Ships and marine technology - Lifesaving and fire protection — Atmospheric oil mist detectors for ships

1.1 This International Standard specifies requirements, test methods and performance criteria for resettable oil mist detectors for use in fire hazard alarm systems installed on marine vessels. Oil mist detectors may be installed where an identified risk of fire caused by ignition of flammable liquids, such as hydraulic, fuel and lubricating oil systems, exists. 1.2 This International Standard specifies requirements for the following detectors: — point type detectors employing a point aspirating sampling device or relying on dispersion of oil mist; — aspirating detectors, whereby the sampling point is separated from the sensing unit(s) and uses a pipe network for carrying the sampling air to the sensing unit(s); — open path or beam type detectors, whereby the concept of the point detector is expanded to a sampling path which can be 20 m or more, as opposed to a few centimeters in the point type detector. 1.3 For the testing of other types of detector working on different principles, this International Standard is only for guidance. Detectors with special characteristics and developed for specific risks, as well as those

Navires et technologie maritime — Sauvetage et protection contre le feu — Détecteurs de brouillard d'huile atmosphériques pour navires

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Publication Date
28-Jun-2012
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9093 - International Standard confirmed
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16437
First edition
2012-07-01
Ships and marine technology —
Lifesaving and fire protection —
Atmospheric oil mist detectors for ships
Navires et technologie maritime — Sauvetage et protection contre le
feu — Détecteurs de brouillard d’huile atmosphériques pour navires
Reference number
ISO 16437:2012(E)
ISO 2012
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Compliance ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Detector calibration ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.4 Cleaning alarm ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Indicating devices ............................................................................................................................................... 4

4.6 Individual detector indicators .......................................................................................................................... 4

4.7 Connection of ancillary devices ...................................................................................................................... 5

4.8 Monitoring of detachable detectors .............................................................................................................. 5

4.9 Manufacturer’s adjustments ............................................................................................................................. 5

4.10 On-site adjustment of response behaviour ................................................................................................. 5

4.11 Response to slow increases of oil mist concentrations ........................................................................... 5

4.12 Marking ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.13 Instruction manual .............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.14 Data ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.15 Requirements for software-controlled detectors ....................................................................................... 7

4.16 Monitoring of memory contents — optional function ............................................................................... 8

4.17 Additional requirements for aspirating detectors ...................................................................................... 8

5 Test methods ......................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Repeatability .......................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Dry heat (operational) .......................................................................................................................................13

5.4 Cold (operational) ..............................................................................................................................................14

5.5 Damp heat ...........................................................................................................................................................15

5.6 Vibration, sinusoidal (operational) ...............................................................................................................16

5.7 High voltage ........................................................................................................................................................17

5.8 Variation of supply parameters .....................................................................................................................18

5.9 Electrical power supply failure ......................................................................................................................19

5.10 Insulation resistance .......................................................................................................................................19

5.11 Electrostatic discharge immunity ................................................................................................................20

5.12 Radiated radio frequency immunity ............................................................................................................21

5.13 Conducted low frequency immunity ............................................................................................................21

5.14 Conducted high frequency immunity ..........................................................................................................22

5.15 Burst/fast transient immunity .......................................................................................................................23

5.16 Surge immunity test .........................................................................................................................................24

5.17 Additional tests for aspirating detectors ....................................................................................................26

6 Installation ...........................................................................................................................................................27

7 Test report ...........................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (normative) Calibration for master detector and/or functional test for product detector ............28

Annex B (informative) Example of an alternative test method for the product detectors ............................34

Annex C (informative) Example of an oil mist generator .......................................................................................38

Annex D (informative) Location and installation of atmospheric detectors .....................................................40

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................44

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16437 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee

SC 1, Lifesaving and fire protection.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
Introduction

The majority of fires which have occurred in engine rooms are generally caused by a leak or fracture from a

flammable liquid system. Most engine room fires begin as a result of the ignition of oil mist. The mist can be

formed in one of two ways:

— when oil mist is generated through minute leaks in oil lines which, under pressure, give off a very fine

atomized spray: and,
— when oil hits a hot surface and boils, generating a mist.

Detection at this stage could therefore provide a pre-alarm warning to the risk of fire.

Oil mist detection systems are available to continuously monitor the machinery space atmosphere. They can

give early warning of a dangerous onset of oil mist accumulation and can be incorporated in arrangements to

automatically shut down valves, machinery, etc., to prevent the outbreak of fire.

For this purpose, atmospheric oil mist detection systems should be installed where an identified risk of fire

hazard exists from the potential generation of oil mist from flammable liquids such as hydraulic, fuel and

lubricating oil systems. Oil mist detection systems are particularly useful in engine rooms, oil purifying rooms,

and hydraulic pump rooms on board ships, as well as fixed and floating offshore hydrocarbon platforms.

This International Standard has been developed for oil mist detectors on board ships and specifies the

requirements for detectors used to detect volatile mist that can result in a fire. It is based on the document

Guidelines for the manufacture and installation of oil mist detectors prepared by the International Maritime

Organization (IMO) sub-committee on fire protection (FP).
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16437:2012(E)
Ships and marine technology — Lifesaving and fire
protection — Atmospheric oil mist detectors for ships
1 Scope

1.1 This International Standard specifies requirements, test methods and performance criteria for resettable

oil mist detectors for use in fire hazard alarm systems installed on marine vessels. Oil mist detectors may be

installed where an identified risk of fire caused by ignition of flammable liquids, such as hydraulic, fuel and

lubricating oil systems, exists.

1.2 This International Standard specifies requirements for the following detectors:

— point type detectors employing a point aspirating sampling device or relying on dispersion of oil mist;

— aspirating detectors, whereby the sampling point is separated from the sensing unit(s) and uses a pipe

network for carrying the sampling air to the sensing unit(s);

— open path or beam type detectors, whereby the concept of the point detector is expanded to a sampling

path which can be 20 m or more, as opposed to a few centimetres in the point type detector.

1.3 For the testing of other types of detector working on different principles, this International Standard is only

for guidance. Detectors with special characteristics and developed for specific risks, as well as those designed

for use in explosive atmospheres, are not covered by this International Standard.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7240-2, Fire detection and alarm systems — Part 2: Control and indicating equipment

ISO 7240-4, Fire detection and alarm systems — Part 4: Power supply equipment
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing — Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing — Part 2-1: Tests — Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing — Part 2-2: Tests — Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing — Part 2-6: Tests — Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-30, Environmental testing — Part 2-30: Tests — Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle)

IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques —

Electrostatic discharge immunity test

IEC 61000-4-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-4: Testing and measurement techniques —

Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

IEC 61000-4-5, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques —

Surge immunity test

IEC 61000-4-6, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-6: Testing and measurement techniques —

Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16437:2012(E)

EN 50086-1:1994, Specification for conduit systems for cable management — Part 1: General requirements

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
alarm set point(s)

oil mist density in the proximity of the specimen at the moment that it generates an alarm signal, when tested

as specified in 5.1.6
3.2
aspirating detector

sampling device which consists of a pipe network and sampling point which is separated from the sensing unit(s)

NOTE Sampling air and aerosols are drawn through the sampling device, using the pipe network, and carried to one

or more sensing elements by an integral aspirator (e.g. fan or pump). Each sensing element may contain more than one

sensor exposed to the same air.
3.3
conditioning

exposure of a specimen to environmental conditions to determine the effect of such conditions on the specimen

3.4
fault indication

audible, visible or other type of output different from an alarm signal conveying, directly or indirectly, a warning

or indication that the detector is not working satisfactorily
3.5
gravimetric deterministic method

process where the difference in weight of a 0,8 µm pore size membrane filter is ascertained from weighing the

filter before and after drawing one litre of oil mist from the test chamber
3.6
lower explosive limit

volume concentration of oil mist, flammable gas or vapour in air, below which the mixture is not explosive

NOTE 1 Also referred to as the lower flammable limit (LFL).

NOTE 2 The lower explosive limit corresponds to an oil mist concentration of approximately 50 mg/l.

3.7
minimum flow rate

minimum flow rate claimed by the manufacturer as meeting the requirements of this International Standard

3.8
non-volatile memory

memory elements which do not require the presence of an energy source for the retention of their contents

3.9
point type detector

point sampling device, sensor type, which operates by aspirating or relying on dispersion of oil mist

3.10
recovery

treatment of a specimen, after conditioning, so that the properties of the specimen can be stabilized before

measurement of the said property as required by this International Standard
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
3.11
repeatability

closeness of agreements between the results of successive measurements of the same value of the same

quantity carried out by the same method, with the same measuring instruments, by the same observer, in the

same laboratory within a quite short interval of time in unchanged conditions
3.12
sampling device

component or series of components or dedicated device (e.g. a pipe network, dedicated duct, probe or hood)

which transfers samples of air to the oil mist sensing element(s)
3.13
sampling point
point at which an air sample is drawn into the sampling device
3.14
sensitivity adjustment

adjustment during or after commissioning which leads to a change in the response to oil mist density

3.15
site-specific detector data

alterable data required for the detector to operate in a defined detector configuration

3.16
transport time

time for aerosols to transfer from a sampling point to the oil mist sensing element

4 Requirements
4.1 General

4.1.1 The detector shall reliably measure the oil mist concentration under the stated application conditions,

produce an alarm signal and, if applicable, shall be able to initiate external alarm and protective actions,

whenever the level exceeds or falls below a pre-selected alarm concentration.

4.1.2 Detector parts shall be able to withstand the stresses due to vibration, dust, corrosive media and climatic

influences during normal use.

4.1.3 Materials and components shall be used within the ratings or limits specified by the material or

component manufacturer, unless otherwise specified by appropriate safety standards taking into account the

limits of specific operating conditions.

4.1.4 Materials that come into contact with the oil mist shall not affect the measured value in milligrams per

litre for the oil mist.
4.1.5 Detectors shall be constructed to
— facilitate easy access for regular function checks and calibration, and

— allow periodic maintenance of serviceable parts and cleaning of sensing surfaces.

4.1.6 The oil mist path of the detector, including any filter and sampling device, shall not be affected by gases

expected to be present in the environment.
4.1.7 Any zero-point and gain adjustments shall be independent of each other.

4.1.8 Detectors with more than one measuring range shall clearly identify the selected range.

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ISO 16437:2012(E)

4.1.9 This International Standard is drafted on the basis of functions which are required to be provided on

all oil mist detectors, and optional functions with requirements which may be provided. It is intended that the

options will be used for specific applications, as recommended in application guidelines.

4.1.10 Each optional function is included as a separate entity with its own set of associated requirements

in order to permit oil mist detectors on board ships with different combinations of functions to conform to this

International Standard. If an option is taken, all the corresponding requirements shall be met.

4.1.11 Other functions associated with fire detection and fire alarm may also be provided, even if not specified

in this International Standard. However, such options shall not contradict any requirements of this International

Standard and must not, in case of a fault, jeopardize any function required by this International Standard.

4.2 Compliance

In order to comply with this International Standard, the detector shall meet the requirements of this clause,

which shall be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, shall be tested as specified in Clause 5

and shall meet the requirements of the tests.
4.3 Detector calibration

Detectors should have at least two calibrated set points, one at the lowest detection point or zero concentration

and the other at the highest detection point determined by the manufacturer, which must be at least 2,0 mg/l or 4 %

of the lower explosive limit (LEL). For this reason the measuring system should indicate up to at least 4 % of LEL.

4.4 Cleaning alarm

Detectors must be able to indicate that sensors need cleaning to stop false alarms.

4.5 Indicating devices

An indication shall be provided to show that the detector is switched on. For alarm-only detectors, the

manufacturer shall identify suitable points for connecting indicating or recording devices for the purpose of

testing. If the apparatus has more than one measuring range, the range selected shall be clearly identified.

4.6 Individual detector indicators

4.6.1 The monitors or individual detector indicators should indicate a maximum reading, e.g. 2,0 mg/l or

4 % of the LEL.

4.6.2 Each detector shall be provided with an integral visual indicator or indicators, by which the individual

detector which created an alarm can be identified until the alarm condition is reset. Where other conditions of

the detector can be visually indicated, these shall be clearly distinguishable from the alarm indication, except

when the detector is switched into a service mode. For detachable detectors, the indicator may be integral with

the base or the detector head.
4.6.3 Each detector shall be provided with a fault indication in the event of
— failure of power to the detector,

— loss of continuity or short circuit in one or more of the wires to the detector,

— loss of electrical continuity within the detector, or
— need for cleaning of the sensor.

4.6.4 Where other conditions of the status of the detector are indicated visually, the following colours shall be used:

4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
— red, for indication of a percentage of a potentially high oil mist level;
— green, for power supply normal.
4.6.5 Each indicator shall be labelled to show its function.
4.7 Connection of ancillary devices

The detector may provide for connections to ancillary devices (remote indicators, control relays, etc.), but open-

or short-circuit failures of these connections shall not prevent the correct operation of the detector.

4.8 Monitoring of detachable detectors

For detachable detectors, a means shall be provided for a remote monitoring system (e.g. the control and

indicating equipment) to detect the removal of the head from the base, in order to give a fault signal.

4.9 Manufacturer’s adjustments

It shall not be possible to change the manufacturer’s settings except by special means, e.g. with the use of a

special code or tool, or by breaking or removing a seal.
4.10 On-site adjustment of response behaviour

4.10.1 If there is provision for on-site adjustment of the response behaviour of the detector, then:

a) for all of the settings at which the manufacturer claims compliance with this International Standard, the detector

shall comply with the requirements of this International Standard and access to the adjustment means shall

only be possible by the use of a code or special tool or by removing the detector from its base or mounting;

b) any setting(s) at which the manufacturer does not claim compliance with this International Standard shall

only be accessible by the use of a code or special tool, and it shall be clearly marked on the detector or in the

associated data that if these setting(s) are used, the detector does not comply with this International Standard.

4.10.2 These adjustments may be carried out at the detector or at the control and indicating equipment.

4.11 Response to slow increases of oil mist concentrations

4.11.1 Compensation may be used to mitigate changes in sensitivity due to the build-up of dust and other

contaminants on the sensing surfaces.

4.11.2 The provision of drift compensation and/or the provision of algorithms to match a detector to its

environment shall not lead to a significant reduction in the sensitivity of the detector to slow increases in the

concentration levels of oil mist.

4.11.3 The detector shall cause either a fault or alarm signal at the limit of compensation for the effect of a

slowly changing signal response.

4.11.4 Since it is not practical to make tests with very slow increases in the concentration levels of oil mist, an

assessment of the response of the detector to slow increases in the concentration levels of oil mist shall be made

by analysis of the circuit/software, and/or physical tests and simulations. Where such algorithms are used, the

detector shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this clause if the documentation and assessment shows:

a) how and why a sensor drifts;

b) how the compensation technique modifies the detector response to compensate for the drift;

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 16437:2012(E)

c) that suitable limits to the compensation are in place to prevent the algorithms/means being applied

outside the known limitations of the sensor and to ensure ongoing compliance with the clauses of this

International Standard;

d) for any rate of increase in oil mist concentration, R, which is greater than A/4 per hour (where A is the

detector’s initial uncompensated alarm set point), the time for the detector to give an alarm does not

exceed 1,6 A/R by more than 100 s;

e) the range of compensation is limited such that, throughout this range, the compensation does not cause

the alarm set point of the detector to exceed its initial value by a factor greater than 1,6.

4.12 Marking
4.12.1 Each detector shall be clearly marked with the following information:
a) the number of this International Standard (i.e. ISO 16437);
b) the name or trademark of the manufacturer or supplier;

c) some mark(s) or code(s) (e.g. serial number or batch code), by which the manufacturer can identify, at

least, the model designation (type or number), the date or batch and place of manufacture, and the version

number(s) of any software contained within the detector.

4.12.2 Where any marking on the device uses symbols or abbreviations not in common use, these should be

explained in the data supplied with the device.
4.12.3 The markings shall be visible after installation of the detector.

4.12.4 The markings shall not be placed on screws or other easily removable parts.

4.13 Instruction manual

Each detector shall be accompanied by an instruction manual. It shall include the following information:

1) intended use;

2) operational limitations (e.g. ambient temperature, humidity, pressure, flow rate, supply voltage);

3) tests and certificates;
4) measuring principles;
5) indication of alarms;
6) mechanical structure and diagram of apparatus;
7) description of apparatus function;
8) technical data;
9) start-up procedure;
10) calibration and adjustment procedure;
11) service and maintenance;
12) measure to be taken in case of malfunctions;
13) accessories and replacement parts.
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ISO 16437:2012(E)
4.14 Data

4.14.1 Detectors shall be supplied with sufficient technical, installation and maintenance data to enable their

correct installation and operation. To enable correct operation of the detectors, this data should describe the

requirements for the correct processing of the signals from the detector. This may be in the form of a full technical

specification of these signals, a reference to the appropriate signalling protocol or a reference to suitable types

of control and indicating equipment.

4.14.2 Installation and maintenance data shall include reference to an in situ test method to ensure that

detectors operate correctly when installed.

NOTE Additional information may be required by organizations certifying that detectors produced by a manufacturer

conform to the requirements of this International Standard.
4.15 Requirements for software-controlled detectors
4.15.1 General

The requirements of 4.15.2, 4.15.3 and 4.15.4 shall be met for detectors which rely on software control in order

to fulfil the requirements of this International Standard.
4.15.2 Software documentation

4.15.2.1 The manufacturer shall have documentation available for inspection which gives an overview of the

software design, and provide it to the testing authority if required. This documentation shall be in sufficient detail for

the design to be inspected for compliance with this International Standard and shall include at least the following:

a) a functional description of the main program flow (e.g. as a flow diagram or structogram) including:

1) a brief description of the modules and the functions that they perform,
...

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