Solid mineral fuels — Determination of fusibility of ash — High-temperature tube method

Cancels and replaces the second edition (1981). Specifies a method of determining the characteristic fusion temperatures of ash from solid mineral fuels.

Combustibles minéraux solides — Détermination de la fusibilité des cendres — Méthode du tube à haute température

Trdna fosilna goriva - Ugotavljanje termičnih transformacij pepela - Visokotemperaturna cevna metoda

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
08-Mar-1995
Withdrawal Date
08-Mar-1995
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
28-May-2008
Completion Date
28-May-2008

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 540:1995 - Solid mineral fuels -- Determination of fusibility of ash -- High-temperature tube method
English language
5 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ISO 540:1998
English language
5 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD
540
Third edition
1995-03-15
Solid mineral fuels - Determination of
fusibility of ash - High-temperature tube
method
Combustibles min&aux solides - Determination de Ia fusibilitk des
cendres - Methode du tube 2 haute tempkature
Reference number
ISO 5403 995(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 540:1995(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national Standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work
of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Esch member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental
and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO
collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission
(1 EC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting
a vote.
International Standard ISO 540 was prepared by Technical Committee
lSO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 5, Methods of
analysis.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition
(ISO 5403 981), which has been technically revised.
0 ISO 1995

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronie or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm, without Permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case Postale 56 l CH-1 211 Geneve 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 540:1995(E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 0 ISO
- Determination of fusibility of
Solid mineral fuels
ash - High-temperature tube method
temperature at which the height is equal to the width
1 Scope
of the base, and in the case of cubical or cylindrical
test pieces, the temperature at which the edges of
This International Standard specifies a method of de-
the test pieces become completely round with the
termining the characteristic fusion temperatures of
height remaining unchanged.
ash from solid mineral fuels.
3.3 hemisphere temperature (abbreviation: HT):
2 Normative reference
The temperature at which the test piece forms ap-
proximately a hemisphere, i.e. when the height be-
The following Standard contains provisions which,
Comes equal to half the base diameter.
through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this International Standard. At the time of publi-
3.4 flow temperature (abbreviation: FT): The tem-
cation, the edition indicated was valid. All Standards
perature at which the ash is spread out over the sup-
are subject to revision, and Parties to agreements
porting tile in a layer, the height of which is one-third
based on this International Standard are encouraged
of the height of the test piece at the hemisphere
to investigate the possibility of applying the most re-
temperature.
cent edition of the Standard indicated below. Mem-
bers of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently
valid International Standards.
4 Principle
ISO 1171: 1981, Solid mineral fuels - Determination
A test piece made from the ash is heated under
of ash.
Standard conditions and continuously observed. The
temperatures at which characteristic changes of
shape occur are recorded. The characteristic tem-
3 Definitions
peratures are defined in clause 3 (see also figures 1
For the purposes of this International Standard, the
to 3).
following definitions apply.
Although the determination is usually carried out in a
reducing atmosphere, additional information tan
3.1 deformation temperature (abbreviation: DT):
sometimes be obtained by carrying out a further de-
The temperature at which the first signs of rounding,

due to melting, of the tip or edges of the test piece termination in an oxidizing atmosphere. In general, the

occur. reducing atmospheres recommended give the lowest
characteristic temperatures.
NOTE 1 Shrinkage or distortion of rhe test piece, or
rounding of Cracks and fins, are not criteria for deformation,
and should be ignored if the tip and edges remain sharp. 5 Reagents
However, for some solid mineral fuels, the temperature at
which the test piece shrinkage begins could be of interest
5.7 Dextrin, 100 g/l Solution.
and should be reported as a feature noted during the de-
termination.
Dissolve 10 g of dextrin in 100 ml of water.
3.2 sphere temperature (abbreviation: ST): In the
case of pyramidal and truncated-cone test pieces, the
5.2 Petroleum jelly.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
0 ISO
ISO 540:1995(E)
6.4 Support for the test piece, of such a material
5.3 Gold wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger, or
that it becomes neither distorted, nor reacts with nor
gold plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,0 mm, with a
absorbs the ash during the determination. Supports
purity of 99,99 % and a melting Point of 1 064 “C.
of sintered alumina or fine-textured mullite are gener-
ally satisfactory, but difficulties may arise with indi-
5.4 Nickel wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger, or
vidual ashes, in which case a non-absorbent interface
nicke1 plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,0 mm, with a
such as platinum foil may be used between the orig-
purity of 99,9 % and a melting Point of 1 455 “C.
inal support and the test piece.
6.5 Flowmeters, two, for measuring the com-
5.5 Palladium wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger,
ponents of the reducing gases (see 7.1); it is not
or Palladium plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,O mm
necessary to measure the flow rate when using
with a purity of 99,9 % and a melting Point of
oxidizing gas.
1 554 “C.
NOTE 4 If the flowmeter contains a liquid, this shall be
a non-volatile Oil.
5.6 Carbon dioxide.
66 . Agate mortar and pestle.
5.7 Hydrogen or carbon monoxide.
6.7 Test sieve, of aperture 0,075 mm and diameter
NOTE 2 The hydrogen or carbon monoxide shall be suf-
either 100 mm or 200 mm, complete with lid and re-
ficiently free from Oxygen (see clause 8).
ceiver.
6 Apparatus 6.8 Optical instrument, which enables the Profile
of the test piece to be observed throughout the de-
termination; the relative dimensions of the Profile tan
6.1 Furnace, electrically heated, which satisfies the
be conveniently assessed by using a graticule.
following condi tions:
Additional use of a came ra or Video equipment is op-
a) it shall be capable of reaching the maximum tem-
tional but recomme nded.
perature at which the properties of the ash are to
be determined (a temperature of 1 500 “C or
7 Test conditions
more may be required);
7.1 Test atmosphere
b) it shall provide an adequate zone of uniform tem-
perature in which to heat the test piece(s);
The reducing atmosphere is obtained by introducing

c) it shall provide means of heating the test piece(s) into the furnace one of the following mixtures of

at a uniform rate from 815 “C upwards; gases at a minimum linear rate of flow past the test

piece of 400 mm/min, calculated at ambient tem-

d) it shall be capable of maintaining the required test perature; the rate is not critical, provided that it is

atmosphere (see 7.1) around the test piece(s); sufficient to prevent any leakage of air into the fur-

nace.
e) it shall provide means of observing the Change of
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 540:1998
01-maj-1998
7UGQDIRVLOQDJRULYD8JRWDYOMDQMHWHUPLþQLKWUDQVIRUPDFLMSHSHOD
9LVRNRWHPSHUDWXUQDFHYQDPHWRGD

Solid mineral fuels -- Determination of fusibility of ash -- High-temperature tube method

Combustibles minéraux solides -- Détermination de la fusibilité des cendres -- Méthode

du tube à haute température
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 540:1995
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST ISO 540:1998 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 540:1998
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 540:1998
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD
540
Third edition
1995-03-15
Solid mineral fuels - Determination of
fusibility of ash - High-temperature tube
method
Combustibles min&aux solides - Determination de Ia fusibilitk des
cendres - Methode du tube 2 haute tempkature
Reference number
ISO 5403 995(E)
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 540:1998
ISO 540:1995(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national Standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work
of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Esch member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental
and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO
collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission
(1 EC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting
a vote.
International Standard ISO 540 was prepared by Technical Committee
lSO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 5, Methods of
analysis.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition
(ISO 5403 981), which has been technically revised.
0 ISO 1995

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronie or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm, without Permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case Postale 56 l CH-1 211 Geneve 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 540:1998
ISO 540:1995(E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD 0 ISO
- Determination of fusibility of
Solid mineral fuels
ash - High-temperature tube method
temperature at which the height is equal to the width
1 Scope
of the base, and in the case of cubical or cylindrical
test pieces, the temperature at which the edges of
This International Standard specifies a method of de-
the test pieces become completely round with the
termining the characteristic fusion temperatures of
height remaining unchanged.
ash from solid mineral fuels.
3.3 hemisphere temperature (abbreviation: HT):
2 Normative reference
The temperature at which the test piece forms ap-
proximately a hemisphere, i.e. when the height be-
The following Standard contains provisions which,
Comes equal to half the base diameter.
through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this International Standard. At the time of publi-
3.4 flow temperature (abbreviation: FT): The tem-
cation, the edition indicated was valid. All Standards
perature at which the ash is spread out over the sup-
are subject to revision, and Parties to agreements
porting tile in a layer, the height of which is one-third
based on this International Standard are encouraged
of the height of the test piece at the hemisphere
to investigate the possibility of applying the most re-
temperature.
cent edition of the Standard indicated below. Mem-
bers of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently
valid International Standards.
4 Principle
ISO 1171: 1981, Solid mineral fuels - Determination
A test piece made from the ash is heated under
of ash.
Standard conditions and continuously observed. The
temperatures at which characteristic changes of
shape occur are recorded. The characteristic tem-
3 Definitions
peratures are defined in clause 3 (see also figures 1
For the purposes of this International Standard, the
to 3).
following definitions apply.
Although the determination is usually carried out in a
reducing atmosphere, additional information tan
3.1 deformation temperature (abbreviation: DT):
sometimes be obtained by carrying out a further de-
The temperature at which the first signs of rounding,

due to melting, of the tip or edges of the test piece termination in an oxidizing atmosphere. In general, the

occur. reducing atmospheres recommended give the lowest
characteristic temperatures.
NOTE 1 Shrinkage or distortion of rhe test piece, or
rounding of Cracks and fins, are not criteria for deformation,
and should be ignored if the tip and edges remain sharp. 5 Reagents
However, for some solid mineral fuels, the temperature at
which the test piece shrinkage begins could be of interest
5.7 Dextrin, 100 g/l Solution.
and should be reported as a feature noted during the de-
termination.
Dissolve 10 g of dextrin in 100 ml of water.
3.2 sphere temperature (abbreviation: ST): In the
case of pyramidal and truncated-cone test pieces, the
5.2 Petroleum jelly.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 540:1998
0 ISO
ISO 540:1995(E)
6.4 Support for the test piece, of such a material
5.3 Gold wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger, or
that it becomes neither distorted, nor reacts with nor
gold plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,0 mm, with a
absorbs the ash during the determination. Supports
purity of 99,99 % and a melting Point of 1 064 “C.
of sintered alumina or fine-textured mullite are gener-
ally satisfactory, but difficulties may arise with indi-
5.4 Nickel wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger, or
vidual ashes, in which case a non-absorbent interface
nicke1 plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,0 mm, with a
such as platinum foil may be used between the orig-
purity of 99,9 % and a melting Point of 1 455 “C.
inal support and the test piece.
6.5 Flowmeters, two, for measuring the com-
5.5 Palladium wire, of diameter 0,5 mm or larger,
ponents of the reducing gases (see 7.1); it is not
or Palladium plate, of thickness 0,5 mm to 1,O mm
necessary to measure the flow rate when using
with a purity of 99,9 % and a melting Point of
oxidizing gas.
1 554 “C.
NOTE 4 If the flowmeter contains a liquid, this shall be
a non-volatile Oil.
5.6 Carbon dioxide.
66 . Agate mortar and pestle.
5.7 Hydrogen or carbon monoxide.
6.7 Test sieve, of aperture 0,075 mm and diameter
NOTE 2 The hydrogen or carbon monoxide shall be suf-
either 100 mm or 200 mm, complete with lid and re-
ficiently free from Oxygen (see clause 8).
ceiver.
6 Apparatus 6.8 Optical instrument, which enables the Profile
of the test piece to be observed throughout the de-
termination; the relative dimensions of the Profile tan
6.1 Furnace, electrically heated, which satisfies the
be conveniently assessed by using a graticule.
following condi tions:
Additional use of a came ra or Video equipment is op-
a) it shall be capable of reaching the maximum tem-
tional but recomme nded.
perature at which the properties of the ash are to
be determined (a temperature of 1 500 “C or
7 Test conditions
more may be required);
7.1 Test atmosphere
b) it shall provide an adequate zone of uniform tem-
perature in which to heat the test piece(s);
The reducing atmosphere is obtained by introducing
c) it shall provide means of heating the test piece(
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.