Information technology -- Radio frequency identification device performance test methods

This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID interrogators and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for interrogators which are applicable to the selection of the devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified interrogator datasheet.

Technologies de l'information -- Méthodes d'essai des performances du dispositif d'identification par radiofréquence

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Published
Publication Date
18-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
12-Feb-2020
Completion Date
19-Mar-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18046-2
Second edition
2020-03
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification device
performance test methods —
Part 2:
Test methods for interrogator
performance
Technologies de l'information — Méthodes d'essai des performances
du dispositif d'identification par radiofréquence —
Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai des performances de l'interrogateur
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Number of interrogators to be tested.................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 RF environment ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.8 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.9 TE limits ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.10 Human exposure to EMF ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Setup of TE for interrogator test .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-3 interrogators ....................................................... 4

6.2 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/

IEC 18000-63, ISO/IEC 18000-64 interrogators ....................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-7 interrogators ....................................................... 5

7 Functional tests for inductive interrogators as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-2 and ISO/

IEC 18000-3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.1 Interrogator sensitivity in Listen mode (Receiving mode) ............................................................................... 7

7.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.3 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2 Interference rejection (I ) .............................................................................................................................................. 8

Rejection

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Maximum EMF exposure (E ) ...........................................................................................................................................10

max

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Ratio between field radiated and power consumption .....................................................................................10

7.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.5 Field strength distribution .........................................................................................................................................................11

7.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Functional tests for interrogators as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-6 and in particular

ISO/IEC 18000-63 .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Receiver sensitivity for UHF interrogators using wave propagation ....................................................12

8.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)

8.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Inductive UHF interrogators ....................................................................................................................................................16

9 Functional tests for 433,920 MHz propagative interrogators as defined in ISO/

IEC 18000-7 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1 Identification electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency
THR Identification

tolerance ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2 Reading/writing electromagnetic field threshold (E ) and frequency
THR Read/Write

tolerance ....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................18

9.2.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

9.3 Sensitivity directivity (S ) .........................................................................................................................................20

Directivity

9.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................20

9.3.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................21

9.4 Interference rejection (I ) ...........................................................................................................................................22

Rejection

9.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

9.4.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................22

9.4.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................23

9.5 Maximum operating electromagnetic field (E ) ............................................................................23

Max Operating

9.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.5.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................23

9.5.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................24

9.6 Survival electromagnetic field (E ) .......................................................................................................................24

Survival

9.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.6.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................25

9.6.3 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................25

Annexe A (normative) Backscatter power measurement ...........................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18046-2:2011), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— addition of test methods for UHF RFID in the 860-930 MHz in Clause 7.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18046 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
Introduction

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has broad applicability to the automatic identification

and data capture (AIDC) industry in item management. As a wireless communication technique based

on radio frequency technology, the applications cover multiple levels of the industrial, commercial and

retail supply chains. These can include:
— freight containers,
— returnable transport items (RTI),
— transport units,
— product packaging, and
— product tagging.

Performance tests define test methods which deliver results that allow the comparison of different

RFID systems, interrogators and tags in order to select among them for use in a particular application.

The performance characteristics of devices (tags and interrogation equipment) can vary drastically due

to application factors as well as the particular RFID air interface (frequency, modulation, protocol, etc.)

being supported. Of key concern is the matching of the various performance characteristics to the user

application. Additionally, in an open environment, users of such technology demand multiple sources

for these devices from technology providers. A key challenge is a method of evaluating the differences

between various technology providers' products in a consistent and equitable manner.

This document provides a framework for meeting the above noted concerns and challenges. To this end,

clear definitions of performance as related to user application of RFID technology in the supply chain

are provided. Based on such application-based definitions, test methods are defined with attention to

the test parameters required for a consistent evaluation of RFID devices.

Of particular significance, these tests are defined for RFID devices with one antenna. It is common

practice to have products with both single and multiple antennae to define an RFID transaction zone

sufficient for the application. The defined test methods used are for a single antenna but can equivalently

be extended to equipment with multiple antennae, in order to evaluate performance under conditions

more closely matching those of a particular application. However, it is important to exercise care in

multiple-antenna measurement since multiple antennae can cause antenna-to-antenna interactions,

physical packaging limitations, mutual coupling issues, shadowing issues, directivity issues and other

impacts, even with respect to interrogators since these can be limited in size, shape and mounting

method for many RFID applications.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device performance test methods —
Part 2:
Test methods for interrogator performance
1 Scope

This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID interrogators and

specifies the general requirements and test requirements for interrogators which are applicable to the

selection of the devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified interrogator

datasheet.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-2, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 18000-7, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Part 7:

Parameters for active air interface communications at 433 MHz

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
electromagnetic field threshold
THR
identification electromagnetic field threshold
THR Identification
reading electromagnetic field threshold
THR Read
writing electromagnetic field threshold
THR Write
maximum electromagnetic field exposure
Max
maximum operating electromagnetic field
Max Operating
survival electromagnetic field
Survival
interference rejection
Rejection
D distance between the tag and the antenna
interrogator receiver sensitivity power level
rcv
tag backscatter power
back
interrogator transmit power
power received on the spectrum analyser
antenna factor of the reference antenna
|ΔC| loss of cable
field strength
sensitivity directivity
Directivity
G antenna gain
frequency tag side band left
tsbl
frequency tag side band right
tsbr
4.2 Abbreviated terms
LM load modulation
EMF electromagnetic field
DUT device under test
MPE maximum permissible human exposure
SAR specific absorption rate
TE test equipment
RF radio frequency
2 © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
RFID radio frequency identification
RTI returnable transport items
UHF ultra high frequency
AIDC automatic identification and data capture
BLF backscatter link frequency
UII unique item identifier
5 Conditions applicable to the test methods
5.1 Number of interrogators to be tested

All measurements defined in this document shall be performed at least on a single interrogator, but

higher sampling numbers can be required for statistical purposes.
5.2 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in an air environment of temperature (23 ± 3) °C

[(73 ± 5) °F] with relative humidity within the range of 40 % to 60 %.
5.3 RF environment
The tests shall be performed in a known RF environment.

For measurements of propagative UHF interrogators (see ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-7), an

anechoic chamber is the recommended test environment. The size of the anechoic chamber shall be

justified based on the dimensions of the test setup.

For measurement of inductive interrogators, a typical laboratory environment is sufficient, where

consideration is given to minimize the impact of electromagnetic sources that can influence the results.

5.4 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification interrogators to be tested

shall be conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 hours before testing.

5.5 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of ±5 % shall be applied to the quantity values given to

specify the characteristics of the TE (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method procedures (e.g. TE

adjustments).
For power values represented in dB or dBm, the tolerance shall be ±0,5 dB.
NOTE ±0,5 dB is approximately ±12 % of the non-logarithmics value.
5.6 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 18046-2:2020(E)
5.7 Test result reporting

Each test result shall be reported with the DUTs tested. For statistical evaluation, optionally, the

minimum value, maximum value, mean value and standard deviation may be reported as well.

5.8 Test communication parameters

All of the tests may be carried out for various communication parameters (forward and return link).

The test conditions shall be recorded in the test report.
5.9 TE limits

TE for survival field maximum level shall be able to handle the maximum level declared by the product

vendor. It shall be ensured that the TE is not limiting the performance measurement.

5.10 Human exposure to EMF

High magnetic or electromagnetic field strength may exceed the limits of maximum permissible

human exposure to EMF, which should be considered accordingly. FCC guidelines for MPE and SAR or

EC 1999/519/CE are examples for relevant documents.
6 Setup of TE for interrogator test
6.1 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-3 interrogators

The specification for ISO/IEC 18000-3 tags and interrogators specifies an operating frequency of

13,56 MHz ± 7 kHz. Since both the interrogator and the tag may be shifted by 516 ppm and potentially

in opposite directions, it is necessary for the interrogator to function with a tag simulator that may

be ±1032 ppm (±14 kHz) relative to the nominal centre frequency of the interrogator under test.

This frequency adjustment is made using only the tag simulator's signal source since there might be no

convenient way to adjust the frequency of the interrogator being evaluated. The relative interrogator to

tag frequency shift is still achieved using this method.

For convenience in setting up the signal source in the tag simulator, use a low carrier frequency at

13,546 MHz, a nominal centre frequency at 13,560 MHz, and a high carrier frequency at 13,574 MHz for

all frequency offset tests.

Unless defined differently in the test description, the set up of all TE shall be in an anechoic chamber

or some other fully characterized and controlled location that is free from interference sources and

propagation influences, such as significant signal reflections, absorptions, or blockages.

Unless otherwise specified, all the tests should be run using a known reference antenna attached to the

tag simulator.

The tag simulator used for these tests shall be able to receive interrogator commands and transmit

tag replies in conformance with ISO/IEC 18000-3. The command decoder needs to provide a signal to

trigger a prope
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