Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Exhaust emission measurement — Part 4: Steady-state and transient test cycles for different engine applications

This document specifies the test cycles, the test procedures and the evaluation of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines coupled to a dynamometer. With certain restrictions, this document can also be used for measurements at site. The tests are carried out under steady-state and transient operation using test cycles which are representative of given applications. This document is applicable to RIC engines for mobile, transportable and stationary use, excluding engines for on-road transport of passengers and goods. It can be applied to engines for non-road use, e.g. for earth-moving machines, generating sets and for other applications. For engines used in machinery covered by additional requirements (e.g. occupational health and safety regulations, regulations for power plants), additional test conditions and special evaluation methods can apply.

Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne — Mesurage des émissions de gaz d'échappement — Partie 4: Cycles d'essai à l'état stable et transitoires pour différentes applications des moteurs

Le présent document spécifie les cycles d'essai, les modes opératoires d'essai et l'évaluation des émissions de gaz et de particules des gaz d'échappement des moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne couplés à un dynamomètre. Avec certaines restrictions, le présent document peut également être utilisé pour les mesurages sur site. Les essais sont effectués avec le moteur en régime permanent ou transitoire, en utilisant les cycles d'essai représentatifs des applications données. Le présent document est applicable aux moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne pour installations mobiles, transportables ou fixes, à l'exclusion des moteurs pour applications de transport routier de passagers et de marchandises. Il peut être appliqué aux moteurs pour applications non routières utilisés, par exemple, pour les engins de terrassement, pour les groupes électrogènes et pour d'autres applications. Pour les moteurs utilisés dans des machines couvertes par des exigences supplémentaires (par exemple les réglementations relatives à l'hygiène et à la sécurité du travail ou celles relatives aux installations de production d'énergie), des conditions d'essai supplémentaires et des méthodes d'évaluation spéciales peuvent s'appliquer.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Jun-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
24-Jun-2020
Completion Date
24-Jun-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8178-4
Fourth edition
2020-06
Reciprocating internal combustion
engines — Exhaust emission
measurement —
Part 4:
Steady-state and transient test cycles
for different engine applications
Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne — Mesurage des émissions
de gaz d'échappement —
Partie 4: Cycles d'essai à l'état stable et transitoires pour différentes
applications des moteurs
Reference number
ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................11

4.1 General symbols ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms for fuel composition .......................................................................................13

4.3 Symbols and abbreviated terms for chemical components ..........................................................................14

4.4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.1 Engine test conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................15

5.1.1 Laboratory test conditions ...................................................................................................................................15

5.1.2 Test validity .......................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Engine power ........................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2.1 Auxiliaries to be fitted ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.2.2 Auxiliaries to be removed .....................................................................................................................................16

5.2.3 Determination of auxiliary power .................................................................................................................17

5.2.4 Engine cycle work ........................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Engine intake air .................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.2 Intake air restriction ..................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.3 Engines with charge air cooling .......................................................................................................................18

5.4 Engine exhaust system ..................................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.2 Exhaust restriction ......................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.3 Engine with exhaust after-treatment system .......................................................................................18

5.5 Specific test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................19

5.5.1 Engine with exhaust after-treatment system .......................................................................................19

5.5.2 Crankcase emissions..................................................................................................................................................22

5.6 Cooling system .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

5.7 Lubricating oil .......................................................................................................................................................................................23

6 Test fuels ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

7 Test cycles .................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2 Test speeds ..............................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2.1 Maximum test speed (MTS) ................................................................................................................................24

7.2.2 Rated speed .......................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Intermediate speed .....................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.4 Idle speed ............................................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.5 Test speed for constant-speed engines......................................................................................................26

7.3 Torque and power .............................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.1 Torque ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.2 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.4 Engine mapping ..................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.4.1 Engine mapping for transient cycles ...........................................................................................................29

7.4.2 Engine mapping for variable-speed steady-state cycles .............................................................30

7.4.3 Engine mapping for constant-speed engines .......................................................................................30

7.5 Steady-state test cycles .................................................................................................................................................................31

7.5.1 Discrete mode test cycles ......................................................................................................................................31

7.5.2 Ramped-modal test cycles ....................................................................................................................................33

7.5.3 Cycle types and applicability ..............................................................................................................................33

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ISO 8178-4:2020(E)

7.6 Transient cycles ...................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.2 Non-road transient cycle (NRTC) ...................................................................................................................37

7.6.3 Large spark-ignition non-road transient cycle ...................................................................................38

7.7 Test cycle generation ......................................................................................................................................................................38

7.7.1 Generation of steady-state discrete-mode or RMC test cycles ..............................................38

7.7.2 Generation of NRTC and LSI-NRTC ...............................................................................................................39

8 Test run........................................................................................................................................................................................................................41

8.1 General test sequence ....................................................................................................................................................................41

8.2 Instrument validation for test .................................................................................................................................................44

8.2.1 Validation of proportional flow control for batch sampling and minimum

dilution ratio for PM batch sampling...........................................................................................................44

8.2.2 Gas analyser range validation, drift validation and drift correction ................................45

8.2.3 PM sampling media (e.g. filters) preconditioning and tare weighing .............................45

8.3 Sample system decontamination and preconditioning ....................................................................................47

8.3.1 Verification of HC contamination ...................................................................................................................48

8.4 Pre-test procedures .........................................................................................................................................................................49

8.4.1 Preparation of the sampling filters ...............................................................................................................49

8.4.2 General requirements for preconditioning the sampling system and the engine 49

8.4.3 Engine cool down (NRTC) .....................................................................................................................................50

8.4.4 Preparation of measurement equipment for sampling ...............................................................50

8.4.5 Calibration of gas analysers .................................................................................................................................51

8.4.6 Adjustment of the dilution system ................................................................................................................51

8.5 Engine starting and restarting................................................................................................................................................51

8.5.1 Engine start .......................................................................................................................................................................51

8.5.2 Engine stalling .................................................................................................................................................................51

8.6 Test cycle running procedure ..................................................................................................................................................52

8.6.1 Test sequence for discrete steady-state test cycles .........................................................................52

8.6.2 Ramped-modal test cycles ....................................................................................................................................53

8.6.3 Transient test cycle (NRTC and LSI-NRTC) ............................................................................................54

8.7 Post-test procedures .......................................................................................................................................................................57

8.7.1 Verification of proportional sampling ........................................................................................................57

8.7.2 Post-test PM conditioning and weighing .................................................................................................57

8.7.3 Analysis of gaseous batch sampling .............................................................................................................58

8.7.4 Drift verification ............................................................................................................................................................59

9 Data evaluation and calculation ........................................................................................................................................................59

9.1 Gaseous emissions ............................................................................................................................................................................59

9.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................59

9.1.2 Sampling for gaseous emissions ......................................................................................................................59

9.1.3 Data evaluation ..............................................................................................................................................................61

9.1.4 Calculation of mass emission .............................................................................................................................61

9.1.5 Dry/wet correction .....................................................................................................................................................67

9.1.6 NO correction for humidity and temperature ...................................................................................71

9.1.7 Cycle work and specific emissions ................................................................................................................71

9.1.8 NH data evaluation ...................................................................................................................................................73

9.2 Particulate mass emission ..........................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.2 Particulate sampling ..................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.3 Data evaluation ..............................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.4 Calculation of mass emission .............................................................................................................................75

9.2.5 Effective weighting factor (steady-state discrete cycles only)...............................................80

9.3 Adjustment for emission controls that are regenerated on an infrequent (periodic)

basis ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................80

9.4 Particle number emission ...........................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.1 Time alignment ..............................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.2 Determination of particle numbers for transient and ramped-modal

cycles (RMC) with a partial flow dilution or raw gas sampling system.........................81

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
9.4.3 Determination of particle numbers for transient and ramped-modal

cycles (RMC) with a full flow dilution system .....................................................................................82

9.4.4 Determination of particle numbers for discrete-mode cycles with partial

flow dilution or raw gas sampling system ..............................................................................................83

9.4.5 Determination of particle numbers for discrete-mode cycles with a full

flow dilution system...................................................................................................................................................85

9.4.6 Test result ...................................................................... ......................................................................................................85

9.4.7 Determination of particle number background .................................................................................87

9.5 Specific requirements for dual-fuel engines ...............................................................................................................87

9.5.1 Emission test procedure requirements for dual-fuel engines ...............................................87

9.5.2 Determination of molar component ratios and u values for dual-fuel engines 91

gas

10 Engine control area .........................................................................................................................................................................................93

10.1 General remarks .................................................................................................................................................................................93

10.2 Control area for engines tested to cycles C1, C2, E1 and H ............................................................................93

10.3 Control area for engines tested to cycles D1, D2, E2, G1, G2 and G3 .....................................................95

10.4 Control area for engines tested to test cycle I ...........................................................................................................95

10.5 Control area for engines tested to E3 and E5 test cycle ....................................................................................96

10.5.1 Control area for CI marine engines ...............................................................................................................96

10.5.2 Control area for engines tested to the E4 test cycle .......................................................................99

10.5.3 Control area for engines tested to the F cycle ...................................................................................100

Annex A (normative) Steady-state discrete-mode test-cycles .............................................................................................102

Annex B (normative) Steady-state ramped-modal test cycles (RMCs) .......................................................................107

Annex C (normative) Transient test cycles..............................................................................................................................................113

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the exhaust gas mass flow and/or of the combustion

air mass flow ......................................................................................................................................................................................................171

Annex E (informative) Example programme for calculation of exhaust mass flows ...................................192

Annex F (informative) Example of calculation procedure (raw/partial flow) ...................................................194

Annex G (normative) Installation requirements for equipment and auxiliaries ...........................................197

Annex H (normative) Molar based emission calculations ......................................................................................................199

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................239

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 70, Reciprocating internal combustion engines,

Subcommittee SC 8, Exhaust gas emission measurement.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 8178-4:2017), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— amendment of the information regarding the determination of the background concentration;

— revision of particle number emission evaluation;
— addition of electrical equipment in the auxiliary table;
A list of all the parts in the ISO 8178 series, can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
Introduction

In comparison with engines for on-road applications, engines for non-road use are made in a much

wider range of power output and configuration and are used in a great number of different applications.

The objective of this document is to rationalize the test procedures for non-road engines in order

to simplify and make more cost effective the drafting of legislation, the development of engine

specifications and the certification of engines to control gaseous and particulate emissions.

This document embraces three concepts in order to achieve the objectives.

The first principle is to group applications with similar engine operating characteristics in order to

reduce the number of test cycles to a minimum, but ensure that the test cycles are representative of

actual engine operation.

The second principle is to express the emissions results on the basis of brake power as defined in

ISO 8178-1. This ensures that alternative engine applications do not result in a multiplicity of tests.

The third principle is the incorporation of an engine family concept in which engines with similar

emission characteristics and of similar design may be represented by the highest emitting engine

within the group.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8178-4:2020(E)
Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Exhaust
emission measurement —
Part 4:
Steady-state and transient test cycles for different engine
applications
1 Scope

This document specifies the test cycles, the test procedures and the evaluation of gaseous and

particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines coupled to a

dynamometer. With certain restrictions, this document can also be used for measurements at site.

The tests are carried out under steady-state and transient operation using test cycles which are

representative of given applications.

This document is applicable to RIC engines for mobile, transportable and stationary use, excluding

engines for on-road transport of passengers and goods. It can be applied to engines for non-road use, e.g.

for earth-moving machines, generating sets and for other applications. For engines used in machinery

covered by additional requirements (e.g. occupational health and safety regulations, regulations for

power plants), additional test c
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 8178-4
Quatrième édition
2020-06
Moteurs alternatifs à combustion
interne — Mesurage des émissions de
gaz d'échappement —
Partie 4:
Cycles d'essai à l'état stable et
transitoires pour différentes
applications des moteurs
Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Exhaust emission
measurement —
Part 4: Steady-state and transient test cycles for different engine
applications
Numéro de référence
ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symboles et abréviations ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

4.1 Symboles généraux...........................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Symboles et abréviations pour la composition des carburants .................................................................14

4.3 Symboles et abréviations des composés chimiques ............................................................................................14

4.4 Abréviations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

5 Conditions d’essai .............................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Conditions d’essai des moteurs .............................................................................................................................................16

5.1.1 Conditions de laboratoire......................................................................................................................................16

5.1.2 Validité des essais ........................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Puissance du moteur ......................................................................................................................................................................17

5.2.1 Accessoires à monter pour l’essai ..................................................................................................................17

5.2.2 Accessoires à démonter pour l’essai ............................................................................................................17

5.2.3 Détermination de la puissance absorbée par les accessoires ................................................17

5.2.4 Travail produit le moteur au cours du cycle .........................................................................................18

5.3 Système d’admission du moteur ...........................................................................................................................................18

5.3.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................18

5.3.2 Perte de charge à l’admission ............................................................................................................................18

5.3.3 Moteurs à refroidisseur intermédiaire ......................................................................................................18

5.4 Système d’échappement du moteur ..................................................................................................................................19

5.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................19

5.4.2 Perte de charge à l’échappement ....................................................................................................................19

5.4.3 Moteur avec système de traitement aval des gaz d’échappement .....................................19

5.5 Conditions d’essai spécifiques ................................................................................................................................................20

5.5.1 Moteur avec système de traitement aval des gaz d’échappement .....................................20

5.5.2 Émissions de gaz de carter ...................................................................................................................................24

5.6 Système de refroidissement .....................................................................................................................................................25

5.7 Huile lubrifiante ..................................................................................................................................................................................25

6 Carburants d’essai ...........................................................................................................................................................................................25

7 Cycles d’essai .........................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2 Régimes d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.1 Régime d’essai maximal (MTS) ........................................................................................................................26

7.2.2 Régime nominal .............................................................................................................................................................27

7.2.3 Régime intermédiaire ...............................................................................................................................................27

7.2.4 Régime de ralenti ...................................................................... ....................................................................................28

7.2.5 Régime d’essai pour les moteurs à régime constant ......................................................................28

7.3 Couple et puissance .........................................................................................................................................................................28

7.3.1 Couple.....................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.3.2 Puissance .............................................................................................................................................................................29

7.4 Cartographie des moteurs ..........................................................................................................................................................30

7.4.1 Cartographie des moteurs pour des cycles transitoires .............................................................31

7.4.2 Cartographie des moteurs pour des cycles en régime permanent ....................................32

7.4.3 Cartographie des moteurs à régime constant ......................................................................................32

7.5 Cycles d’essai en régime permanent .................................................................................................................................33

7.5.1 Cycles d’essai à modes discrets ........................................................................................................................34

7.5.2 Cycles d’essai à modes raccordés ...................................................................................................................35

7.5.3 Types de cycles et applicabilité ........................................................................................................................36

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ISO 8178-4:2020(F)

7.6 Cycles transitoires .............................................................................................................................................................................40

7.6.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................40

7.6.2 Cycle transitoire non routier (NRTC) ..........................................................................................................40

7.6.3 Cycle transitoire non routier pour les gros moteurs à allumage par étincelle ........41

7.7 Établissement des cycles d’essai ..........................................................................................................................................41

7.7.1 Établissement de cycles d’essai en régime permanent à modes discrets ou

à modes raccordés .......................................................................................................................................................41

7.7.2 Établissement de NRTC et LSI-NRTC ...........................................................................................................43

8 Conduite de l’essai ...........................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.1 Séquence d’essai générale ..........................................................................................................................................................45

8.2 Validation de l’instrument pour l’essai ...........................................................................................................................47

8.2.1 Validation du contrôle de débit proportionnel pour le prélèvement par

lots et taux de dilution minimal pour le prélèvement par lots de MP ............................47

8.2.2 Validation de la plage de fonctionnement des analyseurs de gaz, validation

et correction de la dérive .......................................................................................................................................48

8.2.3 Préconditionnement et pesage du poids à vide du support de prélèvement

des MP (par exemple les filtres) ......................................................................................................................49

8.3 Décontamination et préconditionnement du système de prélèvement .............................................51

8.3.1 Vérification de la contamination par les hydrocarbures (HC) ...............................................52

8.4 Modes opératoires avant essai ...............................................................................................................................................52

8.4.1 Préparation des filtres de collecte .................................................................................................................52

8.4.2 Exigences générales pour le préconditionnement du système

d’échantillonnage et du moteur .......................................................................................................................53

8.4.3 Refroidissement du moteur (NRTC) ............................................................................................................54

8.4.4 Préparation des instruments de mesure en vue du prélèvement ......................................54

8.4.5 Étalonnage des analyseurs de gaz..................................................................................................................55

8.4.6 Réglage du système de dilution .................. ......................................................................................................55

8.5 Démarrage du moteur et redémarrage ...........................................................................................................................55

8.5.1 Démarrage du moteur ..............................................................................................................................................55

8.5.2 Calage du moteur ...................................................................... ....................................................................................56

8.6 Mode opératoire d’exécution du cycle d’essai ..........................................................................................................56

8.6.1 Séquence d’essai pour des cycles d’essai en régime permanent à modes

discrets ..................................................................................................................................................................................56

8.6.2 Cycles d’essai à modes raccordés ...................................................................................................................57

8.6.3 Cycle d’essai transitoire (NRTC et LSI-NRTC) ......................................................................................59

8.7 Modes opératoires après essais ............................................................................................................................................62

8.7.1 Vérification du prélèvement proportionnel ..........................................................................................62

8.7.2 Conditionnement et pesage des MP après l’essai .............................................................................62

8.7.3 Analyse du prélèvement par lots gazeux .................................................................................................63

8.7.4 Vérification de la dérive ..........................................................................................................................................63

9 Évaluation des données et calcul ......................................................................................................................................................63

9.1 Émissions gazeuses ..........................................................................................................................................................................63

9.1.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................64

9.1.2 Prélèvement des émissions gazeuses .........................................................................................................64

9.1.3 Évaluation des données ..........................................................................................................................................65

9.1.4 Calcul des émissions massiques ......................................................................................................................66

9.1.5 Correction état sec/état humide .....................................................................................................................73

9.1.6 Correction des NO en fonction de l’humidité et de la température ................................76

9.1.7 Travail et émissions spécifiques au cours du cycle d’essai.......................................................77

9.1.8 Évaluation des données relatives au NH ..................................................................................................

3 79

9.2 Émissions massiques de particules ....................................................................................................................................79

9.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................79

9.2.2 Prélèvement des particules .................................................................................................................................80

9.2.3 Évaluation des données ..........................................................................................................................................80

9.2.4 Calcul des émissions massiques ......................................................................................................................80

9.2.5 Coefficient de pondération effectif (cycles en régime permanent à modes

discrets uniquement) ................................................................................................................................................86

iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
9.3 Ajustements pour les contrôles d’émission qui sont régénérés de manière

périodique (peu fréquente) ......................................................................................................................................................86

9.4 Émissions en nombres de particules ................................................................................................................................87

9.4.1 Alignement temporel ................................................................................................................................................87

9.4.2 Détermination du nombre de particules dans un cycle transitoire ou
à modes raccordés avec un système de dilution du flux partiel ou un

système de prélèvement de gaz bruts ........................................................................................................87

9.4.3 Détermination du nombre de particules dans un cycle transitoire ou à

modes raccordés avec un système de dilution du flux total ....................................................88

9.4.4 Détermination des nombres de particules des cycles à modes discrets

avec un système de dilution du flux partiel ou l'échantillonnage de gaz brut .........89

9.4.5 Détermination des nombres de particules des cycles à modes discrets

avec un système de dilution du flux total ................................................................................................91

9.4.6 Résultat d’essai ...............................................................................................................................................................92

9.4.7 Détermination des concentrations ambiantes en nombres de particules ..................94

9.5 Exigences spécifiques pour les moteurs à deux carburants .........................................................................94

9.5.1 Exigences relatives aux modes opératoires d’essai d’émissions pour les

moteurs à deux carburants ..................................................................................................................................94

9.5.2 Détermination des rapports molaires des constituants et des valeurs de

u pour les moteurs à deux carburants .................................................................................................98

gas

10 Zone de contrôle du moteur ..............................................................................................................................................................100

10.1 Remarques générales ..................................................................................................................................................................100

10.2 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis aux cycles d’essai C1, C2, E1 et H ..........................100

10.3 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis aux cycles d’essai D1, D2, E2, G1, G2 et G3 ...103

10.4 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis au cycle d’essai I ...................................................................103

10.5 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis aux cycles d’essai E3 et E5 ..........................................104

10.5.1 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs marins à allumage par compression ................104

10.5.2 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis au cycle d’essai E4 ........................................107

10.5.3 Zone de contrôle pour les moteurs soumis au cycle d’essai F ............................................108

Annexe A (normative) Cycles d’essai à modes discrets en régime permanent .................................................110

Annexe B (normative) Cycles d’essai en régime permanent à modes raccordés (RMCs) .......................115

Annexe C (normative) Cycles d’essai transitoires ............................................................................................................................121

Annexe D (informative) Calcul du débit-masse des gaz d’échappement et/ou du débit-

masse de l’air comburant .....................................................................................................................................................................179

Annexe E (Informative) Exemple de programme de calcul des valeurs de débit-masse des

gaz d’échappement......................................................................................................................................................................................200

Annexe F (Informative) Exemple d’un mode opératoire de calcul (débit brut/partiel) ..........................202

Annexe G (normative) Exigences relatives à l’installation des équipements et des accessoires....205

Annexe H (normative) Calcul des émissions en fonction de la molarité ..................................................................208

Bibliographie .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................250

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 70, Moteurs à combustion interne,

sous-comité SC 8, Mesurage des émissions de gaz d’échappement.

Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition (ISO 8178-4:2017) qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— modification des informations relatives à la détermination de la concentration;

— révision de l'évaluation de l'émission du nombre de particules;
— ajout d'équipements électriques dans le tableau auxiliaire;

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 8178, peut être trouvée sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
Introduction

Par comparaison avec les moteurs pour applications routières, les moteurs pour applications non

routières sont réalisés sur une gamme beaucoup plus large de puissances de sortie et de configurations

et sont utilisés dans un grand nombre d’applications différentes.

L’objectif du présent document est de rationaliser les modes opératoires d’essai pour les moteurs

pour applications non routières, afin de simplifier et de rendre plus rentables la préparation de la

réglementation, le développement des spécifications des moteurs et la certification des moteurs en ce

qui concerne le contrôle des émissions de gaz et de particules.
Le présent document englobe trois concepts permettant d’atteindre ces objectifs.

Le premier principe consiste à grouper les applications qui présentent des caractéristiques similaires

de fonctionnement des moteurs, afin de réduire le nombre de cycles d’essai à un minimum, mais en

garantissant que les cycles d’essai sont représentatifs du fonctionnement réel du moteur.

Le deuxième principe consiste à exprimer les résultats des émissions en fonction de la puissance au

frein telle que définie dans l’ISO 8178-1 afin de garantir que les variantes d’application des moteurs ne

conduisent pas à une multiplicité d’essais.

Le troisième principe est l’introduction du concept de famille de moteurs qui regroupe des moteurs aux

caractéristiques similaires d’émission et conception et dont un représentant peut être le moteur qui

présente les plus fortes émissions à l’intérieur du groupe.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 8178-4:2020(F)
Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne — Mesurage des
émissions de gaz d'échappement —
Partie 4:
Cycles d'essai à l'état stable et transitoires pour différentes
applications des moteurs
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie les cycles d’essai, les modes opératoires d’essai et l’évaluation des

émissions de gaz et de particules des gaz d’échappement des moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne

couplés à un dynamomètre. Avec certaines restrictions, le présent document peut également être

utilisé pour les mesurages sur site. Les essais sont effectués avec le moteur en régime permanent ou

transitoire, en utilisant les cycles d
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 8178-4
ISO/TC 70/SC 8
Reciprocating internal combustion
Secretariat: DIN
engines — Exhaust emission
Voting begins on:
2020-03-23 measurement —
Voting terminates on:
Part 4:
2020-05-18
Steady-state and transient test cycles
for different engine applications
Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne — Mesurage des émissions
de gaz d'échappement —
Partie 4: Cycles d'essai en régimes permanent et transitoire pour
différentes applications des moteurs
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................11

4.1 General symbols ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms for fuel composition .......................................................................................13

4.3 Symbols and abbreviated terms for chemical components ..........................................................................14

4.4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.1 Engine test conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................15

5.1.1 Laboratory test conditions ...................................................................................................................................15

5.1.2 Test validity .......................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Engine power ........................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2.1 Auxiliaries to be fitted ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.2.2 Auxiliaries to be removed .....................................................................................................................................16

5.2.3 Determination of auxiliary power .................................................................................................................17

5.2.4 Engine cycle work ........................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Engine intake air .................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.2 Intake air restriction ..................................................................................................................................................17

5.3.3 Engines with charge air cooling .......................................................................................................................18

5.4 Engine exhaust system ..................................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.2 Exhaust restriction ......................................................................................................................................................18

5.4.3 Engine with exhaust after-treatment system .......................................................................................18

5.5 Specific test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................19

5.5.1 Engine with exhaust after-treatment system .......................................................................................19

5.5.2 Crankcase emissions..................................................................................................................................................22

5.6 Cooling system .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

5.7 Lubricating oil .......................................................................................................................................................................................23

6 Test fuels ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

7 Test cycles .................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2 Test speeds ..............................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2.1 Maximum test speed (MTS) ................................................................................................................................24

7.2.2 Rated speed .......................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Intermediate speed .....................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.4 Idle speed ............................................................................................................................................................................26

7.2.5 Test speed for constant-speed engines......................................................................................................26

7.3 Torque and power .............................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.1 Torque ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3.2 Power ......................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.4 Engine mapping ..................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.4.1 Engine mapping for transient cycles ...........................................................................................................29

7.4.2 Engine mapping for variable-speed steady-state cycles .............................................................30

7.4.3 Engine mapping for constant-speed engines .......................................................................................30

7.5 Steady-state test cycles .................................................................................................................................................................31

7.5.1 Discrete mode test cycles ......................................................................................................................................31

7.5.2 Ramped-modal test cycles ....................................................................................................................................33

7.5.3 Cycle types and applicability ..............................................................................................................................33

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)

7.6 Transient cycles ...................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.6.2 Non-road transient cycle (NRTC) ...................................................................................................................37

7.6.3 Large spark-ignition non-road transient cycle ...................................................................................38

7.7 Test cycle generation ......................................................................................................................................................................38

7.7.1 Generation of steady-state discrete-mode or RMC test cycles ..............................................38

7.7.2 Generation of NRTC and LSI-NRTC ...............................................................................................................39

8 Test run........................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.1 General test sequence ....................................................................................................................................................................42

8.2 Instrument validation for test .................................................................................................................................................44

8.2.1 Validation of proportional flow control for batch sampling and minimum

dilution ratio for PM batch sampling...........................................................................................................44

8.2.2 Gas analyser range validation, drift validation and drift correction ................................45

8.2.3 PM sampling media (e.g. filters) preconditioning and tare weighing .............................45

8.3 Sample system decontamination and preconditioning ....................................................................................47

8.3.1 Verification of HC contamination ...................................................................................................................48

8.4 Pre-test procedures .........................................................................................................................................................................49

8.4.1 Preparation of the sampling filters ...............................................................................................................49

8.4.2 General requirements for preconditioning the sampling system and the engine 49

8.4.3 Engine cool down (NRTC) .....................................................................................................................................50

8.4.4 Preparation of measurement equipment for sampling ...............................................................50

8.4.5 Calibration of gas analysers .................................................................................................................................51

8.4.6 Adjustment of the dilution system ................................................................................................................51

8.5 Engine starting and restarting................................................................................................................................................51

8.5.1 Engine start .......................................................................................................................................................................51

8.5.2 Engine stalling .................................................................................................................................................................51

8.6 Test cycle running procedure ..................................................................................................................................................52

8.6.1 Test sequence for discrete steady-state test cycles .........................................................................52

8.6.2 Ramped-modal test cycles ....................................................................................................................................53

8.6.3 Transient test cycle (NRTC and LSI-NRTC) ............................................................................................54

8.7 Post-test procedures .......................................................................................................................................................................57

8.7.1 Verification of proportional sampling ........................................................................................................57

8.7.2 Post-test PM conditioning and weighing .................................................................................................57

8.7.3 Analysis of gaseous batch sampling .............................................................................................................58

8.7.4 Drift verification ............................................................................................................................................................59

9 Data evaluation and calculation ........................................................................................................................................................59

9.1 Gaseous emissions ............................................................................................................................................................................59

9.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................59

9.1.2 Sampling for gaseous emissions ......................................................................................................................59

9.1.3 Data evaluation ..............................................................................................................................................................61

9.1.4 Calculation of mass emission .............................................................................................................................61

9.1.5 Dry/wet correction .....................................................................................................................................................67

9.1.6 NO correction for humidity and temperature ...................................................................................71

9.1.7 Cycle work and specific emissions ................................................................................................................71

9.1.8 NH data evaluation ...................................................................................................................................................73

9.2 Particulate mass emission ..........................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.2 Particulate sampling ..................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.3 Data evaluation ..............................................................................................................................................................74

9.2.4 Calculation of mass emission .............................................................................................................................75

9.2.5 Effective weighting factor (steady-state discrete cycles only)...............................................80

9.3 Adjustment for emission controls that are regenerated on an infrequent (periodic)

basis ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................80

9.4 Particle number emission ...........................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.1 Time alignment ..............................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.2 Determination of particle numbers for transient and ramped-modal

cycles (RMC) with a partial flow dilution or raw gas sampling system.........................81

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
9.4.3 Determination of particle numbers for transient and ramped-modal

cycles (RMC) with a full flow dilution system .....................................................................................82

9.4.4 Determination of particles numbers for discrete-mode cycles with partial

flow dilution or raw gas sampling system ..............................................................................................83

9.4.5 Determination of particle numbers for discrete-mode cycles with a full

flow dilution system...................................................................................................................................................85

9.4.6 Test result ...................................................................... ......................................................................................................85

9.4.7 Determination of particle number background .................................................................................87

9.5 Specific requirements for dual-fuel engines ...............................................................................................................87

9.5.1 Emission test procedure requirements for dual-fuel engines ...............................................87

9.5.2 Determination of molar component ratios and u values for dual-fuel engines 91

gas

10 Engine control area .........................................................................................................................................................................................93

10.1 General remarks .................................................................................................................................................................................93

10.2 Control area for engines tested to cycles C1, C2, E1 and H ............................................................................93

10.3 Control area for engines tested to cycles D1, D2, E2, G1, G2 and G3 .....................................................95

10.4 Control area for engines tested to test cycle I ...........................................................................................................95

10.5 Control area for engines tested to E3 and E5 test cycle ....................................................................................96

10.5.1 Control area for CI marine engines ...............................................................................................................96

10.5.2 Control area for engines tested to the E4 test cycle .......................................................................99

10.5.3 Control area for engines tested to the F cycle ...................................................................................100

Annex A (normative) Steady-state discrete-mode test-cycles .............................................................................................102

Annex B (normative) Steady-state ramped-modal test cycles (RMCs) .......................................................................107

Annex C (normative) Transient test cycles..............................................................................................................................................113

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the exhaust gas mass flow and/or of the combustion

air mass flow ......................................................................................................................................................................................................171

Annex E (informative) Example programme for calculation of exhaust mass flows ...................................192

Annex F (informative) Example of calculation procedure (raw/partial flow) ...................................................194

Annex G (normative) Installation requirements for equipment and auxiliaries ...........................................197

Annex H (normative) Molar based emission calculations ......................................................................................................199

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................239

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 70, Reciprocating internal combustion engines,

Subcommittee SC 8, Exhaust gas emission measurement.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 8178-4:2017), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— amendment of the information regarding the determination of the background concentration;

— revision of particle number emission evaluation;
— addition of electrical equipment in the auxiliary table;
A list of all the parts in the ISO 8178 series, can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
Introduction

In comparison with engines for on-road applications, engines for non-road use are made in a much

wider range of power output and configuration and are used in a great number of different applications.

The objective of this document is to rationalize the test procedures for non-road engines in order

to simplify and make more cost effective the drafting of legislation, the development of engine

specifications and the certification of engines to control gaseous and particulate emissions.

This document embraces three concepts in order to achieve the objectives.

The first principle is to group applications with similar engine operating characteristics in order to

reduce the number of test cycles to a minimum, but ensure that the test cycles are representative of

actual engine operation.

The second principle is to express the emissions results on the basis of brake power as defined in

ISO 8178-1. This ensures that alternative engine applications do not result in a multiplicity of tests.

The third principle is the incorporation of an engine family concept in which engines with similar

emission characteristics and of similar design may be represented by the highest emitting engine

within the group.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 8178-4:2020(E)
Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Exhaust
emission measurement —
Part 4:
Steady-state and transient test cycles for different engine
applications
1 Scope

This document specifies the test cycles, the test procedures and the evaluation of gaseous and

particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines coupled to a

dynamometer. With certain res
...

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