Ships and marine technology -- Vessel machinery operations in polar waters -- Guidelines

The intent of ISO 18215:2015 is to provide guidance to ship design and operational personnel (crew) on the critical issues to consider regarding machinery, prior to and during vessel operations in the extreme conditions of the Earth's polar regions. This International Standard is intended to supplement the IMO Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters and the IACS UR "I", Requirements Concerning Polar Class. Although the application of this International Standard is primarily concerned only for ships operating in polar regions, some of the design considerations and planning might need to be implemented during construction or in a shipyard environment.

Navires et technologie maritime -- Exploitation des machines des navires en eaux polaires -- Lignes directrices

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Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Apr-2015
Current Stage
9060 - Close of review
Start Date
03-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18215
First edition
2015-05-01
Ships and marine technology —
Vessel machinery operations in polar
waters — Guidelines
Navires et technologie maritime — Exploitation des machines des
navires en eaux polaires — Lignes directrices
Reference number
ISO 18215:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18215:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18215:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Cold weather diesel engine operations......................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Starting diesel engines in cold weather............................................................................................................................. 1

4.3 Cold weather starting aids ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3.2 Glow plugs, preheaters, and block heaters................................................................................................ 2

4.4 Gelling of fuel ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.5 Other fuel, equipment storage, and operational considerations ................................................................. 3

4.6 Proper lubricating oil viscosity ................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.7 Cetane number ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5 Preparations for other engineering systems .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Lifeboat engine preparations ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Cold weather preparations for other lifeboat machinery .................................................................................. 5

6 Cold weather deck machinery preparations and operations ................................................................................ 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Batteries ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

Annex A (informative) Other important logistical and operational considerations for

extremely cold weather ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex B (informative) Battery maintenance considerations for extremely cold weather ..........................8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18215:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee

SC 3, Piping and machinery.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18215:2015(E)
Ships and marine technology — Vessel machinery
operations in polar waters — Guidelines
1 Scope

The intent of this International Standard is to provide guidance to ship design and operational personnel

(crew) on the critical issues to consider regarding machinery, prior to and during vessel operations in the

extreme conditions of the Earth’s polar regions. This International Standard is intended to supplement

the IMO Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters and the IACS UR “I”, Requirements Concerning Polar

Class. Although the application of this International Standard is primarily concerned only for ships

operating in polar regions, some of the design considerations and planning might need to be implemented

during construction or in a shipyard environment.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8217, Petroleum products — Fuels (class F) — Specifications of marine fuels
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
3.1
cetane number
measure of ignition quality, or ability of a fuel to ignite, in a diesel engine
3.2
CFFP
cold filter plugging point

lowest temperature at which a given volume of diesel fuel will pass through a standard filter in a

prescribed amount of time
4 Cold weather diesel engine operations
4.1 General

Operators should review their diesel engine procedures to ensure that they have a special set of

operating procedures for the colder months. Procedures for summer conditions might not be adequate

in extremely cold conditions.
4.2 Starting diesel engines in cold weather

Diesel engines shall be adequately prepared for starting in lower temperatures. Weak batteries might

not crank the starter motor fast enough or long enough to start a cold engine. As the temperature goes

down, so does battery capacity. A battery that has all of its power available at 27 °C (80 °F) will have

only about 46 % available power at −17 °C (0 °F). Also, the engine will be much harder to start at −17 °C

because of cold, thicker oil and resistance to movement of internal moving parts. In effect, an engine

is about five times harder to start at −17 °C than at 27 °C. Test weak or suspicious batteries under load

before cold weather to help identify potential problems (see Clause 6 and Annex B). If batteries need

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18215:2015(E)

replacement, always replace with a battery equal to or more powerful than the original battery. Turn off

any accessories that draw large amounts of current before engaging the starter motor.

4.3 Cold weather starting aids
4.3.1 General

Diesel fuel evaporates much slower than gasoline (petrol) and requires more heat for combustion in

the cylinders. In many cold weather installations, additional measures, such as those listed below, are

required to ensure proper engine starting and operation.
4.3.2 Glow plugs, preheaters, and block heaters

Glow plugs are normally installed in the pre-combustion chamber of the cylinder head. The glow plug is

activated by the ignition switch. On some equipment, a light signals that the glow plug is cycling, which

warns the operator to wait between 15 s to 30 s before cranking the engine. The energy created by

electrical resistance in the glow plug heats the fuel-air mixture and helps the fuel to ignite.

Preheaters are normally installed in the intake manifold; however, in a two-stroke cycle engine, they

are placed in the air passages surrounding the cylinders. The preheater burns a small quantity of diesel

fuel in the air before the air is drawn into the cylinders. This burning process is accomplished by the

use of either a glow plug or an ignition coil that produces a spark to ignite a fine spray of diesel fuel. The

resulting heat warms the remaining air before it is drawn into the cylinders.

Block heaters are electric resistive heaters in the engine block, used when an engine is turned off for

extended periods in cold weather in order to reduce start-up time and engine wear. Block heaters are

also used for emergency power generators that should rapidly pick up load on a power failure. To save

time and electricity, the block heater can be put on an electrical timer set to turn on a couple of hours

before the engine is started.

Some older engines use a system to introduce small amounts of ether or other starting fluid into the inlet

manifold to start combustion. Recent direct-injection systems that use a common rail and electronic fuel

injection are technologically advanced to the extent that pre-chamber systems might not be needed.

4.4 Gelling of fuel

Diesel fuel is prone to waxing or gelling in cold weather; both are terms for the solidification of diesel oil

into a partially crystalline state. The temperature at which this process commences is sometimes known

as the “cloud point”. The crystals build up in the fuel line, eventually clogging the filter and starving the

engine of fuel, causing it to stop running. Electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to

help solve this problem. Most engines also have a spill return system, by which any excess fuel from the

injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank. Once the engine has warmed, returning warm

fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Because of improvements in fuel additive technology, waxing rarely

occurs in all but the coldest weather. If fuel has gelled from cold temperatures, change the fuel filter and

warm the fuel by using a block heater before attempting to start the engine. Gelled fuel in the filter can

block the flow of fuel from the tank to the injector pump.

Similar to cloud point, the “Cold Filter Plugging Point” (CFPP) can also be used as a cold weather fuel

reference temperature, below which the diesel fuel will tend to clog and not pass through filters. CFPP

can provide a reference temperature below which the fuel will create problems for system operation.

NOTE ASTM D6371 and DIN EN 116 provide test methods to determine CFPP.

Marine Gas Oil (MGO) is known to begin gelling at approximately −10 °C. Biodiesel fuels tend to have

higher CFPP temperatures.

Add winter diesel fuel additive to the fuel to lower the possibility of gelling and improve starting.

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ISO 18215:2015(E)
4.5 Other fuel, equipment storage, and operational considerations

Because of lower viscosity and higher ignition qualities, ISO 8217 marine distillate fuels, or a mix of

ISO 8217 marine distillate and low viscosity residual fuels should be used in cold weather if possible.

Also, the fuel tank should be kept full to prevent water condensing inside the tank, which can freeze and

plug fuel lines from the tank to the engine.

Portable equipment, such as dewatering pumps, should be stored in suitable locations that are heated or

warmer than outside temperatures. Only a few degrees warmer temperature can make starting faster

and easier. The warmer the battery is, the more power it will provide to the starter motor to crank

the engine. The warmer the engine oil is, the less resistance it will have to moving engine parts. After

starting the engine on a cold day, allow the engine to warm up a few minutes before putting it under

load. Proper engine temperatures ensure more efficient fuel combustion and can prevent damage to cold

engine parts. Engine oil flows more readily at operating temperatures and allows proper lubrication of

upper engine parts and areas.

Diesel engines are designed to operate under a loaded condition. Engine operation for extended periods

of t
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