Internet of Things (IoT) -- Reference Architecture

ISO/IEC 30141:2018 This document provides a standardized IoT Reference Architecture using a common vocabulary, reusable designs and industry best practices. It uses a top down approach, beginning with collecting the most important characteristics of IoT, abstracting those into a generic IoT Conceptual Model, deriving a high level system based reference with subsequent dissection of that model into five architecture views from different perspectives.

Architecture de référence de l'Internet des objets (IoT RA)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6000 - International Standard under publication
Start Date
31-Aug-2018
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO/IEC 30141:2018 - Internet of Things (IoT) -- Reference Architecture
English language
77 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

ISO/IEC 30141
Edition 1.0 2018-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of Things (IoT) – Reference architecture
ISO/IEC 30141:2018-08(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2018 ISO/IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about

ISO/IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address

below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
IEC Catalogue - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The stand-alone application for consulting the entire The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

bibliographical information on IEC International Standards, electrical terms containing 21 000 terms and definitions in

Technical Specifications, Technical Reports and other English and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional

documents. Available for PC, Mac OS, Android Tablets and languages. Also known as the International Electrotechnical

iPad. Vocabulary (IEV) online.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

and withdrawn publications. collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

CISPR.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

details all new publications released. Available online and If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or

also once a month by email. need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service

Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30141
Edition 1.0 2018-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of Things (IoT) – Reference architecture
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-5972-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 9

5 Internet of Things Reference Architecture (IoT RA) conformance ................................... 10

6 IoT RA goals and objectives .......................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Conceptual Model ................................................................................................. 11

6.4 Reference Model and architecture views ............................................................... 11

7 Characteristics of IoT systems ....................................................................................... 12

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

7.2 IoT system trustworthiness characteristics ............................................................ 13

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

7.2.2 Availability ..................................................................................................... 14

7.2.3 Confidentiality ................................................................................................ 14

7.2.4 Integrity ......................................................................................................... 15

7.2.5 Protection of personally identifiable information (PII) ..................................... 15

7.2.6 Reliability....................................................................................................... 16

7.2.7 Resilience ...................................................................................................... 17

7.2.8 Safety ............................................................................................................ 17

7.3 IoT system architecture characteristics ................................................................. 18

7.3.1 Composability ................................................................................................ 18

7.3.2 Functional and management capability separation ......................................... 18

7.3.3 Heterogeneity ................................................................................................ 19

7.3.4 Highly distributed systems ............................................................................. 20

7.3.5 Legacy support .............................................................................................. 20

7.3.6 Modularity ...................................................................................................... 21

7.3.7 Network connectivity ...................................................................................... 21

7.3.8 Scalability ...................................................................................................... 22

7.3.9 Shareability ................................................................................................... 22

7.3.10 Unique identification ...................................................................................... 23

7.3.11 Well-defined components............................................................................... 23

7.4 IoT system functional characteristics .................................................................... 24

7.4.1 Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 24

7.4.2 Auto-configuration ......................................................................................... 25

7.4.3 Compliance ................................................................................................... 25

7.4.4 Content-awareness ........................................................................................ 26

7.4.5 Context-awareness ........................................................................................ 26

7.4.6 Data characteristics – volume, velocity, veracity, variability and variety ......... 27

7.4.7 Discoverability ............................................................................................... 27

7.4.8 Flexibility ....................................................................................................... 28

7.4.9 Manageability ................................................................................................ 29

7.4.10 Network communication ................................................................................. 29

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 3 –

7.4.11 Network management and operation .............................................................. 30

7.4.12 Real-time capability ....................................................................................... 31

7.4.13 Self-description ............................................................................................. 31

7.4.14 Service subscription ...................................................................................... 32

8 IoT Conceptual Model (CM) ........................................................................................... 32

8.1 Main purpose ........................................................................................................ 32

8.2 Concepts in the IoT CM ........................................................................................ 33

8.2.1 IoT entities and domains ................................................................................ 33

8.2.2 Identity .......................................................................................................... 35

8.2.3 Services, network, IoT device and IoT gateway ............................................. 36

8.2.4 IoT-User ........................................................................................................ 38

8.2.5 Virtual entity, Physical Entity and IoT device .................................................. 39

8.3 High level view of CM ........................................................................................... 41

9 IoT Reference Model (RM)............................................................................................. 42

9.1 The IoT Reference Model context ......................................................................... 42

9.2 IoT RMs ................................................................................................................ 42

9.2.1 Entity-based RM ............................................................................................ 42

9.2.2 Domain-based RM ......................................................................................... 44

9.2.3 Relation between entity-based RM and domain-based RM ............................. 46

10 IoT Reference Architecture (RA) views .......................................................................... 46

10.1 General description ............................................................................................... 46

10.2 IoT RA functional view .......................................................................................... 47

10.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 47

10.2.2 Intra-domain functional components .............................................................. 47

10.2.3 Cross-domain capabilities .............................................................................. 50

10.3 IoT RA system deployment view ........................................................................... 51

10.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 51

10.3.2 Systems/sub-systems in Physical Entity Domain (PED) ................................. 52

10.3.3 Systems/sub-systems in Sensing & Controlling Domain (SCD) ...................... 52

10.3.4 Systems/sub-systems in Application & Service Domain (ASD) ....................... 52

10.3.5 Systems/sub-systems in Operation & Management Domain (OMD) ................ 53

10.3.6 Systems/sub-systems in User Domain (UD) ................................................... 53

10.3.7 Systems/sub-systems in Resource Access & Interchange Domain (RAID) ..... 53

10.4 IoT RA networking view ........................................................................................ 54

10.4.1 Communications networks ............................................................................. 54

10.4.2 Communication networks implementation ...................................................... 55

10.5 IoT RA usage view ................................................................................................ 56

10.5.1 General description ....................................................................................... 56

10.5.2 Description of the roles, sub-roles and related activities ................................ 56

10.5.3 Mapping activities, roles and IoT systems in domains .................................... 61

11 IoT trustworthiness ........................................................................................................ 64

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 64

11.2 Safety ................................................................................................................... 65

11.3 Security ................................................................................................................ 66

11.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 66

11.3.2 IoT system Information Security Management System (ISMS) ....................... 66

11.3.3 IoT system & product Security Life Cycle Reference Model ........................... 68

11.4 Privacy and PII Protection ..................................................................................... 69

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018

11.5 Reliability .............................................................................................................. 72

11.6 Resilience ............................................................................................................. 73

11.7 Trustworthiness and the Reference Architecture ................................................... 74

Annex A (informative) Interpreting UML Class diagram for Conceptual Model ...................... 76

Annex B (informative) Entity relationship tables for the CM .................................................. 77

B.1 IoT entities and domains ....................................................................................... 77

B.2 Identity .................................................................................................................. 78

B.3 Services, network, IoT device and IoT gateway ..................................................... 78

B.4 IoT-User ............................................................................................................... 79

B.5 Virtual entity, Physical Entity and IoT device ......................................................... 80

Annex C (informative) Relation between CM, RMs and RAs ................................................. 81

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 83

Figure 1 – From generic Reference Architecture to context specific architecture ..................... 8

Figure 2 – IoT RA structure ................................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – RM and architecture views ................................................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Entity and domain concepts of the CM ................................................................. 33

Figure 5 – Domain interactions of the CM ............................................................................. 34

Figure 6 – Identity concept of the CM.................................................................................... 35

Figure 7 – Service, network, IoT device and IoT gateway concepts of the CM ....................... 36

Figure 8 – IoT-User concepts of the CM ................................................................................ 38

Figure 9 – Virtual entity, Physical Entity, and IoT device concepts of the CM ........................ 39

Figure 10 – High level view of CM ......................................................................................... 41

Figure 11 – Entity-based IoT RM ........................................................................................... 42

Figure 12 – Domain and entity relationship, and representative conceptual entities in

IoT systems .......................................................................................................................... 44

Figure 13 – Domain-based IoT RM........................................................................................ 44

Figure 14 – Relation between entity-based RM and domain-based RM ................................. 46

Figure 15 – IoT RA functional view –decomposition of IoT RA functional components ........... 47

Figure 16 – IoT RA system deployment view ......................................................................... 52

Figure 17 – IoT RA networking view ...................................................................................... 54

Figure 18 – Roles present when the system is in use ............................................................ 57

Figure 19 – IoT service provider sub-roles and activities ....................................................... 59

Figure 20 – IoT service developer sub-roles and activities .................................................... 60

Figure 21 – IoT-User sub-roles and activities ........................................................................ 61

Figure 22 – Activities of device and application development ................................................ 63

Figure 23 – Using device data for security-related analytics and operations .......................... 64

Figure 24 – IoT product Security Life Cycle Reference Model ............................................... 69

Figure A.1 – Generalization .................................................................................................. 76

Figure A.2 – Association ....................................................................................................... 76

Figure C.1 – Relation between IoT CM, RM, and RA ............................................................. 82

Table 1 – Characteristics of IoT systems............................................................................... 13

Table 2 – Overview of activities and roles ............................................................................. 62

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 5 –

Table B.1 – Entity ................................................................................................................. 77

Table B.2 – Domain .............................................................................................................. 77

Table B.3 – Digital Entity ...................................................................................................... 77

Table B.4 – Physical Entity ................................................................................................... 77

Table B.5 – IoT-User............................................................................................................. 77

Table B.6 – Network ............................................................................................................. 78

Table B.7 – Identifier ............................................................................................................ 78

Table B.8 – Endpoint ............................................................................................................ 78

Table B.9 – IoT gateway ....................................................................................................... 78

Table B.10 – IoT device ........................................................................................................ 79

Table B.11 – Service............................................................................................................. 79

Table B.12 – Human user ..................................................................................................... 79

Table B.13 – Digital user....................................................................................................... 79

Table B.14 – Application ....................................................................................................... 80

Table B.15 – Sensor ............................................................................................................. 80

Table B.16 – Actuator ........................................................................................................... 80

Table B.17 – Virtual entity ..................................................................................................... 80

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) – REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have

established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

3) IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted

by IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to

ensure that the technical content of IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications is accurate, IEC or ISO cannot be held

responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies undertake to

apply IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and

regional publications. Any divergence between any ISO, IEC or ISO/IEC publication and the corresponding

national or regional publication should be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) ISO and IEC do not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. ISO or IEC are not responsible

for any services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or ISO or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts

and members of their technical committees and IEC National Committees or ISO member bodies for any

personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for

costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication of, use of, or reliance upon, this ISO/IEC

publication or any other IEC, ISO or ISO/IEC publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC publication may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO/IEC 30141 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

This International Standard has been approved by vote of the member bodies, and the voting

results may be obtained from the address given on the second title page.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

IoT has a broad use in industry and society today and it will continue to develop for many

years to come. Various IoT applications and services have adopted IoT techniques to provide

capabilities that were not possible a few years ago. IoT is one of the most dynamic and

exciting areas of ICT. It involves the connecting of Physical Entities (“things”) with IT systems

through networks. Foundational to IoT are the electronic devices that interact with the

physical world. Sensors collect the information about the physical world, while actuators can

act upon Physical Entities. Both sensors and actuators can be in many forms such as

thermometers, accelerometers, video cameras, microphones, relays, heaters or industrial

equipment for manufacturing or process controlling. Mobile technology, cloud computing, big

data and deep analytics (predictive, cognitive, real-time and contextual) play important roles

by gathering and processing data to achieve the final result of controlling Physical Entities by

providing contextual, real-time and predictive information which has an impact on physical

and virtual entities.

IoT can be integrated into existing technologies. Real-time measurements generated by

adding sensors to existing technology can improve its functionality and lower the cost of

operations (e.g. smart traffic signals can adapt to traffic conditions, lowering congestion and

air pollution). The data generated by IoT sensors can support new business models and tailor

products and services to the tastes and needs of the customer. In addition to the applications,

the technology needs to support supervision and adaptation of the IoT system itself.

Several forecasts indicate that IoT will connect 50 billion devices worldwide by the year 2020.

There are a number of possible application areas, such as smart city, smart grid, smart

home/building, digital agriculture, smart manufacturing, intelligent transport system, e-Health.

IoT is an enabling technology that consists of many supporting technologies, for example,

different types of communication networking technologies, information technologies, sensing

and control technologies, software technologies, device/hardware technologies. This

document is based on widely used enabling technologies that are defined in standards from

several organizations such as ISO, IEC, ITU, IETF, IEEE, ETSI, 3GPP, W3C, etc.

Trustworthiness is recognized as an area of importance, and IoT can leverage current and

future best practice. For example, monitoring and analysing deployed IoT systems is essential

to maintain reliability and safety and security. Measures such as controlled access can ensure

the security of the system.
This document provides a standardized IoT Reference Architecture using a common

vocabulary, reusable designs and industry best practices. It uses a top down approach,

beginning with collecting the most important characteristics of IoT, abstracting those into a

generic IoT Conceptual Model, deriving a high level system based reference with subsequent

dissection of that model into the four architecture views (functional view, system view,

networking view and usage view) from different perspectives.

This document serves as a base from which to develop (specify) context specific IoT

architectures and thence actual systems. The contexts can be of different kinds but shall

include the business context, the regulatory context and the technological context, e.g.

industry verticals, technological requirements and/or nation-specific requirement sets. For

more information, see Figure 1.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC 30141:2018 © ISO/IEC 2018
Figure 1 – From generic Refere
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.