Vehicle headlighting systems photometric performance -- Method of assessment

Performances photométriques des systèmes de phares pour véhicules -- Méthode d'évaluation

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FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 17731
CIE S 021/E
CIE
Vehicle headlighting systems
Voting begins on:
2011-10-21
photometric performance — Method of
assessment
Voting terminates on:
2012-03-21
Performances photométriques des systèmes de phares pour
véhicules — Méthode d'évaluation
Please see the administrative notes on page iii
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT-
ING DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 17731:2011(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
CIE S 021/E:2011
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
ISO 2011
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted

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ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17731:2011(E)

This document is submitted to all ISO member bodies for voting within 5 months, as a standard prepared by

an international standardizing body in accordance with Council Resolution 42/1999. The proposer, the

International Commission on Illumination (CIE), has been recognized by the ISO Council as an international

standardizing body for the purposes of Council Resolution 42/1999.

Votes are required to be explicit: positive, negative or abstention. Any request or proposal to change the

text will be regarded as a negative vote.

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993, this document is circulated in the

English language only.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

ISO 17731 was prepared as Standard CIE S 021/E by the International Commission on Illumination, which

has been recognized by the ISO Council as an international standardizing body. It was adopted by ISO under

a special procedure which requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote, and is

published as a joint ISO/CIE edition.

The International Commission on Illumination (abbreviated as CIE from its French title) is an organization

devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters

relating to the science and art of lighting.

ISO 17731 was prepared by CIE Technical Committee 4-45, Performance Assessment Method for Vehicle

Headlamps.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
CIE S 021/E:2011
Standard
Vehicle Headlighting Systems
Photometric Performance - Method of
Assessment

Systèmes d'éclairage des véhicules routiers - efficacité photométric - méthode pour évaluer

Kraftfahrzeugscheinwerfer – Photometrische Leistungsmerkmale - Bewertungsmethode

CIE Standards are copyrighted and shall not be reproduced in any form, entirely or partly,

without the explicit agreement of the CIE.
CIE Central Bureau, Vienna CIE S 021/E:2011
Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
UDC: 628.971.85 Descriptor: Lighting by lamps attached to the vehicle
628.971.85:629.113.06 Lighting by motor vehicle lamps
© CIE 2011 – All rights reserved
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
 CIE 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or

utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm,

without permission in writing from CIE Central Bureau at the address below.
CIE Central Bureau
Kegelgasse 27
A-1030 Vienna
Austria
Tel.: +43 1 714 3187 0
Fax: +43 1 714 3187 18
e-mail: ciecb@cie.co.at
www.cie.co.at
© CIE 2011 – All rights reserved
vi © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
Foreword

Standards produced by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage are concise documents

on aspects of light and lighting that require a unique definition. They are a primary source of

internationally accepted and agreed data which can be taken, essentially unaltered, into

universal standard systems.
This CIE Standard has been prepared by CIE Technical Committee 4-45 “Performance

Assessment Method for Vehicle Headlamps” and is derived from CIE 188:2010, which was

produced by the same committee.

This TC was chaired by G. Draper (GB) (until 2009), K. Koeth (DE) (until 2010), and

G. Langhammer (DE) (from 2011).

Members were: T. Adachi (JP), T. Bauckhage (DE), A. Bissieres (FR), T. Carter (GB),

M. Cejnek (CZ), B. Delaunay (BE), L. Dellby (SE), G. Dorleans (FR), K. Fadel (FR),

J. Hasegawa (JP), T. Izawa (BE), M. Kleinkes (DE), K. Koeth (DE), M. Kocian (CZ), K. Manz

(DE), F. Müller (DE), R. Neumann (DE), H. Scheidegger (FR), O. Schmidt (DE), I. Schneider

(DE), T. Spingler (DE), T. Targosinski (PL), S. Troccon (FR), W. van Laarhoven (NL),

S. Völker (DE), S. Watson (GB), Y. Yamada (JP).
© CIE 2011 – All rights reserved
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
CONTENTS
Foreword
vii
1 Scope 1
2 Normative References 1
3 Terms and Definitions 1
4 Headlight Performance 2
4.1 General 2
4.2 Assessment Requirements 2
4.3 Assessment of Simulated Headlights 2
5 Beam Assessment Parameters 2
6 Assessment Procedure 3
6.1 Basis of the Procedure 3
6.2 Passing Beam Illumination 3
6.2.1 Summary of Process 3
6.2.2 Passing Beam Range Assessment Procedure – Zones A and B 4
6.2.3 Passing Beam Range Assessment for Offside Pedestrian Visibility – Zone C 7
6.2.4 Total Luminous Flux 7
6.2.5 Passing Beam Width Assessment – Zones D and E 7
6.2.6 Passing Beam Glare 8
6.3 Driving Beam Illumination 11
6.3.1 Summary of Process 11
6.3.2 Assessment of Range 11
6.3.3 Assessment of Width 11
6.3.4 Total Luminous Flux 11
7 Measurement and Calculation 13
7.1 Photometric Measurement of Each Headlight 13

7.2 Data Relating to the Installation of the Headlighting System on the Vehicle 14

7.3 Software Algorithms for the Analysis of the Headlight Data 15
8 List of Results 17
9 Reporting and Presentation of Results 18
Bibliography 18
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
Vehicle Headlighting Systems
Photometric Performance - Method of Assessment
1 Scope

This Standard specifies a method to consistently assess the photometric performance of

vehicle headlighting systems to enable the performance of different systems to be compared.

The requirements are given in relation to road scene illumination and the limitation of glare,

and the performance is assessed using parameters relevant to lane guidance and the

detection of pedestrians and objects.

The Standard includes a measurement and calculation procedure. It does not specify the

format of an assessment report.
2 Normative References

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including amendments) applies.

CIE 188:2010, Performance Assessment Method for Vehicle Headlighting Systems, 2010.

CIE DS 017.2/E:2009, International Lighting Vocabulary, 2009.

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108, Lamps, reflective devices, and

associated equipment, US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety

Administration, 2007.

GTB Working Group Photometry, Photometry Laboratory Accuracy Guidelines, Edition 3,

2005.
SAE J1383, Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps, 2010.

UNECE Regulation 37, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Filament Lamps for

Use in Approved Lamp Units on Power-Driven Vehicles and of their Trailers, available at

.

UNECE Regulation 99, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Gas-Discharge Light

Sources for Use in Approved Gas-Discharge Lamp Units of Power-Driven Vehicles, available

at .
3 Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in the International

Lighting Vocabulary (CIE DS 017.2/E:2009) and the following apply:
3.1
headlighting system
a full set of headlights as installed to a vehicle
3.2
nearside

for traffic following the right-hand rule of the road, the right side of the vehicle

3.3
offside

for traffic following the right-hand rule of the road, the left side of the vehicle

NOTE With regard to the performance of the passing beam it is necessary to define whether the

traffic flow is for right-hand or left-hand rule of the road. For the purposes of this Standard it

is assumed that the traffic is following the right-hand rule of the road (as in mainland Europe

and USA for example) and all reference to features of the beam pattern and photometric

performance is related to this. In the case of traffic following the left-hand rule of the road (as

in Japan and the UK for example) a reference to a feature on the right in this document

should be transformed to refer to an identical feature translated to the left side.

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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
4 Headlight Performance
4.1 General

The assessment method given in this Standard is a means of evaluating headlighting system

performance, to enable the performance of different systems to be compared. It uses

techniques that produce repeatable results, and has been developed to give correspondence

with the subjective impressions of the driver.

When assessing the compliance of a headlighting system to safety regulations or standards

with this method, it is solely the photometry of the passing beam and driving beam that is

evaluated using calibrated equipment in the photometric laboratory.

NOTE 1 In service, the photometric performance of the headlight is influenced by a number of factors

that will cause the actual performance to differ from that defined in regulations or standards.

These include mounting height, supply voltage/operating current, beam alignment, variations

in light source geometry and the headlight optical system, luminous flux, etc.

Vehicle headlights illuminate the road scene ahead of the vehicle in order to provide

guidance for the driver to retain control of the vehicle through adequate illumination of road

markings, the edges of the road and features such as verges, trees and road signs, and to

provide early warning of the presence of obstacles including pedestrians and other road

users.

It is also necessary that headlighting system performance is such that glare to vehicles

travelling in the opposite direction is controlled.

NOTE 2 Reflected glare in rear view mirrors caused by the headlights of following vehicles is not

taken into account, as technologies exist to reduce the reflectivity of the mirrors.

4.2 Assessment Requirements

The vertical illuminance provided by the headlighting system shall be determined both at the

road surface and at a horizontal plane located 250 mm above the road surface, using the

assessment procedure and measurement and calculation procedure described in Clauses 6

and 7 respectively. To ensure repeatability of results and to avoid interpolation errors when

transforming data between matrices, the measurements and calculations shall exactly follow

the procedures set out in these clauses.

NOTE The height of 250 mm corresponds to the mid-point of the leg of an average pedestrian.

4.3 Assessment of Simulated Headlights

During the development of headlights it may be necessary to produce a performance

assessment of a new model at the design stage before tooling has been manufactured.

Software packages can be used to provide simulations of photometric data for the design,

produced from CAD data. This simulated photometric data can be used as an input into the

measurement and calculation procedure described in Clause 7, replacing the photometric

measurement described in 7.1 a) to d). The output from the simulation software shall comply

with the requirements given in 7.1 e).
5 Beam Assessment Parameters
The assessment of the passing beam takes account of the following requirements:
 range for guidance,
 range for pedestrian detection,
 width for lane guidance,
 visibility on curves,
 width for pedestrian detection at intersections,
 opposing glare.

In the following, if not indicated elsewise, vertical illuminances are meant when speaking of illuminances.

© CIE 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
The assessment of the driving beam takes account of the following requirements:
 range for pedestrian detection, lane guidance and visibility,
 width for pedestrian detection at intersections.

The assessment for both beams includes the calculation of the total projected luminous flux,

as an indication of the optical efficiency of the system.
6 Assessment Procedure
6.1 Basis of the Procedure

The procedure is based upon laboratory measurements of headlights under controlled

conditions (calibrated light source, vehicle operating voltage as defined in 7.2 d, initial aim

according to 7.2 c) using a defined format for the data including the angular increments of the

measurement points. Using these data, aspects of the headlight performance are evaluated

as detailed in 6.2 to 6.3. In all cases, the illuminance and luminous intensity values being

assessed are derived from a combination of the individual photometric data measured for

each component of the headlighting system. These values are combined taking account of

the mounting height, separation and aim specified for the particular vehicle to which the

system is installed. The method of combining the data is described in Clause 7.
6.2 Passing Beam Illumination
6.2.1 Summary of Process

Illumination of the road scene by the passing beam shall be assessed by evaluating the

performance of the headlighting system as summarised in Table 1.
NOTE The zones are for traffic following the right-hand rule of the road.
Table 1  Aspects of passing beam road scene illumination to be assessed
Zone
(see Figures 1 Purpose Assessment Method
to 6)
Range for lane See explanation in 6.2.2 and Figures 1, 2, 3 and
A, B
guidance 4
Range along the
C offside verge for See explanation in 6.2.3 and Figure 5
pedestrian detection
See 6.2.5 and Figure 6
Evaluate arithmetic mean value of the width of
Width for lane
the 3,0 lx line at 30 m, 40 m and 50 m in front of
D guidance and visibility
the vehicle at the road surface. Individual width
on curves
values are calculated from the lane centre line
to the offside and nearside of the vehicle.
See 6.2.5 and Figure 6
Evaluate arithmetic mean value of the width of
Width for pedestrian the 3,0 lx line at 10 m and 20 m from the car on
E detection at a plane located at 250 mm above the road
intersections surface. Individual width values are calculated
from the lane centre line to the offside and
nearside of the vehicle
See 6.2.4
Whole beam Luminous flux Total luminous flux (lumen) within a vertical
zone 5° up to 15° down, 45° left to 45° right
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011

The general arrangement of the zones defined for the assessment of the passing beam range

is shown in Figure 1. Zones A and C are aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle,

Zone B is inclined at an angle of 5° from the vehicle axis as shown.
d / m
0 10 30 50 75 125
d / m
Key
d distance along the road
d distance from vehicle longitudinal axis
1 Zone A range assessment – straight road
2 Zone B range assessment – curved road
3 Zone C range assessment – pedestrian visibility

NOTE 1 Zones A, B and C originate at d =0 as shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4, but for clarity have been

shortened in this diagram.
NOTE 2 Road width = 6 m (3 m per lane), 500 m radius curve.
Figure 1  Zones for assessment of passing beam range
6.2.2 Passing Beam Range Assessment Procedure – Zones A and B

Referring to Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3, the position of the intersection of the 1,0 lx, 3,0 lx

and 5,0 lx isolux lines shall be calculated with each of the three longitudinal lines in Zone A.

The range (in metres) is the average of the values determined for the 1,0 lx, 3,0 lx and 5,0 lx

intersection points with the three lines. The isolux lines shall be plotted on the road surface

as vertical illuminance values. An example calculation to determine the intersection points for

the 3,0 lx line is shown in Figure 3. Similar calculations to determine the average range value

shall be carried out for the 1,0 lx and 5,0 lx lines.

A similar procedure shall be followed to calculate the range on the curved road shown in

Figure 4. In this case the intersection points shall be determined along the lines inclined at 5°

in Zone B.
© CIE 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
d / m
Zone A
0 m
0 10 30 50 75 125
1,5 m
d / m
3,0 m
Key
d distance along the road
d distance from vehicle longitudinal axis

NOTE The longitudinal lines in Zone A are situated at 0 m, 1,5 m and 3,0 m to the nearside of the

longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
Figure 2  Zone A - range assessment for straight road
222
76 m
70 m
60 m
Zone A
ZoZone Ane A 
20 30 40 50 60 70
RaRangnge / e / mm
r / m
60 70
20 50
2020 3030 5050 6060 7070
4040
Average
Line at 0,0 m 1,5 m 3,0 m
range
Isolux line 1,0 5,0 1,0 5,0 1,0 5,0
3,0 3,0 3,0
60 70 76 68,6
r / m
Key
r range
1 intersection points with the three lines in Zone A
2 vehicle longitudinal axis
3 3,0 lx line
Figure 3  Example of the calculation of range assessment for Zone A
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2011
d / m
Zone B
0 m
1,5 m
d / m
3,0 m
Key
d distance along the road
d distance from vehicle longitudinal axis

NOTE The longitudinal lines in Zone B are situated at 0 m, 1,5 m and 3,0 m to the nearside of the

longitudinal axis of the vehicle inclined at 5° as shown. The range in zone B is measured along

the inclined axis of the line starting in the car origin.
Figure 4  Zone B - range assessment for nearside curved road
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ISO 17731:2011(E)
CIE S 021/E:2
...

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