137:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Classifications, procedures and limitation ................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8 Procedures for lubricating grease using full-scale methods ...............................................................................14

8.1 Procedure for unworked penetration ..............................................................................................................................14

8.1.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................14

8.1.2 Cleaning the cone and movable attachments .......................................................................................14

8.1.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Procedure for worked penetration .....................................................................................................................................15

8.2.1 Preparation of test sample ...................................................................................................................................15

8.2.2 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................15

8.2.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Procedure for prolonged worked penetration .........................................................................................................16

8.3.1 Preparation of apparatus and test portion .............................................................................................16

8.3.2 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................16

8.4 Procedure for block penetration ..........................................................................................................................................17

8.4.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................17

8.4.2 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................17

8.4.3 Additional determinations ...................................................................................................................................17

9 Procedures for lubricating grease using one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cone

method .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.2 Procedure for unworked penetration ..............................................................................................................................18

9.2.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................18

9.2.2 Cleaning cone and movable attachments ................................................................................................18

9.2.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................18

9.3 Procedure for worked penetration .....................................................................................................................................18

9.3.1 Preparation of test sample ...................................................................................................................................18

9.3.2 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................18

9.3.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................19

10 Procedure for determining the cone penetration of petrolatum ...................................................................19

10.1 Preparation of the test portion ..............................................................................................................................................19

10.2 Penetration measurement .........................................................................................................................................................19

11 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................20

11.1 Calculation of full-scale penetration .................................................................................................................................20

11.2 Conversion to full-scale penetration for the one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cones .20

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

11.2.2 One-quarter-scale cone ...........................................................................................................................................20

11.2.3 One-half-scale cone.....................................................................................................................................................20

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

13 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

13.2 Repeatability, r ....................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)

13.3 Reproducibility, R .............................................................................................................................................................................20

14 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28, Petroleum and related products, fuels

and lubricants from natural or synthetic sources.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2137:2007), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— cleaning of cone and shaft assembly with solvent has been introduced to eliminate any drag forces;

— the precision table for repeatability and reproducibility for one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale

has been revised to keep only an unconverted value.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Introduction

ISO 2137 was first published in 1972. A second edition was issued in 1985. The third revision was

mainly on the dimensional tolerances of the various cones, to better fit with what is available from

laboratory equipment suppliers. This revision was necessary because of all the quality plans and data

integrity programmes established by numerous laboratories to conform with the various ISO quality

standards. In the third edition of ISO 2137, the dimensional tolerances were enlarged to allow most of

the cones to fulfil the requirements.

Before adopting changes in the third revision, an interlaboratory study was performed with cones

conforming to new requirements and demonstrated that the precision of the method was not altered by

changing the tolerances. Tolerances were retained only on the characteristics where it was established

that they have a direct impact on the penetration determination, i.e. tip angle, tip height, tip top

thickness, tip base diameter, cone angle, total mass of cone plus movable attachments.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2137:2020(E)
Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of
cone penetration of lubricating greases and petrolatum

WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and

equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with

its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure

the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and to determine the

applicability of any other restrictions for this purpose.
1 Scope

This document specifies several methods for the empirical estimation of the consistency of lubricating

greases and petrolatum by measuring the penetration of a standardized cone.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 23572, Petroleum products — Lubricating greases — Sampling of greases
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
penetration

depth that a standard object, cone or needle penetrates into a test portion under standardized

conditions of time, temperature, load, etc
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-2:1998, 2.80.001 — modified: the Note has been deleted.]
3.2
cone penetration

distance that a standardized cone penetrates into a test portion under standardized conditions of load,

time and temperature
Note 1 to entry: The cone penetration is expressed in units of 0,1 mm.
3.3
working
shearing action of a grease worker
3.4
unworked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion that has received only minimum disturbance in transfer from

the sample container to the cup of the grease worker
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
3.5
worked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion after it has been subjected to a defined number of strokes in a

grease worker
3.6
prolonged worked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion which has been worked more than the defined number of strokes

in worked penetration (3.5)
3.7
block penetration

cone penetration (3.2) determined on a test portion which is sufficiently hard to hold its shape without

a container
4 Principle

The cone penetration of lubricating grease is determined at 25 °C by releasing the cone assembly from

the penetrometer and allowing the cone to drop for 5 s, and measuring the extent of the penetration.

Three determinations shall be made and the average shall be reported as a result.

Unworked penetrations are determined on test portions transferred with a minimum of disturbance to

a container suitable for test purposes.

Worked penetrations are determined immediately after working the test portion for 60 double strokes

in a standard grease worker.

Prolonged worked penetrations are determined on test portions worked more than 60 double strokes.

Block penetrations are determined on a freshly prepared face of a cube cut from a block of grease with

a standard cutter.

The cone penetration of petrolatum is determined by first melting and cooling a test sample under

specified conditions and then measuring the penetration as for lubricating grease.

5 Classifications, procedures and limitation

The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) classifies greases according to their consistency, as

measured by the 60 strokes worked penetration. The NLGI classification includes nine consistency

numbers or grades, each grade corresponding to a given range of worked penetration. The NLGI

classification is given in ISO 6743-99 and ISO 12924.

Clause 8 specifies four procedures for determining the consistency of lubricating greases by measuring

the penetration of a full-scale cone. These procedures cover the measurement of unworked, worked,

prolonged worked and block penetrations. Penetrations up to 500 units can be measured.

Clause 9 specifies methods for determining the consistency of lubricating greases when only small

samples are available, by the use of cones a one-half-scale or one-quarter-scale of that used in Clause 8.

The methods are applicable to greases having penetrations of 175 units to 385 units with the full-scale

cone and are intended for use only if the size of the test sample prevents the use of cones described in

Clause 8. They are not intended to replace the full-scale penetration as described in Clause 8, although a

conversion to full-scale penetration is given in 10.2. See 9.1 for the limitations on the use of one-quarter-

scale cones due to the poor precision.

NOTE 1 Unworked penetrations do not generally represent the consistency of greases in use as effectively as

do worked penetrations. The latter are usually preferred for inspecting lubricating greases.

NOTE 2 Penetration of block greases can be obtained on those products that are sufficiently hard to hold their

shape. These greases generally have penetrations below 85 units.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)

Clause 10 specifies a method for the determination of the consistency of petrolatum by measurement of

the penetration of a full-scale cone, having penetrations up to 300 units. This method can also be used

to estimate the consistency of slack waxes.
6 Apparatus

6.1 Penetrometer, similar to that shown in Figure 1, capable of measuring, in tenths of a millimetre,

the penetration of a cone in a test material.

Figure 1 shows a combined assembly; generally, it is allowed to displace vertically either the cone

assembly or the plate.
Key
1 centring device
Figure 1 — Penetrometer

The cone assembly or the table of the penetrometer shall be adjustable to enable accurate placement

of the tip of the cone on the level surface of the material while maintaining a “zero” reading on the

indicator. The cone shall fall, when released, without appreciable friction for at least 62 mm. The tip of

the cone shall not hit the bottom of the sample container. The instrument shall be provided with level

jig screws and a spirit level to maintain the cone shaft in a vertical position.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)

The measurement of the penetration depth may be performed using either mechanical devices

(mechanical indicator) or electronic devices (digital indicator).
6.2 Cones

6.2.1 Full-scale cone, consisting of a conical body of magnesium or other suitable material with a

detachable, hardened steel tip.

Dimensions and tolerances shall be as shown in Figure 2. The total mass of the cone shall be

102,50 g ± 0,05 g and the total mass of its movable attachments shall be 47,50 g ± 0,05 g. The attachments

consist of a rigid shaft having a stop at its upper end and a suitable means at its lower end for engaging

the cone. The interior construction may be modified to achieve the specified mass, provided that the

general contour and mass distribution are not altered. The outer surface shall be polished to a very

smooth finish.

For penetrations up to 400 units, the optional cone as shown in Figure 3 may be used. For this cone the

total mass shall be 102,50 g ± 0,05 g, and the total mass of movable attachments shall be 47,50 g ± 0,05 g.

6.2.2 One-half-scale cone and shaft, made of steel, stainless steel or brass with a hardened steel tip

of 45 Rockwell C hardness to 50 Rockwell C hardness and constructed to conform to the dimensions and

tolerances shown in Figure 4.

The shaft may be made of stainless steel. The total mass of the cone and its movable attachments

shall be 37,50 g ± 0,05 g. The mass of the cone shall be 22,500 g ± 0,025 g. The mass of the movable

attachments shall be 15,000 g ± 0,025 g.

6.2.3 One-quarter-scale cone and shaft, consisting of a conical body of plastics or other low-density

material with a hardened steel tip of 45 Rockwell C hardness to 50 Rockwell C hardness, and constructed

to conform to the dimensions and tolerances shown in Figure 5.

The shaft may be constructed of magnesium alloy. The total mass of the cone and its movable

attachments shall be 9,380 g ± 0,025 g. The total mass of the cone and its movable attachments may be

adjusted by adding small a shot to the cavity of the shaft.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±1 mm
Key
1 smooth and polished surface Magnesium or any other suitable material.
2 hardened steel tip ∅ 4 max., tight fit.
3 shaft stainless steel — tight press fit No shoulder.
Do not round the edges.
Figure 2 — Cone of the penetrometer — Full-scale cone
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±1 mm
Key
1 hardened steel tip Brass or corrosion resistant steel.
2 smooth and polished surface No shoulder.
a e
Break all sharp edges. ∅ 4 max., tight fit.
b f
Stainless steel. Machining to the required mass (see 5.2.1).
Figure 3 — Cone of the penetrometer — Optional cone
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,5 mm
Key
1 sharp corner Machine this surface to give specified mass.
2 hardened steel tip Polish all outside surfaces.
Figure 4 — One-half-scale cone
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 hardened steel trip — angle: 30° ± 30′
Figure 5 — One-quarter-scale cone
6.3 Grease workers
6.3.1 Full-scale grease worker, conforming to the dimensions shown in Figure 6.

The sizes of non-dimensioned parts are not critical and may be varied according to individual

requirements. Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The grease

worker may be constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that

a rate of 60 strokes per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 63 mm, can be

maintained. A suitable thermometer, standardized at 25 °C, shall be provided for insertion through the

vent valve.

6.3.2 One-half-scale grease worker, conforming to the dimensions given in Figure 7, of stainless steel

and with a capacity of 50 ml.

Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The worker may be

constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that a rate of 60 strokes

per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 35 mm, can be maintained.

6.3.3 One-quarter-scale grease worker, made of stainless steel and conforming to the dimensions

given in Figure 8.

Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The worker may be

constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that a rate of 60 strokes

per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 14 mm, can be maintained.

8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)

6.3.4 Overflow-ring (optional), conforming to the illustration shown in Figure 6.

This is a useful aid for returning displaced grease to the grease worker cup. The overflow ring shall be

positioned at least 13 mm below the rim of the cup while making a penetration measurement. A rim of

13 mm high is helpful.

6.4 Grease cutter, having a sharp, rigidly mounted, bevelled blade, essentially as shown in Figure 9.

It is necessary that the blade be straight and sharpened as shown in Figure 9. Grind both surfaces to

1,2 mm thick. Also grind the lower edge.

For optimal functioning, the supporting wood table shall be grained perpendicular to the blade.

6.5 Air bath or constant temperature test room, capable of being maintained at 25,0 °C ± 0,5 °C and

holding the assembled grease worker.

If the bath is to be used for samples for unworked penetrations, a means shall be provided for protecting

the grease surface from water. A cover shall also be provided to maintain the air temperature above the

sample at 25 °C.

An air bath, maintained at 25,0 °C ± 0,5 °C, is required for determining block penetration; a tightly

sealed container placed in the water bath will suffice.
Water bath may be used as an alternate to air bath.
6.6 Thermometer, calibrated at 25 °C, for the water bath or air bath.

6.7 Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of 85 °C ± 2 °C, for melting the petrolatum samples.

6.8 Spatula, corrosion-resistant, square-ended, with a stiff blade approximately 32 mm wide and

at least 150 mm long; for tests with one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cones, the width should be

approximately 13 mm.
6.9 Timer, graduated in 0,1 s.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2137:2021
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 packing 6 vent valve
2 handle 7 adapter
3 thermometer 8 cover
4 packing nut 9 split rubber tube
5 thermometer gauge 10 overflow ring (optional)

Optional, concentric to the interior of the cup, for use with the centring device.

Plan of perforated plate (det
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2137
Fourth edition
2020-05
Petroleum products and lubricants —
Determination of cone penetration of
lubricating greases and petrolatum
Reference number
ISO 2137:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Classifications, procedures and limitation ................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8 Procedures for lubricating grease using full-scale methods ...............................................................................14

8.1 Procedure for unworked penetration ..............................................................................................................................14

8.1.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................14

8.1.2 Cleaning the cone and movable attachments .......................................................................................14

8.1.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Procedure for worked penetration .....................................................................................................................................15

8.2.1 Preparation of test sample ...................................................................................................................................15

8.2.2 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................15

8.2.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Procedure for prolonged worked penetration .........................................................................................................16

8.3.1 Preparation of apparatus and test portion .............................................................................................16

8.3.2 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................16

8.4 Procedure for block penetration ..........................................................................................................................................17

8.4.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................17

8.4.2 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................17

8.4.3 Additional determinations ...................................................................................................................................17

9 Procedures for lubricating grease using one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cone

method .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.2 Procedure for unworked penetration ..............................................................................................................................18

9.2.1 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................18

9.2.2 Cleaning cone and movable attachments ................................................................................................18

9.2.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................18

9.3 Procedure for worked penetration .....................................................................................................................................18

9.3.1 Preparation of test sample ...................................................................................................................................18

9.3.2 Preparation of test portion ..................................................................................................................................18

9.3.3 Penetration measurement ....................................................................................................................................19

10 Procedure for determining the cone penetration of petrolatum ...................................................................19

10.1 Preparation of the test portion ..............................................................................................................................................19

10.2 Penetration measurement .........................................................................................................................................................19

11 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................20

11.1 Calculation of full-scale penetration .................................................................................................................................20

11.2 Conversion to full-scale penetration for the one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cones .20

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

11.2.2 One-quarter-scale cone ...........................................................................................................................................20

11.2.3 One-half-scale cone.....................................................................................................................................................20

12 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

13 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

13.2 Repeatability, r ....................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)

13.3 Reproducibility, R .............................................................................................................................................................................20

14 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 28, Petroleum and related products, fuels

and lubricants from natural or synthetic sources.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2137:2007), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— cleaning of cone and shaft assembly with solvent has been introduced to eliminate any drag forces;

— the precision table for repeatability and reproducibility for one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale

has been revised to keep only an unconverted value.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Introduction

ISO 2137 was first published in 1972. A second edition was issued in 1985. The third revision was

mainly on the dimensional tolerances of the various cones, to better fit with what is available from

laboratory equipment suppliers. This revision was necessary because of all the quality plans and data

integrity programmes established by numerous laboratories to conform with the various ISO quality

standards. In the third edition of ISO 2137, the dimensional tolerances were enlarged to allow most of

the cones to fulfil the requirements.

Before adopting changes in the third revision, an interlaboratory study was performed with cones

conforming to new requirements and demonstrated that the precision of the method was not altered by

changing the tolerances. Tolerances were retained only on the characteristics where it was established

that they have a direct impact on the penetration determination, i.e. tip angle, tip height, tip top

thickness, tip base diameter, cone angle, total mass of cone plus movable attachments.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2137:2020(E)
Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of
cone penetration of lubricating greases and petrolatum

WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and

equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with

its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure

the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and to determine the

applicability of any other restrictions for this purpose.
1 Scope

This document specifies several methods for the empirical estimation of the consistency of lubricating

greases and petrolatum by measuring the penetration of a standardized cone.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 23572, Petroleum products — Lubricating greases — Sampling of greases
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
penetration

depth that a standard object, cone or needle penetrates into a test portion under standardized

conditions of time, temperature, load, etc
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-2:1998, 2.80.001 — modified: the Note has been deleted.]
3.2
cone penetration

distance that a standardized cone penetrates into a test portion under standardized conditions of load,

time and temperature
Note 1 to entry: The cone penetration is expressed in units of 0,1 mm.
3.3
working
shearing action of a grease worker
3.4
unworked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion that has received only minimum disturbance in transfer from

the sample container to the cup of the grease worker
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
3.5
worked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion after it has been subjected to a defined number of strokes in a

grease worker
3.6
prolonged worked penetration

cone penetration (3.2) of a test portion which has been worked more than the defined number of strokes

in worked penetration (3.5)
3.7
block penetration

cone penetration (3.2) determined on a test portion which is sufficiently hard to hold its shape without

a container
4 Principle

The cone penetration of lubricating grease is determined at 25 °C by releasing the cone assembly from

the penetrometer and allowing the cone to drop for 5 s, and measuring the extent of the penetration.

Three determinations shall be made and the average shall be reported as a result.

Unworked penetrations are determined on test portions transferred with a minimum of disturbance to

a container suitable for test purposes.

Worked penetrations are determined immediately after working the test portion for 60 double strokes

in a standard grease worker.

Prolonged worked penetrations are determined on test portions worked more than 60 double strokes.

Block penetrations are determined on a freshly prepared face of a cube cut from a block of grease with

a standard cutter.

The cone penetration of petrolatum is determined by first melting and cooling a test sample under

specified conditions and then measuring the penetration as for lubricating grease.

5 Classifications, procedures and limitation

The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) classifies greases according to their consistency, as

measured by the 60 strokes worked penetration. The NLGI classification includes nine consistency

numbers or grades, each grade corresponding to a given range of worked penetration. The NLGI

classification is given in ISO 6743-99 and ISO 12924.

Clause 8 specifies four procedures for determining the consistency of lubricating greases by measuring

the penetration of a full-scale cone. These procedures cover the measurement of unworked, worked,

prolonged worked and block penetrations. Penetrations up to 500 units can be measured.

Clause 9 specifies methods for determining the consistency of lubricating greases when only small

samples are available, by the use of cones a one-half-scale or one-quarter-scale of that used in Clause 8.

The methods are applicable to greases having penetrations of 175 units to 385 units with the full-scale

cone and are intended for use only if the size of the test sample prevents the use of cones described in

Clause 8. They are not intended to replace the full-scale penetration as described in Clause 8, although a

conversion to full-scale penetration is given in 10.2. See 9.1 for the limitations on the use of one-quarter-

scale cones due to the poor precision.

NOTE 1 Unworked penetrations do not generally represent the consistency of greases in use as effectively as

do worked penetrations. The latter are usually preferred for inspecting lubricating greases.

NOTE 2 Penetration of block greases can be obtained on those products that are sufficiently hard to hold their

shape. These greases generally have penetrations below 85 units.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)

Clause 10 specifies a method for the determination of the consistency of petrolatum by measurement of

the penetration of a full-scale cone, having penetrations up to 300 units. This method can also be used

to estimate the consistency of slack waxes.
6 Apparatus

6.1 Penetrometer, similar to that shown in Figure 1, capable of measuring, in tenths of a millimetre,

the penetration of a cone in a test material.

Figure 1 shows a combined assembly; generally, it is allowed to displace vertically either the cone

assembly or the plate.
Key
1 centring device
Figure 1 — Penetrometer

The cone assembly or the table of the penetrometer shall be adjustable to enable accurate placement

of the tip of the cone on the level surface of the material while maintaining a “zero” reading on the

indicator. The cone shall fall, when released, without appreciable friction for at least 62 mm. The tip of

the cone shall not hit the bottom of the sample container. The instrument shall be provided with level

jig screws and a spirit level to maintain the cone shaft in a vertical position.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)

The measurement of the penetration depth may be performed using either mechanical devices

(mechanical indicator) or electronic devices (digital indicator).
6.2 Cones

6.2.1 Full-scale cone, consisting of a conical body of magnesium or other suitable material with a

detachable, hardened steel tip.

Dimensions and tolerances shall be as shown in Figure 2. The total mass of the cone shall be

102,50 g ± 0,05 g and the total mass of its movable attachments shall be 47,50 g ± 0,05 g. The attachments

consist of a rigid shaft having a stop at its upper end and a suitable means at its lower end for engaging

the cone. The interior construction may be modified to achieve the specified mass, provided that the

general contour and mass distribution are not altered. The outer surface shall be polished to a very

smooth finish.

For penetrations up to 400 units, the optional cone as shown in Figure 3 may be used. For this cone the

total mass shall be 102,50 g ± 0,05 g, and the total mass of movable attachments shall be 47,50 g ± 0,05 g.

6.2.2 One-half-scale cone and shaft, made of steel, stainless steel or brass with a hardened steel tip

of 45 Rockwell C hardness to 50 Rockwell C hardness and constructed to conform to the dimensions and

tolerances shown in Figure 4.

The shaft may be made of stainless steel. The total mass of the cone and its movable attachments

shall be 37,50 g ± 0,05 g. The mass of the cone shall be 22,500 g ± 0,025 g. The mass of the movable

attachments shall be 15,000 g ± 0,025 g.

6.2.3 One-quarter-scale cone and shaft, consisting of a conical body of plastics or other low-density

material with a hardened steel tip of 45 Rockwell C hardness to 50 Rockwell C hardness, and constructed

to conform to the dimensions and tolerances shown in Figure 5.

The shaft may be constructed of magnesium alloy. The total mass of the cone and its movable

attachments shall be 9,380 g ± 0,025 g. The total mass of the cone and its movable attachments may be

adjusted by adding small a shot to the cavity of the shaft.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±1 mm
Key
1 smooth and polished surface Magnesium or any other suitable material.
2 hardened steel tip ∅ 4 max., tight fit.
3 shaft stainless steel — tight press fit No shoulder.
Do not round the edges.
Figure 2 — Cone of the penetrometer — Full-scale cone
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±1 mm
Key
1 hardened steel tip Brass or corrosion resistant steel.
2 smooth and polished surface No shoulder.
a e
Break all sharp edges. ∅ 4 max., tight fit.
b f
Stainless steel. Machining to the required mass (see 5.2.1).
Figure 3 — Cone of the penetrometer — Optional cone
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,5 mm
Key
1 sharp corner Machine this surface to give specified mass.
2 hardened steel tip Polish all outside surfaces.
Figure 4 — One-half-scale cone
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 hardened steel trip — angle: 30° ± 30′
Figure 5 — One-quarter-scale cone
6.3 Grease workers
6.3.1 Full-scale grease worker, conforming to the dimensions shown in Figure 6.

The sizes of non-dimensioned parts are not critical and may be varied according to individual

requirements. Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The grease

worker may be constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that

a rate of 60 strokes per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 63 mm, can be

maintained. A suitable thermometer, standardized at 25 °C, shall be provided for insertion through the

vent valve.

6.3.2 One-half-scale grease worker, conforming to the dimensions given in Figure 7, of stainless steel

and with a capacity of 50 ml.

Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The worker may be

constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that a rate of 60 strokes

per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 35 mm, can be maintained.

6.3.3 One-quarter-scale grease worker, made of stainless steel and conforming to the dimensions

given in Figure 8.

Other methods of fastening the cover and securing the worker may be used. The worker may be

constructed for either manual or mechanical operation. The design shall be such that a rate of 60 strokes

per minute ± 10 strokes per minute, with a minimum length of 14 mm, can be maintained.

8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)

6.3.4 Overflow-ring (optional), conforming to the illustration shown in Figure 6.

This is a useful aid for returning displaced grease to the grease worker cup. The overflow ring shall be

positioned at least 13 mm below the rim of the cup while making a penetration measurement. A rim of

13 mm high is helpful.

6.4 Grease cutter, having a sharp, rigidly mounted, bevelled blade, essentially as shown in Figure 9.

It is necessary that the blade be straight and sharpened as shown in Figure 9. Grind both surfaces to

1,2 mm thick. Also grind the lower edge.

For optimal functioning, the supporting wood table shall be grained perpendicular to the blade.

6.5 Air bath or constant temperature test room, capable of being maintained at 25,0 °C ± 0,5 °C and

holding the assembled grease worker.

If the bath is to be used for samples for unworked penetrations, a means shall be provided for protecting

the grease surface from water. A cover shall also be provided to maintain the air temperature above the

sample at 25 °C.

An air bath, maintained at 25,0 °C ± 0,5 °C, is required for determining block penetration; a tightly

sealed container placed in the water bath will suffice.
Water bath may be used as an alternate to air bath.
6.6 Thermometer, calibrated at 25 °C, for the water bath or air bath.

6.7 Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of 85 °C ± 2 °C, for melting the petrolatum samples.

6.8 Spatula, corrosion-resistant, square-ended, with a stiff blade approximately 32 mm wide and

at least 150 mm long; for tests with one-half-scale and one-quarter-scale cones, the width should be

approximately 13 mm.
6.9 Timer, graduated in 0,1 s.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 packing 6 vent valve
2 handle 7 adapter
3 thermometer 8 cover
4 packing nut 9 split rubber tube
5 thermometer gauge 10 overflow ring (optional)

Optional, concentric to the interior of the cup, for use with the centring device.

Plan of perforated plate (detail X) — circle 1(∅ 33,35): 12 holes
circle 2(∅ 49,20): 17 holes
circle 3(∅ 65,10): 22 holes
all holes: 6,4 < ∅ < 6,53
Figure 6 — Full-scale grease worker
10 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 base 4 shaft
2 grease plate 5 cover
3 ring 6 valve
Figure 7 — One-half-scale grease worker

6.10 Test-portion containers (for petrolatum), cylindrical, having a flat bottom 100 mm ± 5 mm in

diameter and 65 mm or more in depth, constructed of metal at least 1,6 mm thick and, if necessary, each

provided with a well-fitting watertight cover (see 10.1.3).

Containers of the “ointment box” type having somewhat flexible sides should not be used, for these

permit slight working of the petrolatum, due to flexing of the sides in handling.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Tolerances on dimensions except where otherwise stated: ±0,25 mm
Key
1 ring 4 grease plate
2 cover 5 base
3 valve 6 chamber: ∅ 19,0 × 17,5 height — capacity with the pla
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 2137
Quatrième édition
2020-05
Produits pétroliers et lubrifiants —
détermination de la pénétrabilité au
cône des graisses lubrifiantes et des
pétrolatums
Petroleum products and lubricants — Determination of cone
penetration of lubricating greases and petrolatum
Numéro de référence
ISO 2137:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Classifications, méthodes et limitation ......................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Appareillage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................15

8 Modes opératoires pour la graisse lubrifiante suivant les méthodes à l'échelle 1/1 ...............15

8.1 Mode opératoire pour les graisses non travaillées ...............................................................................................15

8.1.1 Préparation de la prise d'essai ..........................................................................................................................15

8.1.2 Nettoyage du cône et des accessoires mobiles ...................................................................................15

8.1.3 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................16

8.2 Mode opératoire pour les graisses travaillées ..........................................................................................................16

8.2.1 Préparation de l'échantillon pour essai ....................................................................................................16

8.2.2 Préparation de la prise d'essai ..........................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................17

8.3 Mode opératoire pour les graisses travaillées de façon prolongée.........................................................17

8.3.1 Préparation de l'appareillage et de la prise d'essai ........................................................................17

8.3.2 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................18

8.4 Mode opératoire pour les graisses en pain ..................................................................................................................18

8.4.1 Préparation de la prise d'essai ..........................................................................................................................18

8.4.2 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................18

8.4.3 Déterminations supplémentaires ..................................................................................................................18

9 Modes opératoires pour la graisse lubrifiante suivant les méthodes à l'échelle 1/2

ou à l'échelle 1/4 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2 Mode opératoire pour les graisses non travaillées ...............................................................................................19

9.2.1 Préparation de la prise d'essai ..........................................................................................................................19

9.2.2 Nettoyage du cône et de ses accessoires mobiles .............................................................................19

9.2.3 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................19

9.3 Mode opératoire pour les graisses travaillées ..........................................................................................................20

9.3.1 Préparation de l'échantillon d'essai .............................................................................................................20

9.3.2 Préparation de la prise d'essai ..........................................................................................................................20

9.3.3 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ..............................................................................................................................20

10 Mode opératoire pour déterminer la pénétrabilité au cône des pétrolatums ..................................20

10.1 Préparation de la prise d'essai ...............................................................................................................................................20

10.2 Mesurage de la pénétrabilité ...................................................................................................................................................21

11 Calculs ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

11.1 Calcul de la pénétration à l'échelle 1/1 ..........................................................................................................................21

11.2 Conversion à la pénétrabilité à l'échelle 1/1 des résultats avec les cônes aux

échelles 1/2 et 1/4 ...........................................................................................................................................................................21

11.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................21

11.2.2 Cône à l'échelle 1/4 ....................................................................................................................................................21

11.2.3 Cône à l'échelle 1/2 ....................................................................................................................................................22

12 Expression des résultats............................................................................................................................................................................22

13 Fidélité .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

13.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)

13.2 Répétabilité, r ........................................................................................................................................................................................22

13.3 Reproductibilité, R ............................................................................................................................................................................22

14 Rapport d'essai ...................................................................................................................................................................................................23

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 28 Produits pétroliers et produits

connexes, combustibles et lubrifiants d’origine synthétique ou biologique.

Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition (ISO 2137:2007), qui a fait l'objet

d'une révision technique. Les principales modifications apportées dans cette nouvelle édition sont les

suivantes:

— le nettoyage de l'ensemble tige cône avec un solvant est ajouté pour éliminer toute force de

frottement;

— le tableau de fidélité pour la répétabilité et la reproductibilité des échelles 1/2 et 1/4 a été révisé

pour ne conserver qu’une valeur non convertie.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Introduction

L‘ISO 2137 a d’abord été publiée en 1972, puis une seconde édition est parue en 1985. La troisième

révision concernait essentiellement les tolérances sur les dimensions des différents cônes, afin de

mieux coïncider avec l'offre des fournisseurs d’équipement de laboratoire. Une telle révision était

rendue nécessaire par l’existence des plans qualité et des programmes d’exactitude des résultats mis en

place par de nombreux laboratoires pour se conformer aux normes de qualité de l’ISO. Dans la troisième

édition de l’ISO 2137, les tolérances sur les dimensions avaient été élargies, ce qui permettait à la plupart

des cônes d'être conformes aux spécifications.

Préalablement à la troisième révision, des essais interlaboratoires ont été organisés avec des cônes

respectant les nouvelles exigences, ce qui a démontré que la fidélité de la méthode n’était pas impactée

par le changement des tolérances. Par ailleurs, des exigences de tolérance n'ont été maintenues que sur

les dimensions dont il a été prouvé qu’elles ont un impact direct sur la détermination de la pénétrabilité,

c’est-à-dire sur l’angle de la pointe, la hauteur de la pointe, l’épaisseur du bout de la pointe, le diamètre

de base de la pointe, l’angle du cône et la masse totale du cône et de ses accessoires mobiles.

vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 2137:2020(F)
Produits pétroliers et lubrifiants — détermination de
la pénétrabilité au cône des graisses lubrifiantes et des
pétrolatums

AVERTISSEMENT — L'utilisation du présent document peut impliquer l'intervention de produits,

d'opérations et d'équipements à caractère dangereux. Le présent document n'est pas censé

aborder tous les problèmes de sécurité concernés par son usage. Il est de la responsabilité des

utilisateurs du présent document de prendre les mesures appropriées pour assurer la sécurité

et préserver la santé du personnel avant son application et de déterminer l'applicabilité de toute

autre restriction à cette fin.
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes destinées à une estimation empirique de la consistance des

graisses lubrifiantes et des pétrolatums par détermination de la pénétrabilité d’un cône normalisé.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

ISO 23572, Produits pétroliers — Graisses lubrifiantes — Échantillonnage des graisses

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s'appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
pénétrabilité

profondeur à laquelle un objet normalisé, cône ou aiguille, pénètre dans la prise d'essai, dans des

conditions normalisées de temps, de température, de charge, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-2:1998, 2.80.001 — modifié: la Note a été supprimée. ]
3.2
pénétrabilité au cône

profondeur à laquelle un cône normalisé pénètre dans une prise d’essai, dans des conditions normalisées

de charge, de temps et de température
Note 1 à l'article: La pénétrabilité au cône est exprimée en unités de 0,1 mm.
3.3
travail
action de cisaillement d’un malaxeur à graisse
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
3.4
pénétrabilité d’une graisse non travaillée

pénétrabilité au cône (3.2) d’une prise d’essai ayant subi le minimum de manipulations lors des

opérations de transvasement du récipient porte-échantillon à la coupelle du malaxeur

3.5
pénétrabilité d’une graisse travaillée

pénétrabilité au cône (3.2) d’une prise d’essai après qu’elle a subi un nombre défini de cycles dans un

malaxeur
3.6
pénétrabilité d’une graisse travaillée de façon prolongée

pénétrabilité au cône (3.2) d’une prise d’essai qui a été travaillée pendant un nombre de cycles supérieur

à celui défini pour la pénétrabilité d’une graisse travaillée (3.5)
3.7
pénétrabilité d’une graisse en pain

pénétrabilité au cône (3.2) déterminée sur une prise d’essai qui est suffisamment dure pour garder sa

forme sans qu’elle soit placée dans un récipient
4 Principe

La pénétrabilité au cône d'une graisse lubrifiante est déterminée à 25 °C en mesurant la profondeur

de pénétration du cône dans l'échantillon, celle-ci étant obtenue en libérant l'ensemble cône du

pénétromètre et en laissant le cône agir pendant 5 s. Trois déterminations doivent être réalisées et leur

moyenne doit être enregistrée comme étant le résultat de l’essai.

La pénétrabilité au cône d'une graisse non travaillée est déterminée sur des prises d'essai transvasées

avec un minimum de perturbation dans un récipient convenant aux essais.

La pénétrabilité au cône d'une graisse travaillée est déterminée immédiatement après malaxage de la

prise d'essai pendant 60 cycles dans un malaxeur de graisse normalisé.

La pénétrabilité au cône d'une graisse travaillée de façon prolongée est déterminée sur des prises

d'essai malaxées pendant plus de 60 cycles.

La pénétrabilité au cône d'une graisse en pain est déterminée sur une face fraîchement préparée d'un

cube découpé dans un bloc de graisse avec un couteau normalisé.

La pénétrabilité au cône d'un pétrolatum est déterminée en mesurant, comme pour une graisse

lubrifiante, la profondeur de pénétration du cône dans l'échantillon soumis à l'essai préalablement

fondu puis resolidifié par refroidissement dans des conditions spécifiées.
5 Classifications, méthodes et limitation

Le National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) classifie les graisses en fonction de leur consistance,

celle-ci étant caractérisée par la pénétrabilité des graisses travaillées pendant 60 cycles. La

classification NLGI comprend neuf indices de consistance, ou grades, chaque grade correspondant à

un intervalle donné de pénétrabilité travaillée. La classification NLGI est donnée dans l'ISO 6743-99 et

l’ISO 12924.

L’Article 8 du présent document spécifie quatre méthodes de détermination de la consistance des

graisses lubrifiantes, par la mesure de la profondeur de pénétration d'un cône entier. Ces méthodes

recouvrent la mesure des profondeurs de pénétration du cône dans des graisses travaillées, des graisses

non travaillées, des graisses travaillées de façon prolongée et des graisses en pain. Elles peuvent être

utilisées pour mesurer des pénétrabilités allant jusqu’à 500 unités.

L’Article 9 spécifie des méthodes permettant de déterminer la consistance des graisses lubrifiantes

quand on ne dispose que de petits échantillons, grâce à l'utilisation de cônes à l'échelle 1/2 ou à

2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)

l’échelle 1/4 par rapport à ceux utilisés à l’Article 8. Ces méthodes sont applicables aux graisses ayant

des pénétrabilités au cône entier allant de 175 unités à 385 unités, et ne sont destinées qu’aux seuls

cas où les quantités de l'échantillon limitent l'utilisation des cônes décrits à l’Article 8. Elles n'ont pas

pour but de remplacer la pénétrabilité à l'échelle 1/1, selon l’Article 8, bien qu'une conversion à des

pénétrabilités à l'échelle 1/1 soit donnée en 10.2. Voir 9.1 pour les limitations de l’utilisation des cônes à

échelle 1/4 en raison de la mauvaise fidélité des mesures obtenues.

NOTE 1 La pénétrabilité d'une graisse non travaillée n’est généralement pas aussi représentative de sa

consistance à l’utilisation que la pénétrabilité d'une graisse travaillée. C'est la pénétrabilité des graisses

travaillées qui est généralement utilisée pour l'examen des graisses lubrifiantes.

NOTE 2 La pénétrabilité d'une graisse en pain peut être obtenue sur les produits suffisamment durs pour

conserver leur forme. Ces graisses présentent habituellement des pénétrabilités inférieures à 85 unités.

L’Article 10 spécifie une méthode permettant, par la mesure de la pénétration d'un cône entier, de

déterminer la consistance d'un pétrolatum ayant une pénétrabilité inférieure ou égale à 300 unités.

Cette méthode peut aussi être utilisée pour estimer la consistance des gatsch.
6 Appareillage

6.1 Pénétromètre, analogue à celui représenté sur la Figure 1, conçu pour mesurer, en dixièmes de

millimètre, la profondeur de pénétration d'un cône dans de la matière.

La Figure 1 montre un assemblage combiné; il est généralement permis de déplacer verticalement soit

le cône soit le plateau.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Légende
1 dispositif de centrage
Figure 1 — Pénétromètre

L'ensemble cône ou le plateau du pénétromètre doit être réglable de façon à permettre un positionnement

précis de la pointe du cône sur la surface plane de la matière tout en maintenant une valeur «zéro» sur

l'indicateur. Le cône doit, quand il est libéré, tomber sur au moins 62 mm sans frottement appréciable.

La pointe du cône ne doit pas heurter le fond du récipient porte-échantillon. L'instrument doit posséder

des vis de mise à niveau et un niveau à bulle, de façon à assurer une position verticale à la tige du cône.

La mesure de la profondeur de pénétration peut être réalisée soit avec des systèmes mécaniques

(indicateur mécanique), soit avec des dispositifs électroniques (indicateur numérique).

6.2 Cônes

6.2.1 Cône entier, consistant en un corps conique, en magnésium ou un autre matériau approprié, et

possédant une pointe en acier trempé, détachable.

Les dimensions et tolérances sont indiquées sur la Figure 2. La masse totale du cône doit être de

102,50 g ± 0,05 g, et la masse totale des accessoires mobiles doit être de 47,50 g ± 0,05 g. Les accessoires

comprennent une tige rigide portant une butée à son extrémité supérieure et un moyen approprié, à

son extrémité inférieure, de fixation au cône. On peut modifier l'intérieur du cône pour obtenir la masse

4 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)

spécifiée, à condition que le contour extérieur et la répartition des masses n'en soient pas modifiés. La

surface extérieure doit être très finement polie.

Pour des pénétrabilités jusqu'à 400 unités, la variante du cône du pénétromètre représentée sur la

Figure 3 peut être utilisée. Pour ce cône, la masse totale doit être de 102,50 g ± 0,05 g et la masse totale

des accessoires mobiles doit être de 47,50 g ± 0,05 g.

6.2.2 Cône à l'échelle 1/2 et tige, en acier, acier inoxydable ou laiton, muni d'une pointe en acier

trempé de dureté 45 Rockwell C à 50 Rockwell C et conforme aux dimensions et tolérances indiquées sur

la Figure 4.

La tige peut être en acier inoxydable. La masse totale du cône et de ses accessoires mobiles doit être de

37,50 g ± 0,05 g. La masse du cône doit être de 22,500 g ± 0,025 g. La masse des accessoires mobiles doit

être de 15,000 g ± 0,025 g.

6.2.3 Cône à l'échelle 1/4 et tige, formé d'un corps conique en matière plastique ou en tout autre

matériau de faible masse volumique, muni d'une pointe en acier trempé de dureté 45 Rockwell C à

50 Rockwell C, et construit conformément aux dimensions et tolérances indiquées sur la Figure 5.

La tige peut être en alliage de magnésium. La masse totale du cône et des accessoires mobiles doit être de

9,380 g ± 0,025 g. Cette masse totale peut être ajustée en ajoutant de la grenaille dans la cavité de l'axe.

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Dimensions en millimètres
Tolérances sur les dimensions, sauf indication contraire: ± 1 mm
Légende
1 surface lisse et polie Ne pas arrondir les angles.
2 pointe en acier trempé Magnésium ou tout autre matériau approprié.
3 axe en acier inoxydable — ajustement serré ∅ 4 max., ajustement serré.
Pas d'épaulement.
Figure 2 — Cône du pénétromètre — Modèle entier
6 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Dimensions en millimètres
Tolérances sur les dimensions, sauf indication contraire: ± 1 mm
Légende
1 pointe en acier trempé Laiton ou acier résistant à la corrosion.
2 surface lisse et polie Pas d'épaulement.
a e
Abattre les arêtes vives. ∅ 4 max., ajustement serré.
b f
Acier inoxydable. Usinage à la masse requise (voir 5.2.1).
Figure 3 — Cône du pénétromètre — Variante
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Dimensions en millimètres
Tolérances sur les dimensions, sauf indication contraire: ± 0,5 mm
Légende
1 coin à arête vive Usiner cette surface jusqu'à la masse prescrite.
2 pointe en acier trempé Polir toutes les surfaces extérieures.
Figure 4 — Cône à l'échelle 1/2
8 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)
Dimensions en millimètres
Tolérances sur les dimensions, sauf indication contraire: ± 0,25 mm
Légende
1 pointe en acier trempé – angle: 30° ± 30′
Figure 5 — Cône à l'échelle 1/4
6.3 Malaxeurs
6.3.1 Malaxeur à l'échelle 1/1, conforme aux dimensions indiquées à la Figure 6.

Les dimensions non indiquées ne sont pas critiques et peuvent être modifiées selon des exigences

particulières. On peut utiliser d'autres méthodes de fixation du couvercle ou du dispositif proprement

dit. Ce malaxeur peut être construit pour fonctionner manuellement ou automatiquement. Il doit

permettre une fréquence de malaxage de 60 cycles par minute ± 10 cycles par minute, avec une course

minimale de 63 mm. Il faut prévoir un thermomètre approprié, étalonné à 25 °C, et destiné à traverser

le robinet d'évent.

6.3.2 Malaxeur à l'échelle 1/2, conforme aux dimensions de la Figure 7, en acier inoxydable et d’une

capacité de 50 ml.

On peut utiliser d'autres méthodes de fixation du couvercle et du malaxeur. Le malaxeur peut être

construit pour fonctionner manuellement ou automatiquement. Il doit permettre une fréquence de

malaxage de 60 cycles par minute ± 10 cycles par minute, avec une course d'au moins 35 mm.

6.3.3 Malaxeur à l'échelle 1/4, en acier inoxydable et conforme aux dimensions de la Figure 8.

On peut utiliser d'autres méthodes de fixation du couvercle ou du malaxeur. Le malaxeur peut être

construit pour fonctionner manuellement ou automatiquement. Il doit permettre une fréquence de

malaxage de 60 cycles par minute ± 10 cycles par minute, avec une course d'au moins 14 mm.

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 9
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 2137:2020(F)

6.3.4 Bague de trop-plein (facultative), conforme à l'illustration de la Figure 6.

Cette bague est particulièrement utile pour remettre la graisse déplacée dans la coupelle du malaxeur.

La bague de trop-plein doit être positionnée lors du mesurage de la pénétrabilité à au moins 13 mm en

dessous du bord de la coupelle. Il est utile d'avoir un bord de 13 mm de haut.

6.4 Couteau à graisse, possédant une lame effilée et en biseau, montée d'une manière rigide,

essentiellement comme représenté sur la Figure 9.

Il est nécessaire que la lame soit rectiligne et aiguisée comme indiqué sur la Figure 9. Affûter les deux

surfaces à 1,2 mm d'épaisseur. Affûter également l’arête inférieure.

Pour un fonctionnement optimal, la table de support en bois doit être grainée perpendiculairement à

la lame.
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.