Paper and board -- Determination of air permeance (medium range)

ISO 5636-5:2013 specifies the Gurley method for determining the air permeance of paper and board using an air resistance tester, the Gurley apparatus. It is applicable to papers and boards which have air permeances between 0,1 µm/(Pa⋅s) and 100 µm/(Pa⋅s) when tested with the Gurley apparatus. It is unsuitable for rough-surfaced materials, which cannot be securely clamped to avoid leakage. ISO 5636-5:2013 may also be used to determine the air resistance of paper and board.

Papier et carton -- Détermination de la perméabilité à l'air (plage de valeurs moyennes)

L'ISO 5636-5:2013 spécifie la méthode Gurley pour la détermination de la perméabilité ŕ l'air des papiers et cartons au moyen d'un appareil d'essai de résistance ŕ l'air, l'appareil Gurley. La méthode est applicable aux papiers et cartons dont la perméabilité ŕ l'air est comprise entre 0,1 µm/(Pa·s) et 100 µm/(Pa·s) lors d'un essai au moyen d'un appareil Gurley. Elle ne convient pas pour les papiers et cartons ŕ surface rugueuse, qu'il est impossible de fixer correctement pour éviter les fuites. L'ISO 5636-5:2013 peut également ętre utilisée pour déterminer la résistance ŕ l'air des papiers et cartons.

Papir, karton in lepenka - Določanje prepustnosti zraka (srednje območje) - 5. del: Gurleyjeva metoda

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Oct-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-Oct-2013
Completion Date
17-Oct-2013

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5636-5
Third edition
2013-11-01
Paper and board — Determination of
air permeance (medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
Papier et carton — Détermination de la perméabilité à l’air (plage de
valeurs moyennes) —
Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
Reference number
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................................................. 5

11.1 Calculation of air permeance ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.2 Reporting the results ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.3 Standard deviation and coefficient of variation ......................................................................................................... 5

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) Volume check — Gurley apparatus

............................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Variations in apparatus ...................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex C (informative) Precision data ............................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5636-5:2003), which has been technically

revised. In this third edition mainly editorial changes have been made and also precision data has been

added as informative Annex C.

ISO 5636 consists of the following parts, under the general title Paper and board — Determination of air

permeance (medium range):
— Part 3: Bendtsen method
— Part 4: Sheffield method
— Part 5: Gurley method
— Part 6: Oken method

NOTE 1 Part 1: General method will be withdrawn after the third editions of Parts 3, 4 and 5 have been

published, as it was considered redundant.

NOTE 2 Part 2: Schopper method was withdrawn in 2006 as it was considered obsolete.

NOTE 3 Part 6: Oken method is being prepared.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Paper and board — Determination of air permeance
(medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5636 specifies the Gurley method for determining the air permeance of paper and board

using an air resistance tester, the Gurley apparatus.

It is applicable to papers and boards which have air permeances between 0,1 µm/(Pa⋅s) and 100 µm/

(Pa⋅s) when tested with the Gurley apparatus.

It is unsuitable for rough-surfaced materials, which cannot be securely clamped to avoid leakage.

This part of ISO 5636 may also be used to determine the air resistance of paper and board.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD

and 100 IRHD)
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 385, Laboratory glassware — Burettes

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
air permeance

mean air flow rate through unit area under unit pressure difference in unit time, under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Air permeance is expressed in micrometres per pascal second [1 ml/(m ⋅Pa⋅s) = 1 μm/(Pa⋅s)].

Note 2 to entry: This property is called air permeance, and not air permeability, because it is reported as a sheet

property and is not standardized with respect to thickness to give a material property per unit thickness.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
3.2
air resistance

time required for a specific volume of air under unit pressure to pass through unit area

Note 1 to entry: Air resistance is expressed in seconds per 100 millilitres [s/(100 ml)].

4 Principle

The air is compressed by the weight of a vertical cylinder floating in a liquid. A test piece is in contact

with the compressed air and the cylinder falls steadily as air passes through the test piece. The time for

a given volume of air to pass through the test piece, i.e. the air resistance is measured and from this the

air permeance is calculated.
5 Apparatus and materials

5.1 Gurley apparatus, see Figure 1, that consists of an outer cylinder (see 5.1.3) partly filled with

sealing fluid (see 5.2) and an inner cylinder (see 5.1.4) having an open top, sliding freely in the outer

cylinder. Air pressure, provided by the weight of the inner cylinder, is applied to the test piece held

between clamping plates (see 5.1.1) in a circular orifice.

5.1.1 Clamping plates are at the base of the apparatus, and a central feed tube directs the pressurized

air to the clamping plates. Some versions of this apparatus use a hand-tightened capstan (jackscrew)

arrangement to tighten the clamping plates together, others are equipped with a dead weight of 901 g

loading a lever arm and others use a pneumatic system. The recommended clamping force is (180 ± 30) N.

This mechanism provides a technique to give uniform loading, and thus minimize the operator influence

on the test. Controlled clamping force is the preferred method of clamping the test piece.

5.1.2 Rubber gasket attached to the clamping plate on the side exposed to the air pressure prevents

leakage of air between the surface of the paper and the clamping plate. The gasket consists of a thin, elastic,

oil-resistant, non-oxidizing material, having a smooth surface, a thickness of 0,7 mm to 1,0 mm and a hardness

of 50 IRHD (International Rubber Hardness Degrees) in accordance with ISO 48. The inside diameter of

the gasket is about 28,6 mm and the outside diameter is about 34,9 mm. The aperture of the gasket is

concentrically aligned with the aperture in the clamping plates. To align and protect the gasket in use, it is

cemented to a groove machined in the upper clamping plate. The groove is concentric with the aperture

in the opposing plate, has an internal diameter of (28,50 ± 0,15) mm and a depth of (0,45 ± 0,05) mm. Its

outside diameter is (35,2 ± 0,1) mm for convenience in inserting and attaching the gasket. The gasket, when

mounted inside the concentric groove, defines the measurement area and shall have an inside diameter of

(28,6 ± 0,1) mm (642 mm area). The gasket should be changed at regular intervals.

5.1.3 Outer cylinder with a height of 254 mm and an internal diameter of 82,6 mm. The inner surface

has three or four bars, not less than 190 mm and not greater than 245,5 mm in length and 2,4 mm square

or 2,4 mm diameter, spaced equidistantly to serve as guides for the inner cylinder.

5.1.4 Inner cylinder, graduated in units of 50 ml and with a full-scale reading of at least 300 ml. It

may have 25 ml graduations between the 0 ml and 100 ml markings. The scale markings represent true

volumes enclosed within the inner cylinder and shall be accurate to within 3%. The exact volume of the

inner cylinder may be checked by means of the procedure given in Annex A. The cylinder has a height of

(254,0 ± 0,5) mm, an external diameter of (76,2 ± 0,5) mm and an internal diameter about 74 mm such

that the mass of the cylinder assembly is (567,0 ± 0,5) g.

5.1.5 Volumes referred to are nominal volumes and should, in principle be increased by the volume of

fluid displaced by the walls of the inner cylinder during the test. In practice, since this

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
01-januar-2014

3DSLUNDUWRQLQOHSHQND'RORþDQMHSUHSXVWQRVWL]UDND VUHGQMHREPRþMH GHO

*XUOH\MHYDPHWRGD

Paper and board -- Determination of air permeance (medium range) -- Part 5: Gurley

method

Papier et carton -- Détermination de la perméabilité à l'air (plage de valeurs moyennes) -

- Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 5636-5:2013
ICS:
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5636-5
Third edition
2013-11-01
Paper and board — Determination of
air permeance (medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
Papier et carton — Détermination de la perméabilité à l’air (plage de
valeurs moyennes) —
Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
Reference number
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................................................. 5

11.1 Calculation of air permeance ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.2 Reporting the results ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.3 Standard deviation and coefficient of variation ......................................................................................................... 5

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) Volume check — Gurley apparatus

............................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Variations in apparatus ...................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex C (informative) Precision data ............................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5636-5:2003), which has been technically

revised. In this third edition mainly editorial changes have been made and also precision data has been

added as informative Annex C.

ISO 5636 consists of the following parts, under the general title Paper and board — Determination of air

permeance (medium range):
— Part 3: Bendtsen method
— Part 4: Sheffield method
— Part 5: Gurley method
— Part 6: Oken method

NOTE 1 Part 1: General method will be withdrawn after the third editions of Parts 3, 4 and 5 have been

published, as it was considered redundant.

NOTE 2 Part 2: Schopper method was withdrawn in 2006 as it was considered obsolete.

NOTE 3 Part 6: Oken method is being prepared.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Paper and board — Determination of air permeance
(medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5636 specifies the Gurley method for determining the air permeance of paper and board

using an air resistance tester, the Gurley apparatus.

It is applicable to papers and boards which have air permeances between 0,1 µm/(Pa⋅s) and 100 µm/

(Pa⋅s) when tested with the Gurley apparatus.

It is unsuitable for rough-surfaced materials, which cannot be securely clamped to avoid leakage.

This part of ISO 5636 may also be used to determine the air resistance of paper and board.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD

and 100 IRHD)
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 385, Laboratory glassware — Burettes

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity
3 Terms a nd definiti ons
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
air permeance

mean air flow rate through unit area under unit pressure difference in unit time, under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Air permeance is expressed in micrometres per pascal second [1 ml/(m ⋅Pa⋅s) = 1 μm/(Pa⋅s)].

Note 2 to entry: This property is called air permeance, and not air permeability, because it is reported as a sheet

property and is not standardized with respect to thickness to give a material property per unit thickness.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
3.2
air resistance

time required for a specific volume of air under unit pressure to pass through unit area

Note 1 to entry: Air resistance is expressed in seconds per 100 millilitres [s/(100 ml)].

4 Principle

The air is compressed by the weight of a vertical cylinder floating in a liquid. A test piece is in contact

with the compressed air and the cylinder falls steadily as air passes through the test piece. The time for

a given volume of air to pass through the test piece, i.e. the air resistance is measured and from this the

air permeance is calculated.
5 Apparatus and materials

5.1 Gurley apparatus, see Figure 1, that consists of an outer cylinder (see 5.1.3) partly filled with

sealing fluid (see 5.2) and an inner cylinder (see 5.1.4) having an open top, sliding freely in the outer

cylinder. Air pressure, provided by the weight of the inner cylinder, is applied to the test piece held

between clamping plates (see 5.1.1) in a circular orifice.

5.1.1 Clamping plates are at the base of the apparatus, and a central feed tube directs the pressurized

air to the clamping plates. Some versions of this apparatus use a hand-tightened capstan (jackscrew)

arrangement to tighten the clamping plates together, others are equipped with a dead weight of 901 g

loading a lever arm and others use a pneumatic system. The recommended clamping force is (180 ± 30) N.

This mechanism provides a technique to give uniform loading, and thus minimize the operator influence

on the test. Controlled clamping force is the preferred method of clamping the test piece.

5.1.2 Rubber gasket attached to the clamping plate on the side exposed to the air pressure prevents

leakage of air between the surface of the paper and the clamping plate. The gasket consists of a thin, elastic,

oil-resistant, non-oxidizing material, having a smooth surface, a thickness of 0,7 mm to 1,0 mm and a hardness

of 50 IRHD (International Rubber Hardness Degrees) in accordance with ISO 48. The inside diameter of

the gasket is about 28,6 mm and the outside diameter is about 34,9 mm. The aperture of the gasket is

concentrically aligned with the aperture in the clamping plates. To align and protect the gasket in use, it is

cemented to a groove machined in the upper clamping plate. The groove is concentric with the aperture

in the opposing plate, has an internal diameter of (28,50 ± 0,15) mm and a depth of (0,45 ± 0,05) mm. Its

outside diameter is (35,2 ± 0,1) mm for convenience in inserting and attaching the gasket. The gasket, when

mounted inside the concentric groove, defines the measurement area and shall have an inside diameter of

(28,6 ± 0,1) mm (642 mm area). The gasket should be changed at regular intervals.

5.1.3 Outer cylinder with a height of 254 mm and an internal diameter of 82,6 mm. The inner surface

has three or four bars, not less than 190 mm and not greater than 245,5 mm in length and 2,4 mm square

or 2,4 mm diameter, spaced equidistantly to serve as guides for the inner cylinder.

5.1.4 Inner cylinder, graduated in units of 50 ml and with a full-scale reading of at least 300 ml. It

may have 25 ml graduations between the 0 ml and 100 ml markings. The scale markings represent true

volumes enclosed within the inner cylinder and shall be accurate to within 3%. The exact volume of the

inner cylinder may be checked by means of the procedure given in Annex A. The cylinder has a height of

(254,0 ± 0,5) mm, an external diameter of (76,2 ±
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
01-februar-2014
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 5636-5:2011

3DSLUNDUWRQLQOHSHQND'RORþDQMHSUHSXVWQRVWL]UDND VUHGQMHREPRþMH GHO

*XUOH\MHYDPHWRGD

Paper and board -- Determination of air permeance (medium range) -- Part 5: Gurley

method

Papier et carton -- Détermination de la perméabilité à l'air (plage de valeurs moyennes) -

- Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 5636-5:2013
ICS:
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5636-5
Third edition
2013-11-01
Paper and board — Determination of
air permeance (medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
Papier et carton — Détermination de la perméabilité à l’air (plage de
valeurs moyennes) —
Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
Reference number
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................................................. 5

11.1 Calculation of air permeance ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.2 Reporting the results ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.3 Standard deviation and coefficient of variation ......................................................................................................... 5

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (normative) Volume check — Gurley apparatus

............................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Variations in apparatus ...................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex C (informative) Precision data ............................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5636-5:2003), which has been technically

revised. In this third edition mainly editorial changes have been made and also precision data has been

added as informative Annex C.

ISO 5636 consists of the following parts, under the general title Paper and board — Determination of air

permeance (medium range):
— Part 3: Bendtsen method
— Part 4: Sheffield method
— Part 5: Gurley method
— Part 6: Oken method

NOTE 1 Part 1: General method will be withdrawn after the third editions of Parts 3, 4 and 5 have been

published, as it was considered redundant.

NOTE 2 Part 2: Schopper method was withdrawn in 2006 as it was considered obsolete.

NOTE 3 Part 6: Oken method is being prepared.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
Paper and board — Determination of air permeance
(medium range) —
Part 5:
Gurley method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5636 specifies the Gurley method for determining the air permeance of paper and board

using an air resistance tester, the Gurley apparatus.

It is applicable to papers and boards which have air permeances between 0,1 µm/(Pa⋅s) and 100 µm/

(Pa⋅s) when tested with the Gurley apparatus.

It is unsuitable for rough-surfaced materials, which cannot be securely clamped to avoid leakage.

This part of ISO 5636 may also be used to determine the air resistance of paper and board.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 48, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of hardness (hardness between 10 IRHD

and 100 IRHD)
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 385, Laboratory glassware — Burettes

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
air permeance

mean air flow rate through unit area under unit pressure difference in unit time, under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Air permeance is expressed in micrometres per pascal second [1 ml/(m ⋅Pa⋅s) = 1 μm/(Pa⋅s)].

Note 2 to entry: This property is called air permeance, and not air permeability, because it is reported as a sheet

property and is not standardized with respect to thickness to give a material property per unit thickness.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5636-5:2014
ISO 5636-5:2013(E)
3.2
air resistance

time required for a specific volume of air under unit pressure to pass through unit area

Note 1 to entry: Air resistance is expressed in seconds per 100 millilitres [s/(100 ml)].

4 Principle

The air is compressed by the weight of a vertical cylinder floating in a liquid. A test piece is in contact

with the compressed air and the cylinder falls steadily as air passes through the test piece. The time for

a given volume of air to pass through the test piece, i.e. the air resistance is measured and from this the

air permeance is calculated.
5 Apparatus and materials

5.1 Gurley apparatus, see Figure 1, that consists of an outer cylinder (see 5.1.3) partly filled with

sealing fluid (see 5.2) and an inner cylinder (see 5.1.4) having an open top, sliding freely in the outer

cylinder. Air pressure, provided by the weight of the inner cylinder, is applied to the test piece held

between clamping plates (see 5.1.1) in a circular orifice.

5.1.1 Clamping plates are at the base of the apparatus, and a central feed tube directs the pressurized

air to the clamping plates. Some versions of this apparatus use a hand-tightened capstan (jackscrew)

arrangement to tighten the clamping plates together, others are equipped with a dead weight of 901 g

loading a lever arm and others use a pneumatic system. The recommended clamping force is (180 ± 30) N.

This mechanism provides a technique to give uniform loading, and thus minimize the operator influence

on the test. Controlled clamping force is the preferred method of clamping the test piece.

5.1.2 Rubber gasket attached to the clamping plate on the side exposed to the air pressure prevents

leakage of air between the surface of the paper and the clamping plate. The gasket consists of a thin, elastic,

oil-resistant, non-oxidizing material, having a smooth surface, a thickness of 0,7 mm to 1,0 mm and a hardness

of 50 IRHD (International Rubber Hardness Degrees) in accordance with ISO 48. The inside diameter of

the gasket is about 28,6 mm and the outside diameter is about 34,9 mm. The aperture of the gasket is

concentrically aligned with the aperture in the clamping plates. To align and protect the gasket in use, it is

cemented to a groove machined in the upper clamping plate. The groove is concentric with the aperture

in the opposing plate, has an internal diameter of (28,50 ± 0,15) mm and a depth of (0,45 ± 0,05) mm. Its

outside diameter is (35,2 ± 0,1) mm for convenience in inserting and attaching the gasket. The gasket, when

mounted inside the concentric groove, defines the measurement area and shall have an inside diameter of

(28,6 ± 0,1) mm (642 mm area). The gasket should be changed at regular intervals.

5.1.3 Outer cylinder with a height of 254 mm and an internal diameter of 82,6 mm. The inner surface

has three or four bars, not less than 190 mm and not greater than 245,5 mm in length and 2,4 mm square

or 2,4 mm diameter, spaced equidistantly to serve as guides for the inner cylinder.

5.1.4 Inner cylinder, graduated in units of 50 ml and with a full-scale reading of at least 300 ml. It

may have 25 ml graduations between the 0 ml and 100 ml markings. The scale markings represent true

volumes enclosed within the inner cylinder and shall be accurate to within 3%. The exact volume of the

inner cylinder may be checked by means of the procedure given in Annex A. The cylinder has a height of

(254,0 ± 0,5)
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 5636-5
Troisième édition
2013-11-01
Papier et carton — Détermination
de la perméabilité à l’air (plage de
valeurs moyennes) —
Partie 5:
Méthode Gurley
Paper and board — Determination of air permeance (medium
range) —
Part 5: Gurley method
Numéro de référence
ISO 5636-5:2013(F)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2013

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
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Version française parue en 2014
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Appareillage et matériel d’essai ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Conditionnement ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Préparation des éprouvettes ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Étalonnage .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

10 Mode opératoire.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Calculs et expression des résultats .................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.1 Calcul de la perméabilité à l’air ................................................................................................................................................. 5

11.2 Présentation des résultats ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

11.3 Écart-type et coefficient de variation .................................................................................................................................. 5

12 Rapport d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annexe A (normative) Vérification du volume — Appareil Gurley

....................................................................................... 7

Annexe B (informative) Types d’appareils ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annexe C (informative) Données de fidélité ..............................................................................................................................................10

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 5636-5:2013(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/CEI, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou sur la liste ISO des déclarations de brevets reçues

(voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les éventuelles appellations commerciales utilisées dans le présent document sont données pour

information à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne constituent pas une approbation ou une recommandation.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation

de la conformité, aussi bien que pour des informations au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de

l’OMC concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC) voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos —

Informations supplémentaires.

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 6, Papiers, cartons et pâtes, sous-

comité SC 2, Méthodes d’essais et spécifications de qualité des papiers et cartons.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 5636-5:2003), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique. Dans cette troisième édition, les modifications effectuées sont essentiellement

rédactionnelles; des données relatives à la fidélité ont également été ajoutées pour information dans

l’Annexe C.

L’ISO 5636 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Papier et carton —

Détermination de la perméabilité à l’air (plage de valeurs moyennes):
— Partie 3: Méthode Bendtsen
— Partie 4: Méthode Sheffield
— Partie 5: Méthode Gurley
— Partie 6: Méthode Oken

NOTE 1 La Partie 1: Méthode générale, considérée comme redondante, sera annulée après publication des

troisièmes éditions des Parties 3, 4 et 5.

NOTE 2 La Partie 2: Méthode Schopper, considérée comme obsolète, a été annulée en 2006.

NOTE 3 La Partie 6: Méthode Oken est en cours de préparation.
iv © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 5636-5:2013(F)
Papier et carton — Détermination de la perméabilité à l’air
(plage de valeurs moyennes) —
Partie 5:
Méthode Gurley
1 Domaine d’application

La présente partie de l’ISO 5636 spécifie la méthode Gurley pour la détermination de la perméabilité à

l’air des papiers et cartons au moyen d’un appareil d’essai de résistance à l’air, l’appareil Gurley.

La méthode est applicable aux papiers et cartons dont la perméabilité à l’air est comprise entre 0,1 µm/

(Pa·s) et 100 µm/(Pa·s) lors d’un essai au moyen d’un appareil Gurley.

Elle ne convient pas pour les papiers et cartons à surface rugueuse, qu’il est impossible de fixer

correctement pour éviter les fuites.

La présente partie de l’ISO 5636 peut également être utilisée pour déterminer la résistance à l’air des

papiers et cartons.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants, en tout ou partie, sont référencés de manière normative dans le présent

document et sont indispensables pour son application. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée

s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y

compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 48, Caoutchouc vulcanisé ou thermoplastique — Détermination de la dureté (dureté comprise entre 10

DIDC et 100 DIDC)
ISO 186, Papier et carton — Échantillonnage pour déterminer la qualité moyenne

ISO 187, Papier, carton et pâtes — Atmosphère normale de conditionnement et d’essai et méthode de

surveillance de l’atmosphère et de conditionnement des échantillons
ISO 385, Verrerie de laboratoire — Burettes

ISO 3104, Produits pétroliers — Liquides opaques et transparents — Détermination de la viscosité

cinématique et calcul de la viscosité dynamique
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

3.1
perméabilité à l’air

débit d’air moyen qui traverse une unité de surface sous une unité de différence de pression en une unité

de temps, dans des conditions spécifiées

Note 1 à l’article: La perméabilité à l’air est exprimée en micromètres par pascal seconde [1 ml/(m ⋅Pa·s) = 1 μm/

(Pa·s)].
© ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(F)

Note 2 à l’article: Cette propriété est appelée «perméabilité à l’air» et non «perméance à l’air» car elle est

caractéristique de la feuille considérée et n’est pas normalisée en fonction de l’épaisseur, ce qui donnerait une

propriété du matériau par épaisseur unitaire.
3.2
résistance à l’air

temps nécessaire à un volume d’air spécifique sous une unité de pression pour traverser une unité de

surface

Note 1 à l’article: La résistance à l’air est exprimée en secondes par 100 millilitres [s/(100 ml)].

4 Principe

De l’air est comprimé par la masse d’un cylindre vertical flottant sur un liquide. Une éprouvette est

en contact avec l’air ainsi comprimé et le cylindre descend régulièrement à mesure que l’air traverse

l’éprouvette. Le temps pour qu’un volume donné d’air traverse l’éprouvette est mesuré, c’est-à-dire que

la résistance à l’air est mesurée, et la perméabilité à l’air est calculée.
5 Appareillage et matériel d’essai

5.1 Appareil Gurley, voir Figure 1, comprenant un cylindre extérieur (voir 5.1.3), rempli en partie

d’un fluide assurant l’étanchéité (voir 5.2), et un cylindre intérieur (voir 5.1.4), dont le haut est ouvert, et

qui coulisse librement dans le cylindre extérieur. La pression de l’air produite par la masse du cylindre

intérieur est appliquée contre l’éprouvette, maintenue entre deux plaques de serrage (voir 5.1.1) dans un

orifice circulaire.

5.1.1 Plaques de serrage, constituant la base de l’appareil, et tube central d’alimentation dirigeant

l’air sous pression vers les plaques de serrage. Certains modèles de cet appareil sont munis d’un système

de treuil manuel (vérin à vis) pour resserrer les plaques l’une contre l’autre, d’autres modèles sont

équipés d’un contrepoids de 901 g agissant sur un levier, et d’autres modèles encore sont munis d’un

système pneumatique. La force de serrage recommandée est de (180 ± 30) N. Ce mécanisme permet une

répartition uniforme de la charge, réduisant ainsi l’influence de l’opérateur sur l’essai. Il est préférable

d’appliquer une force de serrage contrôlée pour maintenir l’éprouvette.

5.1.2 Joint en caoutchouc, fixé sur la plaque de serrage, du côté soumis à la pression de l’air, pour

empêcher les fuites d’air entre la surface du papier et la plaque de serrage. Le joint est constitué d’un

matériau inoxydable, mince, élastique, résistant à l’huile, à surface lisse, d’épaisseur comprise entre

0,7 mm et 1,0 mm et de dureté 50 DIDC (Degré International de Dureté du Caoutchouc) conformément à

l’ISO 48. Le diamètre intérieur du joint est de 28,6 mm environ, son diamètre extérieur de 34,9 mm environ.

L’ouverture du joint est centrée avec précision sur l’ouverture des plaques de serrage. Afin d’assurer

l’alignement et la protection du joint en utilisation, il est scellé dans un logement usiné à la surface de

la plaque de serrage supérieure. Ce logement et l’ouverture de la plaque opposée sont concentriques.

Le diamètre intérieur du logement est de (28,50 ± 0,15) mm, et sa profondeur de (0,45 ± 0,05) mm. Son

diamètre extérieur est de (35,2 ± 0,1) mm, pour permettre l’insertion et la fixation du joint. Le joint, lorsqu’il

est fixé à l’intérieur du logement concentrique, délimite la surface de mesure et son diamètre intérieur

doit être de (28,6 ± 0,1) mm (642 mm de superficie). Il convient de changer le joint régulièrement.

5.1.3 Cylindre extérieur, ayant une hauteur de 254 mm et un diamètre intérieur de 82,6 mm. La

surface intérieure présente trois ou quatre rainures, de longueur comprise entre 190 mm et 245,5 mm,

de section carrée de 2,4 mm d’arête ou cylindrique de 2,4 mm de diamètre, les rainures étant également

réparties pour servir de guides au cylindre intérieur.

5.1.4 Cylindre intérieur, gradué de 50 ml en 50 ml, comportant une lecture à pleine échelle jusqu’à

au moins 300 ml. Il peut être gradué de 25 ml en 25 ml entre les repères de 0 ml à 100 ml. Les repères

représentent les volumes véritables du cylindre intérieur et doivent être exacts à 3 % près. Le volume exact

du cylindre intérieur peut être vérifié au moyen du mode opératoire indiqué à l’Annexe A. Sa hauteur est

2 © ISO 2013 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 5636-5:2013(F)

de (254,0 ± 0,5) mm, son diamètre extérieur est de (76,2 ± 0,5) mm et son diamètre intérieur de 74 mm

environ, pour que la masse de l’assemblage de cylindres soit de (567,0 ± 0,5) g.

5.1.5 Les volumes dont il est fait mention sont des volumes nominaux et il convient, en principe, de

les augmenter du volume du fluide déplacé par les parois du cylindre intérieur pendant l’essai. Dans la

pratique, étant donné que cette erreur est commune à tous les appareils de ce type, ce phénomène n’est

pas pris en compte.
Dimension en millimètres
...

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