Electronic record books for ships -- Technical specifications and operational requirements

This document specifies the minimum technical and operational requirements for electronic record books (ELRB) to be used on ships. It aims at providing manufacturers, operators, maritime administrations and owners with a technical background for the replacement of paper logbooks.

Journaux de bord électroniques -- Spécifications techniques et exigences opérationnelles

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Publication Date
02-Sep-2019
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Aug-2019
Completion Date
03-Sep-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21745
First edition
2019-09
Electronic record books for ships —
Technical specifications and
operational requirements
Journaux de bord électroniques — Spécifications techniques et
exigences opérationnelles
Reference number
ISO 21745:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 System requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.1 Power supply ...................................................................... ................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Functional requirements ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Data storage ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.2 Record management ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 System output ..................................................................................................................................................................10

4.2.4 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.2.5 System availability .......................................................................................................................................................11

4.3 Human-machine interface ..........................................................................................................................................................11

4.3.1 Ergonomic criteria.......................................................................................................................................................11

4.4 System updates ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 Updates to the electronic record book .......................................................................................................11

5 Test methods and required results ................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1.1 Power supply ...................................................................... ..............................................................................................12

5.2 Functional requirements .............................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.1 Data storage ......................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.2 Record management ..................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.3 System output ..................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2.4 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................16

5.3 Human-machine interface ..........................................................................................................................................................17

5.4 System updates ....................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.4.1 System update of the ELRB ..................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (normative) Alert sentence (ALF) formatter .....................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 11, Intermodal and Short Sea Shipping.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to maritime industry demand and International Maritime

Organization (IMO) request for a standard providing requirements for the design and testing of

electronic record books on ships. The industry momentum towards paperless systems enhances the

need of such a standard with technical and operational requirements for electronic record books.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21745:2019(E)
Electronic record books for ships — Technical
specifications and operational requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum technical and operational requirements for electronic record

books (ELRB) to be used on ships.

It aims at providing manufacturers, operators, maritime administrations and owners with a technical

background for the replacement of paper logbooks.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all their content

constitute requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60945, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — General

requirements — Methods of testing and required results
IEC 61162-1:2016, Single talker and multiple listeners
IEC 61162-2:2016, Single talker and multiple listeners, high-speed transmission

IEC 61162-450, Multiple talkers and multiple listeners — Ethernet interconnection

IEC 61162-460, Multiple talkers and multiple listeners — Ethernet interconnection — Safety and Security

IEC 62923:2018, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Bridge alert

management

IMO Resolution MSC 302(87), Adoption of performance standards for Bridge Alert Management

IMO Resolution MSC 333(90), Adoption of revised performance standards for shipborne voyage data

recorders (VDRs)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
administration
government of the State under whose authority the ship is operating

Note 1 to entry: With respect to fixed or floating platforms engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed

and subsoil thereof adjacent to the coast over which the coastal State exercises sovereign rights for the purposes

of exploration and exploitation of their natural resources, the administration is the government of the coastal

State concerned.
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
3.2
analytical evaluation

detailed examination of the presentation of information to confirm that a particular condition has

been met

Note 1 to entry: Analytical evaluations can be made by a relevant expert with the necessary education, skills

and/or experience to make an informed and reliable judgement concerning the presentation of information,

its appropriateness, and usability. It is used for the evaluation of properties which can be judged only in the

context of other information or knowledge which requires the tester presentation. Compliance is determined by

comparing the observed property to the requirement.
3.3
audit logging

logs recording user activities, exceptions, and information security events, where logs are kept for an

agreed period to assist in future investigations and access control monitoring
3.4
authorized person

operator with enough clearance to handle an electronic record book (ELRB) (3.12) appointed by the

ships master

Note 1 to entry: Each authorized person is registered on the electronic approval system (3.11), and the authorized

person is controlled by the personal name or another personal identification data such as the passport number.

3.5
automatic record

data input generated by any other electronic device integrated to the electronic record book (ELRB) (3.12)

3.6
back-up

means to make a duplicate copy of a file, program, etc. as a safeguard against loss or corruption of the

original
3.7 data
3.7.1
automatically collected data

data that has been collected and stored by automatic means but has not been approved by a human user

3.7.2
edit history data

history of changes in one record, including the editor, edited content and time and date of the edit

3.7.3
record book data

data entered manually by an authenticated user, or if based on automatically collected data (3.7.1) after

an authenticated user has verified it

Note 1 to entry: This data must be included in all output, backups, sending to VDR, etc.

3.7.4
signed record book data
data which is closed from editing after having been signed by the master
3.8
bridge

area from which the navigation and control of the ship is exercised, including the wheelhouse and

bridge wings
[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.7]
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
3.9
bridge configuration

shape of the bridge (3.8), comprising the outer bulkheads and windows of the bridge area

[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.9]
3.10
display

means by which a device presents visual information to the operator, including conventional

instrumentation
[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.20]
3.11
electronic approval system

system which identifies the person by using ID and password or biometrics authentication or an

equivalent system such as that recommended in ISO 7498-2 that could ensure a unique private profile

for every user
3.12
electronic record book
ELRB

device or system used to electronically record or store events that occur on board such as the state of

the ship and its equipment

Note 1 to entry: SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 28 and IMO resolution A.916(22) specify provisions in relation with

records of navigational activities and entries for discharge, transfers and other operations as required under

MARPOL annexes.
3.13
ergonomics

study and design of working environments and their components, work practices, and work procedures

for the benefit of the worker’s productivity, health, comfort and safety
[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.25]
3.14
functional unit

entity of hardware, software, or both, capable of accomplishing a specified purpose

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121310, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry were deleted.]

3.15
guideline

non-mandatory information leading to a compliant solution for the related requirement

[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.29]
3.16
manual input
data input generated by the intervention of a human
3.17
master
ship’s captain and the person in overall charge of the ship

Note 1 to entry: Information recorded and stored in the electronic record book (ELRB) (3.12) is taken as an official

record from which the master is held responsible.
[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.35, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
3.18
navigation

process of position-finding as well as planning, controlling and recording the movement of a ship from

one place to another
[SOURCE: ISO 8468:2007, 3.1.38]
3.19
official record evidence

information considered as real and being legally recognized as a faithful statement of fact

3.20
paper logbook

hard copy book approved by an administration (3.1) where a ship is registered, where records of

operations, maintenance, safety, security, environmental protection measures and training are

permanently saved as required by the administration
3.21
removable external data source
REDS

user removable non-network data source, including, but not limited to compact discs, memory sticks,

and Bluetooth devices

Note 1 to entry: Bluetooth is the trademark of a product supplied by Bluetooth Special Interest Group 91.

[SOURCE: IEC 61162-460]
3.22
Role Based Access Control
RBAC
access privileges that are assigned to specific roles
Note 1 to entry: Access users acquire privileges through their assigned role.
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16484-5:2017, 3.2.
3.23
server

functional unit that provides services to workstations, personal computers or other functional units in

a computer network
3.24
storage

functional unit into which data can be placed, in which they can be retained, and from which they can

be retrieved

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121280 modified – The preferred term, storage device, and the Notes to

entry have been deleted.]
3.25
update

immediate or planned activity to update the electronic record book (ELRB) (3.12) used onboard a vessel

to ensure that the ELRB remains compliant with the most recent international conventions

4 System requirements
4.1 General requirements

The ELRB shall allow storage of events such as the state of the ship either by means of manual or

automatic input. The automatic input may be based on connection to other equipment on board. The

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ISO 21745:2019(E)

implementation of ELRBs is highly encouraged as it offers improvement in the reliability of recording of

events, offers improved redundancy in the storage of required records and reduces seafarer´s workload.

Information recorded and stored in the ELRB is taken as an official record and is equivalent to the

information recorded to a paper logbook as admissible evidence. An automatic record is recognized as

official if it has been approved by an authorized person.

When the information is recorded and stored by both means of ELRB and paper logbook, the

administration judges which takes precedence.

If the ELRB is unable to record and store the events and states due to a malfunction they shall be

recorded in an official paper logbook.

The ELRB shall comply with IEC 60945 regarding environmental requirements for electromagnetic

compatibility (EMC).
4.1.1 Power supply

It shall be possible to supply the ELRB with electrical power from both main and emergency power

supply. The ELRB shall be capable of automatically switching the power supply between the main and

emergency.

The recorded and stored data shall be protected from damage when electronic power supply from main

power supply and/or emergency power supply to ELRB is lost.
4.2 Functional requirements
4.2.1 Data storage

The information recorded and stored in the ELRB shall be the same as those of the paper logbooks.

The information shall be recorded and stored with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the location

(latitude and longitude) from approved source.
All time information recorded by the ELRB shall be referred to UTC.

Therefore, the internal ELRB clock shall be synchronized with time from the UTC source (e.g. GPS).

When the time from UTC source is not available, the time of the internal ELRB clock shall be used and

ELRB shall clearly indicate loss of synchronization to UTC, and also display which time source is in use.

ELRB recorded and stored data shall at least be written in the English language.
All information shall be presented by the ELRB in a clear and legible font.

The recorded and stored data shall be categorized into the following four types and each of them shall

be recorded in chronological order:
— automatically collected data;
— record book data;
— signed record book data;
— edit history data.
The approved source to ELRB should be approved by the IMO.
4.2.1.1 Tampering avoidance

The data recorded and stored in the ELRB are considered as official records and shall be protected

against tampering.
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ISO 21745:2019(E)

The automatic data value inputs shall be protected by measures aimed at preventing attempts at

manipulation or falsification. Any detectable attempt to manipulate or falsify any data shall be

automatically recorded by the system. Digital signatures shall be used as a counter measurement to

help preventing data manipulation, unauthorized access and detect possible fraud.

The ELRB shall adopt an electronic approval system which identifies the person using ELRB by means of

an ID and password, biometrics authentication or an equivalent system as recommended in ISO 7498-2

that could ensure a unique private profile for every user.

The recorded and stored data can be operated by an authorized person, only after the user’s

authorization is approved by an electronic approval system. An operational permission for an

authorized person differs depending on their access level. When editing the record book data and

signed record book data including manual inputs, users shall be identified by the electronic approval

system. The recording and storing of the contents and the data and time shall be edited independently

as part of the edit history data.

The ELRB shall be protected by proper information security techniques, e.g. IEC 61162-460, that ensure

the prevention of unauthorized access to the system and data.
4.2.1.2 REDSs
a) Physical protection

The number of connection points, e.g. USB ports, disc drives, shall be limited to the absolute

minimum required for the operation of the system and its lifetime maintenance and support. All

other points shall be physically blocked from easy access by a user without a tool or key.

b) Operational protection

Every single USB connection port shall be blocked from easy access by connecting to other devices.

Connection points used for access to data storage shall be configured to permit connection only to

data sources identified as USB device class 08h (USB mass storage).

For other operations with other USB device classes and non-USB REDS, the manufacturer

shall provide information about the technology used and how the connection point fulfils the

requirement to limit connection to only data storage devices or sources.
c) Executable program file verification

All automatic execution from REDS including auto-run shall be prohibited. Manual execution of

any type of file from REDS shall only be possible after passing authentication for accessing the

executable content of the REDS. Manual execution shall be possible only for the files which are

verified before execution, using a digital signature or special keys.

NOTE 1 A digital signature method is based on a private/public key pair. Typically, a hash function is

used, e.g. the SHA-2 family. Use of MD5 and SHA-1 are now discouraged, see ISO/IEC 10118-3.

NOTE 2 Special keys can be values calculated from the delivered data using a specified function and

compared against a known and expected value, both the function and the value being specified by the

trusted source or sender.
d) Non-executable data verification

All non-executable data in REDS shall be verified before it is used in equipment.

The ELRB shall limit opening files from REDS according to the extension of the file.

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ISO 21745:2019(E)
4.2.1.3 System database backup and recovery

The storage medium for recording and storing the automatically collected data, record book data,

signed record book data and edit history data in the ELRB shall be primary. Another medium in the

ELRB or the other storage medium onboard outside of the ELRB shall be secondary.

The automatically collected data, record book data, signed record book data and edit history data shall

be recorded in the primary medium in the ELRB.

The signed record book data and edit history data shall be recorded in the secondary medium in the

ELRB or outside the ELRB as well as in the primary medium. The contents, the recording interval, and

the recording method shall be equivalent to those of the primary storage medium in the ELRB.

Recording to a storage medium ashore (e.g. server) is permitted as an option for additional storage.

If the ELRB has a function of the automatic input, the function of raising indication and manual input

shall be provided in case the automatically collected data is not automatically recorded in the primary

storage medium. In such case, the user is responsible for continuing to make a record as per the

configurated automatic recording schedule.

In the case of system failure, the data shall be recorded manually as the record book data in the primary

storage medium. If the ELRB is not able to record the data, it shall present a permanent indication that

data shall be recorded in an official paper logbook.
4.2.1.4 Monitoring
The following status shall be monitored to verify adequate recording:
— failure to access storage device;
— failure of recording function;
— loss of UTC synchronization;

— storage device full or having insufficient capacity for storing configured records up to 30 days;

— detected tampering.
The ELRB shall monitor the operation and cautions according to IEC 62923.
4.2.1.5 VDR

If VDR is provided, the signed record book data shall be recorded in the VDR according to MSC. 333(90).

With regards to the interface between ELRB and VDR, ELRB output shall be in accordance with the

binary image data transfer procedure which is described in IEC 61162-450. For example, data forms are

JPEG, PNG, PDF or XML.

It is important to note that the VDR is not the exclusive backup for ELRB. Their interface mission is

only to review the last events and record as stored in ELRB. When the master has to stop the VDR, the

ELRB is capable of continuing to store the information in one of the regular back-ups as specified in the

standard.
4.2.1.6 Status reporting

The ELRB shall provide an alert management interface compliant with the requirements of Bridge Alert

Management (BAM) as intended in IMO resolution MSC.302 (87).
Alert management requires:
a) classification of all alerts available in the ELRB;
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ISO 21745:2019(E)
b) presentation of the alerts;
c) reporting of the alerts.

The interface shall support the output in accordance with IEC 61162-1 and/or IEC 61162-2 and/or

IEC 61162-450.
Alert Sentence (ALF) shall be provided with ELRB for status report.
Talker Identifier for ELRB is recognized as: RB.

For specific contents, alert identifiers, and normative Annex A should be referred to.

4.2.2 Record management

Information recorded and stored in the ELRB is taken as an official record for which the master is held

responsible.
Only authorized persons on board are allowed to make ELRB entries.

Automatically collected data and edit history data shall not be revisable and modifiable. The record

book data can only be revised or modified by the authorized person, while the signed record book data

can be revised or modified only by the master.

Furthermore, an authorization for the record book data to be regarded as the signed record book data

is allowed only by the master, who has full access to view, modify or sign ELRB data.

The storage period for the automatically collected data shall be 720 h, whereas the storage periods for

the signed record book data and edit history data shall be minimum two years. The record book data

shall be stored until being authorized as the signed record book data by the master.

The data is permitted to be compressed when being stored.

When the recorded data is stored for longer periods than required above, the data may be permanently

moved from the primary or secondary medium to other electronic or paper medium. The permanently

moved data shall be secured against tampering.

Any change(s) to the entry by the same authorized person or a different authorized person should be

automatically recorded and made visible both in the system and in any output presentation of ELRB.

The entry shall appear in the list of entries in a format that makes it clear that the entry has been

amended. To create transparency of changes to saved or verified entries, it is essential that the system

is designed to retain both the original entry and the amendment(s).

Any amendment shall also indicate the editor, date and time when the amendment was made.

If an entry
...

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