Information technology -- Radio frequency identification for item management

ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating in the 860 MHz to 960 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band used in item management applications. It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. This part of ISO/IEC 18000 is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. It defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and, where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. It further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface. ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 specifies the physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF) systems. The system comprises Interrogators, also known as readers, and tags, also known as labels. An Interrogator receives information from a tag by transmitting a continuous-wave (CW) RF signal to the tag; the tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient of its antenna, thereby backscattering an information signal to the Interrogator. The system is ITF, meaning that a tag modulates its antenna reflection coefficient with an information signal only after being directed to do so by an Interrogator. In detail, ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 contains Type C. Type C uses PIE in the forward link and a random slotted collision-arbitration algorithm. ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 specifies physical interactions (the signalling layer of the communication link) between Interrogators and tags, logical operating procedures and commands between Interrogators and Tags, the collision arbitration scheme used to identify a specific tag in a multiple-tag environment, optional security commands that allow the use of crypto suites of ISO/IEC 29167.

Technologies de l'information -- Identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
19-Oct-2015
Withdrawal Date
19-Oct-2015
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
20-Oct-2015
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18000-63
Second edition
2015-10-15
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification for item
management —
Part 63:
Parameters for air interface
communications at 860 MHz to 960
MHz Type C
Technologies de l’information — Identification par radiofréquence
(RFID) pour la gestion d’objets —
Partie 63: Paramètres de communications d’une interface radio entre
860 MHz et 960 MHz, Type C
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2.1 Claiming conformance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 General conformance requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 2

2.2.1 Interrogators ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

2.2.2 Tags .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

2.3 Command structure and extensibility ................................................................................................................................ 3

2.3.1 Mandatory commands ................................................................................................................................................ 3

2.3.2 Optional commands ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

2.3.3 Proprietary commands .............................................................................................................................................. 3

2.3.4 Custom commands ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

2.4 Reserved for Future Use (RFU) ................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.5 Cryptographic Suite Indicators ................................................................................................................................................. 3

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Symbols, abbreviated terms and notation ..............................................................................................................................11

5.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6 Protocol requirements - Type C .........................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Protocol overview .............................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1.1 Physical layer ...................................................................................................................................................................16

6.1.2 Tag-identification layer ...........................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Protocol parameters ........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.1 Signaling – Physical and media access control parameters .....................................................17

6.2.2 Logical – Operating procedure parameters ...........................................................................................20

6.3 Description of operating procedure ..................................................................................................................................21

6.3.1 Physical interface..........................................................................................................................................................21

6.3.2 Logical interface ............................................................................................................................................................43

7 Battery Assisted Passive (BAP) Interrogator Talks First Type C systems (optional) .............117

7.1 Applicability ........................................................................................................................................................................................117

7.2 General overview, definitions, and requirements of BAP.............................................................................117

7.3 Battery Assisted Passive inventoried flag and state machine behaviour modifications ...119

7.3.1 Modification to ready state and power-down support for BAP Tags ...........................119

7.3.2 Signal loss tolerance via timer (mandatory) .....................................................................................119

7.3.3 Modified persistence of BAP PIE inventory flags (optional) ................................................122

7.4 Battery Assisted Passive PIE (optional) ......................................................................................................................124

7.4.1 Flex_Query command (optional) .................................................................................................................124

7.4.2 BAP PIE detailed operation including optional Battery Saver Mode ............................126

7.5 Manchester mode Battery Assisted operation protocol extensions ...................................................132

7.5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................132

7.5.2 Physical layer ................................................................................................................................................................133

7.5.3 Manchester Activation ..........................................................................................................................................138

7.5.4 Commands summary .............................................................................................................................................153

7.6 Extended Protocol Control ......................................................................................................................................................167

8 Sensor support ................................................................................................................................................................................................168

8.1 Applicability ........................................................................................................................................................................................168

8.2 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................168

8.3 Real Time Clock (RTC) ................................................................................................................................................................169

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)

8.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................................................169

8.3.2 Setting the RTC ............................................................................................................................................................169

8.3.3 BroadcastSync command (optional) ........................................................................................................170

8.3.4 Time synchronisation ............................................................................................................................................170

8.4 HandleSensor command (optional) ................................................................................................................................171

8.5 Simple Sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................................172

8.5.1 Type C and Simple Sensor ..................................................................................................................................173

8.6 Sensor Directory System and Full Function Sensors........................................................................................175

8.6.1 Sensor Access – General Approach ............................................................................................................175

Annex A (normative) Extensible bit vectors (EBV) .........................................................................................................................181

Annex B (normative) State-transition tables ........................................................................................................................................182

Annex C (normative) Command-Response Tables ..........................................................................................................................233

Annex D (informative) Example slot-count (Q) selection algorithm ............................................................................261

Annex E (informative) Example Tag inventory and access .....................................................................................................262

Annex F (informative) Calculation of 5-bit and 16-bit cyclic redundancy checks ..........................................263

Annex G (normative) Multiple- and dense-Interrogator channelized signaling ..............................................265

Annex H (informative) Interrogator-to-Tag link modulation ...............................................................................................268

Annex I (normative) Error codes .......................................................................................................................................................................270

Annex J (normative) Slot counter......................................................................................................................................................................272

Annex K (informative) Example data-flow exchange ....................................................................................................................273

Annex L (informative) Optional Tag Features ......................................................................................................................................276

Annex M (informative) Cryptographic-Suite Checklist ...............................................................................................................279

Annex N (informative) Battery Assisted Tag to Interrogator synchronization ..................................................280

Annex O (normative) Simple Sensors Data Block ............................................................................................................................283

Annex P (normative) Record structures and commands for Ported Simple Sensors .................................295

Annex Q (informative) BAP PIE and Manchester mode tutorial guide .......................................................................310

Annex R (informative) Manchester mode RF power control ................................................................................................320

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................325

iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction

and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18000-63:2013), which has been

technically revised.

ISO/IEC 18000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Radio

frequency identification for item management:
— Part 1: Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized
— Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz
— Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz
— Part 4: Parameters for air interface communications at 2,45 GHz

— Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz General

— Part 61: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type A

— Part 62: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type B

— Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

— Part 64: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

— Part 7: Parameters for active air interface communications at 433 MHz
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/IEC 18000 defines the physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter,

Interrogator-talks-first (ITF), radio-frequency identification (RFID) system operating in the 860 MHz –

960 MHz frequency range. The system comprises Interrogators, also known as Readers, and Tags, also

known as Labels or Transponders.

An Interrogator transmits information to a Tag by modulating an RF signal in the 860 MHz – 960 MHz

frequency range. The Tag receives both information and operating energy from this RF signal. Tags are

passive, meaning that they receive all of their operating energy from the Interrogator’s RF signal.

An Interrogator receives information from a Tag by transmitting a continuous-wave (CW) RF signal to

the Tag; the Tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient of its antenna, thereby backscattering

an information signal to the Interrogator. The system is ITF, meaning that a Tag modulates its antenna

reflection coefficient with an information signal only after being directed to do so by an Interrogator.

Interrogators and Tags are not required to talk simultaneously; rather, communications are half-duplex,

meaning that Interrogators talk and Tags listen, or vice versa.

The described backscatter radio frequency identification (RFID) system that supports the following

system capabilities:
— identification and communication with multiple tags in the field;

— selection of a subgroup of tags for identification or with which to communicate;

— reading from and writing to or rewriting data many times to individual tags;
— user-controlled permanently lockable memory;
— data integrity protection;
— Interrogator-to-tag communications link with error detection;
— tag-to-Interrogator communications link with error detection;
— support for both passive back-scatter tags with or without batteries.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) draw attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this document may

involve the use of patents concerning radio frequency identification technology.

ISO and IEC take no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights.

The holders of these patent rights have assured ISO and IEC that they are willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world.

In this respect, the statements of the holders of these patent rights are registered with ISO and IEC.

vi © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Information on the declared patents may be obtained from:
Contact details
Patent Holder:
Legal Name Atmel Automotive GmbH
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Leo Merken, Legal Department, ATMEL Corporation
Address 2325 Orchard Parkway
Address San Jose, CA 95131 USA
Tel. +1 408 436 4251
Fax +1 408 487 2615
E-mail leo.merken@atmel.com
URL (optional)
Patent Holder:
Legal Name CISC Semiconductor Design+Consulting GmbH
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Markus Pistauer, CEO
Address Lakeside B07
Address 9020 Klagenfurt, Austria
Tel. +43(463) 508 808
Fax +43(463) 508 808-18
E-mail m.pistauer@cisc.at
URL (optional) www.cisc.at
Patent holder:
ETRI (Electronics Telecommunication Reseach Institute)
Contact for license application:
Name & Department: Min-Sheo Choi, Intellectual Property Management Team
Address: 138 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu
Address: Daejeon, 305-700, Korea
Tel. +82-42-860-0756
Fax +82-42-860-3831
E-mail choims@etri.re.kr
URL (optional) www.etri.re.kr
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Contact details
Patent Holder:
Legal Name Impinj, Inc.
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Chris Diorio, CTO
Address 701 N. 34th Street, Suite 300
Address Seattle, WA 98103, USA
Tel. +1.206 834 1115
Fax +1.206 517.5262
E-mail diorio@impinj.com
URL (optional) www.impinj.com
Patent Holder:
Legal Name: Magellan Technology Pty. Limited
Contact for license application:
Name & Department: Ms Jean Angus
Address: 65 Johnston St
Address: Annandale, NSW 2038, Australia
Tel. +61 2 9562 9800
Fax +61 2 9518 7620
E-mail: license@magellan-technology.com
URL (optional): www.magellan-technology.com
Patent Holder:
Legal Name NXP B.V.
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Aaron Waxler – IP Licensing & Claims
Address 411 East Plumeria,
Address San Jose, CA 95134-1924, USA
Tel. +1 914 860-4296
Fax
E-mail Aaron.Waxler@nxp.com
URL (optional)
viii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Contact details
Patent Holder:
Legal Name SATO VICINITY Pty. Limited
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Mr. Hiromasa Konishi, Managing Director
Address 8 Guihen Street, Annandale, NSW 2038, Australia
Address
Tel. +61 295 629 800
Fax +61 295 187 620
E-mail hiromasa.konishi@sato-glo bal . com
URL (optional) www.satovicinity.com
Patent Holder:
Legal Name TAGSYS SAS
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Mr. Alain Fanet President
Address 785 Voie Antiope, TI Athélia 3
Address F-13600 La Ciotat
Tel. +33 332188900
Fax +33 332188900
E-mail alain.fanet@tagsysrfid.com
URL (optional) www.tagsysrfid.com
Patent Holder:
Legal Name Univertsity of Pittsburgh - Of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Marc S. Malandro, PhD, CLP, RTIP
Address University of Pittsburgh, 200 Gardner Steel Conference Center
Address Thackeray & O’Hara Streets, Pittsburgh, PA 15260
Tel. 412-624-8787
Fax 412-648-2259
E-mail mmalandro@innovation.pitt.edu
URL (optional)
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved ix
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Contact details
Patent Holder:
Legal Name Zebra Technologies Corporation
Contact for license application:
Name & Department Glenn Frankenberger, Sr. IP Counsel, Legal Department
Address One Motorola Plaza
Address Holtsville, NY 11742
Tel. 631-738-5570
Fax 631-738-4110
E-mail glenn.frankenberger@zebra.com
URL (optional)

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those identified above. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.

The latest information on IP that may be applicable to this part of ISO/IEC 18000 can be found at www.

iso.org/patents
x © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
for item management —
Part 63:
Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz
to 960 MHz Type C
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 18000 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices

operating in the 860 MHz to 960 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band used in item

management applications. It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can

be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. This part of ISO/IEC 18000 is

intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing

RFID market in the international marketplace. It defines the forward and return link parameters for

technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy,

occupied channel bandwidth, maximum effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions,

modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and, where

appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate.

It further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface.

This part of ISO/IEC 18000 specifies the physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter,

Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF) systems. The system comprises Interrogators, also known as readers,

and tags, also known as labels. An Interrogator receives information from a tag by transmitting a

continuous-wave (CW) RF signal to the tag; the tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient

of its antenna, thereby backscattering an information signal to the Interrogator. The system is ITF,

meaning that a tag modulates its antenna reflection coefficient with an information signal only after

being directed to do so by an Interrogator.
In detail, this part of ISO/IEC 18000 contains Type C.

Type C uses PIE in the forward link and a random slotted collision-arbitration algorithm.

This part of ISO/IEC 18000 specifies

— physical interactions (the signalling layer of the communication link) between Interrogators and tags,

— logical operating procedures and commands between Interrogators and Tags.

— the collision arbitration scheme used to identify a specific tag in a multiple-tag environment.

— optional security commands that allow the use of crypto suites of ISO/IEC 29167.

2 Conformance
2.1 Claiming conformance

A device shall not claim conformance with this protocol unless the device complies with

— all clauses in this protocol (except those marked as optional), and
— the conformance document associated with this protocol, and,
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015(E)
— all local radio regulations.
Relevant conformance test methods are provided in ISO/IEC 18047-6.

Conformance can also require a license from the owner of any intellectual property utilized by said device.

2.2 General conformance requirements
2.2.1 Interrogators
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 18000, an Interrogator shall:
— Meet the requirements of this part of ISO/IEC 18000,
— Implement the mandatory commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 18000,

— Modulate/transmit and receive/demodulate a sufficient set of the electrical signals defined in the

signaling layer of this protocol to communicate with conformant Tags, and
— Conform to the applicable local radio regulations.
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 18000, an Interrogator may:

— Implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 18000, and

— Implement any proprietary and/or custom commands in conformance with this part of

ISO/IEC 18000.
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 18000, an Interrogator shall not:

— implement any command that conflicts with this part of ISO/IEC 18000 or any of the parts 61,

62 and 64, or

— Require using an optional, proprietary, or custom command to meet the requirements of this protocol.

2.2.2 Tags
To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 18000, a Tag shall:
— Meet the requirements of this part of ISO/IEC 18000,
— Implement the mandatory commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 18000,

— Modulate a backscatter signal only after receiving the requisite command from an Interrogator, and

— Conform to local radio regulations.
To conform to this protocol, a Tag may:

— Implement any subset of the optional commands defined in this part of ISO/IEC 18000, and

— Implement any proprietary and/or custom commands as defined in 2.3.3 and 2.3.4, respectively.

To conform to this part of ISO/IEC 18000, a Tag shall not:
— Implement any command that conflict
...

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