Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration — Comparison of two mainstream integrated mobility concepts

This document describes the core services and roles and responsibilities models in the "mobility as a service" (MaaS) and "mobility on demand" (MOD) ecosystems. The description is based on a literature review of the references listed in the Bibliography. This document also includes a comparison of the basic services and roles and responsibilities in order to map any similarities that can potentially be used for bridging and merging the two mainstream concepts in integrated mobility, i.e. MaaS and MOD.

Systèmes de transport intelligents — Intégration de la mobilité — Comparaison de deux grands concepts de mobilité intégrée

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 4447
First edition
2022-05
Intelligent transport systems —
Mobility integration — Comparison of
two mainstream integrated mobility
concepts
Systèmes de transport intelligents — Intégration de la mobilité —
Comparaison de deux grands concepts de mobilité intégrée
Reference number
ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 The two mainstream concepts within integrated mobility ................................................................................... 2

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 The MaaS role and responsibility model ......................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 The MOD role and responsibility model .......................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 The supply and demand side of MOD ............................................................................................................... 5

5.3.2 The MOD stakeholders .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 A comparison of the MaaS and MOD concepts on a service level...................................................................... 6

7 A comparison of the MaaS and Mod concepts on a role level ................................................................................ 9

7.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2 Common MaaS and MOD roles ............................................................................................................................................... 10

7.2.1 MaaS provider and MOD operator ................................................................................................................... 10

7.2.2 Customer and consumer ........................................................................................................................................... 10

7.2.3 Transport operators, transport service provider and public transit agencies ........ 11

7.2.4 Payment solution provider and payment system provider ....................................................... 11

7.2.5 ICT service providers ..................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.6 Regulators and policy makers, federal government and state and local

authorities ............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

7.3 Roles solely described in the MaaS concept ............................................................................................................... 13

7.3.1 Dynamic multiservice journey planner providers ............................................................................13

7.3.2 Data providers ................................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.3.3 Ticketing solution providers ................................................................................................................................. 14

7.4 Summary of the MaaS and MOD roles ............................................................................................................................. 14

8 Issues for further elaboration and possible standardization ..........................................................................15

8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.2 An enterprise view on the integrated mobility service .................................................................................. 15

8.3 A functional view on the integrated mobility service ...................................................................................... 16

8.4 A physical view on the integrated mobility service ........................................................................................... 17

8.5 A standard for data needed by integrated mobility concepts ................................................................... 17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

iii
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Introduction

Transport systems and services have remained unchanged for long periods of time and are characterized

by slow incremental innovations. However, urbanization, changes in climate and demographic and

societal changes are some of the major trends that have had an impact on transport systems and

services over the last decades. Combined with the implementation of intelligent transport system (ITS)

services and Internet of Things (IoT), new transport concepts have been developed. User requirements

on efficiency, availability and interoperability have also been driving forces for new transport concepts

for integration of multimodal, existing and new transport services as described and implemented in

mobility concepts like "mobility as a service" (MaaS) and "mobility on demand" (MOD). Connected

and autonomous vehicles will also have a significant effect on how travellers plan and implement their

journeys between multiple modes of transportation in the integrated mobility environment.

Integrated mobility concepts are evolving around the world, mostly based on the MaaS and MOD

concepts. Hence, there is a need for a generic, common and world-wide concept description mapping

all existing and foreseen concepts for interoperable, integrated and seamless multimodal transport

services.

The objective of this document is to describe the MaaS and MOD concepts focussing on the relevant

services and role models. Further, the objective is to compare the two concepts searching for

commonalities that can build a bridge between the MaaS and MOD concepts and form a basis for

a common understanding. This could further be used for a convergence towards one world-wide

integrated mobility concept description. Establishing a common understanding and terminology will

enable greater world-wide collaboration on integrated mobility implementations.

This document is based on a literature review of the references listed in the Bibliography and describes

the state-of-the-art for the two mainstreams in integrated mobility, i.e. the MaaS and MOD concepts.

This document includes a proposal for issues for further elaboration and possibly standardization,

including:
— an enterprise view on the integrated mobility service;
— a functional view on the integrated mobility service;
— a physical view on the integrated mobility service.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration
— Comparison of two mainstream integrated mobility
concepts
1 Scope

This document describes the core services and roles and responsibilities models in the "mobility as a

service" (MaaS) and "mobility on demand" (MOD) ecosystems. The description is based on a literature

review of the references listed in the Bibliography.

This document also includes a comparison of the basic services and roles and responsibilities in order

to map any similarities that can potentially be used for bridging and merging the two mainstream

concepts in integrated mobility, i.e. MaaS and MOD.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Abbreviated terms
API application programming interface
ARC-IT Architecture Reference for Cooperative and Intelligent Transportation
CTSA common transport service account
DOC Department of Commerce (US)
DOD Department of Defence (US)
DOE Department of Energy (US)
DOL Department of Labour (US)
DSS decision support system

ERTICO European Road Transport Telematics Implementation Co-ordination Organisation

ICT information and communication technologies
IT information technology
ITS intelligent transport systems
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
MaaS mobility as a service
MOD mobility on demand
PAYGO pay-as-you-go
PSP payment service provider
PTA public transport authority
SET-IT Systems Engineering Tool for Intelligent Transportation
UCL University College London
USDOT United States Department of Transportation
5 The two mainstream concepts within integrated mobility
5.1 Introduction

There are two mainstream concepts today concerning integrated mobility. The first one is the European

mobility as a service (MaaS) concept represented by the MaaS Alliance which is hosted by ERTICO – ITS

Europe. The term "MaaS" is described in Reference [1].

The other mainstream concept is the mobility on demand (MOD) concept, led by the US Department of

Transportation (USDOT), with the MOD Alliance serving as a coalition of interested stakeholders. The

term "MOD" is described in Reference [2].

Both the MaaS and MOD Alliances have members from transport authorities, cities, transport service

providers and private sector companies, for example, intelligent transport systems (ITS) industry, and

research institutes. A cooperation between ERTICO – ITS Europe, ITS America and ITS Asia-Pacific was

[3]
established in 2019.
5.2 The MaaS role and responsibility model

The role and responsibility model described in Reference [4] was one of the first role and responsibility

models developed by MaaS. It had only three roles: transport operators, MaaS operator and users. The

simple model from 2015 was further developed and University College London (UCL) has, as one of

the partners in the MaaS Alliance, developed a role and responsibility model which is described in

Reference [5] and Reference [6]. These are the references used in this document for the description of

the MaaS role and responsibilities model.

The current situation from a users' point of view is shown in Figure 1. A transport service user very

often requires an individual interface for each transport service provider. A migration from today's

scenario to the MaaS model enables the mobility service user to have one interface concerning access

rights, carrier of access rights (media), contract and payment.
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Figure 1 — Current and MaaS model situation (based on Figure 1 in Reference [6])

The actors in the MaaS ecosystem described in Reference [6] are distributed on three different layers:

Core business, Extended enterprise and Business ecosystem, as shown in Figure 2 (based on Figure 2 in

Reference [6]).

The Core business layer consists of the MaaS provider, customers/users, transport operators and data

providers.

The MaaS provider is an intermediate between the transport operators and the customers/users.

The main responsibility of the MaaS provider is to use the offers from the transport operators, buy

capacity from the transport operators and resell it to the users. The MaaS provider can optimize the

demand (customer/user request) based on the offers from the different transport operators, the user

requirements and preferences and the dynamic status information as regards transport infrastructure

and service level.

The main responsibility of the customers/users role is to define a request together with the customer/

user's preferences and choose the preferred transport modes for their trips. In Reference [6], the

customer is considered as the passenger, but it is also said that there is a need for defining who could be

the customers of the MaaS providers.

The transport operators sell their capacity to MaaS providers and provide access to their data via

secure application programming interfaces (APIs). The dynamic status on the transport service status

is very important and the transport operators are encouraged to have sensors reporting on the status

of the transport modes.

The data providers offer data and analytics capabilities to MaaS providers. Data from the transport

operators are processed, and they also collect data from many other sources, e.g. customers media,

social media, etc. The data collection and processing also includes data on transport modes and

infrastructure status needed by the MaaS provider in order to optimize the mobility service.

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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Figure 2 — The MaaS business ecosystem (based on Figure 2 in Reference [6])

The extended enterprise level includes 6 different actors. These are shortly described below:

— Technical backend providers enable the MaaS model by providing big data availability and cloud

computing.

— Payment solution providers support the MaaS provider with payment solutions, e.g. credit cards,

smartphones and PayPal accounts.

— Ticketing solution providers support the MaaS provider with ticketing technology with the main

goal of providing solutions enabling the customer to access as many transport services as possible

with one medium carrying the ticket or the access rights.

— Dynamic multiservice journey planner providers support the MaaS Provider with journey planners

that cover all available transport modes in an area. The journey planner is also assumed to become

dynamic considering the status of the infrastructure and the transport modes, e.g. service level

(demand/capacity) in infrastructure and transport modes and means.

— Information and communication technologies (ICT) infrastructure providers support the MaaS

provider by the provision of Internet connectivity. High-speed and high-capacity internet

connections are crucial for customer access to the MaaS provider, both for request-for-mobility

services and real-time status information on their chosen transport modes and means.

— Insurance companies are mentioned as an actor in the MaaS extended enterprise. Their main

responsibility will be to handle claims on compensation for 'not-provided' mobility services.

The business ecosystem includes 6 different actors. The most important actor is shortly described

below:

— Regulators and policymakers are responsible for the provision and regulation for open standards

and interoperable data formats. They can also ensure a sustainable development of the MaaS market

as well as fair competition, financing, customer rights, privacy and security, mobility service quality

standards, social inclusion and user safety.
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
5.3 The MOD role and responsibility model

The most extensive documentation of MOD is found in Reference [7], published by USDOT. The MOD

ecosystem is described in a supply and demand framework with the MOD stakeholders and the MOD

enablers.
5.3.1 The supply and demand side of MOD

The supply and demand side of MOD is shown in Figure 3 (based on Figure 2 in Reference [7]).

Figure 3 — The supply and demand side of MOD

The supply side of the ecosystem (MOD marketplace) consists of the actors and objects providing

transport services for people or goods delivery:

— public transport services, e.g. transport services provided by bus, metro, tram and ferries;

— non-public transport services, e.g. shared services, taxis, car rentals, micro mobility and private

cars;

— goods delivery, e.g. intercity freight transport, urban deliveries and last- and first-mile services;

— transportation facilities including parking, tolls, roadways and highways;

— vehicles, e.g. public transport vehicles, private vehicles, goods-delivery vehicles, emergency vehicles

and autonomous vehicles;

— transport operators, e.g. public transport operators, taxi companies, companies like Lyft and Uber

and companies providing shared transport means, e.g. car, bikes and el-scooters.

— transportation and information systems, e.g. payment systems for parking, toll and public

transport, signal systems, mobile apps for trip planning and payment, fleet management systems

and navigation systems.

— transport information services including schedule information, dynamic message signs, etc.

The demand side of the ecosystem covers the users of the mobility service and their needs, choices and

preferences. This can be covered by the term "user requirements". The following are described as being

part of the demand side:

— all travellers, including pedestrians, riders, drivers and cyclists, where the traveller could be of any

age, with or without disabilities, etc.;
— goods and merchandise that require transport services (deliveries);
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)

— time of use of the transport service (e.g. ride, drive, delivery) which can affect the transport means

to be used, e.g. availability and frequency of a delivery service;

— origin, i.e. destination request defining the location of the mobility service which affects the route,

mode and means choice;
— mode and means demand based on occupancy, size or type of vehicle;

— user needs and preferences concerning how the mobility service is recommended to take place, for

example, travelling alone, travelling together with other (public transport, shared rides), comfort

requirements, e.g. always a seat or a limited occupancy, inclusion or exclusion of specific transport

modes and means etc.
5.3.2 The MOD stakeholders
The MOD stakeholders are described below.

— Federal Government that has many branches that can influence MOD, including US Department

of Transport (USDOT), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Labour (DOL), Department

of Commerce (DOC) and Department of Defence (DOD) amongst others. All can play a role in

establishing transportation strategies, policies and legislations affecting the MOD.

— State and local authorities, including regional and local governments, city municipalities,

metropolitan planning organizations and local authorities. They all play a role in implementing

policy and regulations, issuing permits and managing public transport. They are also in charge of

strategic urban and traffic management planning and responsible for the local infrastructure.

— Public transit agencies, including all agencies that provide public transportation, e.g. by means of

buses, trams, metro, subway and ferries.

— Transportation/traffic managers, including transportation management centres that monitor the

operations, allocate resources as necessary and respond to the needs of the network.

— MOD operators, including operators of all forms of MOD services, public or private sector, that

provide mobility or delivery services.

— Transport service providers, including bikesharing, car rentals, carsharing, ridesourcing and

microtransit and paratransit service providers.

NOTE Paratransit refers to "public or group transportation, as by automobile, van, or minibus, organized

[23]
to relieve the congestion of mass transportation."

— Logistics service providers, including logistics management and goods-delivery providers dealing

with the flow of goods from origin to destination. This also includes warehousing, packaging,

security and dispatching functions.

— Apps and mobile service providers that are third-party ICT services and providers enabling on-

demand service, mobile ticketing, payment and navigation services.

— Consumers that are the ultimate end users of MOD services who affect the system by their type of

demand and requirements.
6 A comparison of the MaaS and MOD concepts on a service level

The MaaS and MOD concepts can be compared on a service level to describe commonalities and

differences to see whether a common approach is feasible. The MaaS and MOD concepts partly use

different terms for the comparable services, as shown in Table 1.
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Table 1 — Comparison of MaaS and MOD concepts on a service level
Service MaaS MOD Comparison/Comment

Mobility service The MaaS description in The MOD description in Ref- Based on how the term is used in

Reference [1] describes erence [7] does not include a MaaS and MOD there seem to be

the mobility service as specific definition of the term no major differences in the usage

"the integration of various "mobility service" although the except that a mobility service in

forms of transport services term is used through the whole MOD also covers the transport of

into a single mobility ser- report and there are several goods; see "Transport service"

vice accessible on demand." examples of mobility services. below.

Transport / Not specifically defined in The term "transportation ser- The main difference between

transportation the MaaS references; cov- vice" is mostly used in Refer- MaaS and MOD is that the MOD

service ers all types of services ence [7] but is not specifically concept also includes the trans-

but limited to transport of defined. port of goods.
persons.
The MOD term "transportation
service" is related to three differ-
ent categories of services:
— public transportation
services, e.g. transport
services provided by train,
bus, metro, tram and ferry;
— non-public transport
services, e.g. shared
services, taxis, car rentals,
micro mobility, and private
cars;
— goods delivery services, e.g.
intercity freight transport,
urban deliveries and last-
and first mile services.
ISO/TS 14812 defines the term
"transport service" as a service
that delivers one or more mate-
rial entities from one location
to another to satisfy a transport
need. A note to entry says that
the material entities delivered
can be people and/or goods.

Payment ser- In MaaS this is called In MOD this is called payment, The service is described both in

vice payment or payment payment system and payment the MaaS and MOD models, but
solutions. service. different terms are used.
The definition of the term
"payment service" has not been
found in any ISO International
Standard, but the term has been
defined in Annex 1 of Reference
[8] by eight points, including:
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ISO/TR 4447:2022(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Service MaaS MOD Comparison/Comment
— "execution of payment
transactions, including
transfers of funds on a
payment account with the
user’s payment service
provider or with another
payment service provider";
— "execution of payment
transactions where the funds
are covered by a credit line
for a payment service user";
— "issuing of payment
instruments and/or acquiring
of payment transactions".

ICT service In MaaS the ICT services In the MOD document the ICT The service is described both in

are covered by the Tech- service is both part of the the MaaS and the MOD models

nical backend providers services provided by apps and but with slightly different terms

and the ICT infrastruc- mobile service providers and and content.
ture, focussing on internet the technology enablers.
In short, the service includes the
connectivity.
use of software and hardware for
management and communication
of information needed for the
provision of the mobility service.

Transport Not described in the MaaS In the MOD model the trans- According to Reference [9]:

infrastructure ecosystem. port infrastructure service is "Transport infrastructure means

service related to the state and local all routes and fixed installations of
authorities as being responsi- the three modes (road, rail and in-
ble for the local infrastructure, land waterway) of transport being
the transportation/traffic routes and installations necessary
managers that manage the for the circulation and safety of
transport networks and the traffic."
infrastructure enablers that
Implicitly, the transport infra-
are in charge of transportation
structure service will be the use
infrastructure (e.g. roads, side-
of the road, rail and inland wa-
walks, rail tracks).
terway routes and installations.
For example, a railway company
using the rail infrastructure and
the fixed installations owned
and operated by the transport
authorities that will become
transport infrastructure service
providers.
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