Ceramic tiles — Installation — Part 3: Installation of large format porcelain tiles and panels by mechanical means onto a supporting structure

Classes A1a and B1a porcelain (as defined in ISO 13006) are now manufactured in much larger formats than previously available and are increasingly being used as an external cladding material for buildings. Classes A1b, A11a, and AIIb extruded ceramics (as defined in ISO 13006) are not covered by the scope of this document. These materials, when specifically developed for external façade applications, have been used extensively for many years and established methodologies already exist. Large format porcelain tiles or panels are generally considered to be too large to be used externally on high buildings when installed by conventional adhesive fixing methods (ISO/TR 17870-1 and ISO/TR 17870-2); therefore, mechanical fixings are used. As there are currently no published standards or guidelines for these products to be installed in this way, this document provides generic information on some typical types of mechanical fixing systems in use together with positive and negative wind load factors and typical testing procedures that can be used for evaluating anchor pull-out or edge fracture resistance. Also, because the current impact resistance test method for ceramics tiles (ISO 10545-5) relates only to traditional (bedded) installed tiling – which measures the coefficient of restitution – it is not an appropriate test for unbedded (unsupported) tiles, so alternative test methods (ISO 7892) are referred to for measuring hard-body and soft-body impact resistance. Guidance is provided regarding typical impact zones of vulnerability to hard and soft body impact and reference is made to anti-shatter mesh backings, which are sometimes applied to porcelain cladding tiles and panels. Installation systems which rely upon the chemical adhesion of metal brackets, straps or framing, etc. onto or into large format porcelain tiles or panels in conjunction with, or instead of, mechanical attachment, are not included in this document. The detailed principles for the design and construction of the substructure of ventilated façades, also known as rain screens, used on the outside of buildings, are well documented in other national and international standards and are not therefore, included in this document, other than in general reference.

Carreaux et dalles céramiques - Installation — Partie 3: Installation des carreaux et panneaux céramiques grand format par des moyens mécaniques sur une structure de support

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
12-Oct-2022
Completion Date
10-Jan-2023
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ISO/TS 17870-3:2023 - Ceramic tiles — Installation — Part 3: Installation of large format porcelain tiles and panels by mechanical means onto a supporting structure Released:10. 01. 2023
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 17870-3
First edition
2023-01
Ceramic tiles — Installation —
Part 3:
Installation of large format porcelain
tiles and panels by mechanical means
onto a supporting structure
Carreaux et dalles céramiques - Installation —
Partie 3: Installation des carreaux et panneaux céramiques grand
format par des moyens mécaniques sur une structure de support
Reference number
ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Exchange of information ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Workmanship .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Ventilated façades .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Methods of mechanical fixing for porcelain ........................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Anchored systems ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2.2 Bracket and strap attachment ................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.3 Undercut drilling ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2.4 Anchorage – pull-out testing of undercut anchors and edge fracture testing

of slotted edge systems ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3 Apertured tile systems.................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Edge slotted systems ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.4.2 Horizontal drift................................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.4.3 Effect of frost ...................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.5 Visible overlapping clip systems .......................................................................................................................................... 10

7.6 Off-site prefabrication ........................................................................................................................................... ........................ 11

7.7 Cutting large format porcelain tiles or panels ........................................................................................................ 11

7.7.1 Wet cutting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.7.2 Scribe and break .............................................................................................................................................................. 11

8 Erection sequence............................................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Setting out ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Plumb and planarity .......................................................................................................................................................................12

10 Fixings ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Wind loads ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.1 Wind-load calculations ................................................................................................................................................................. 12

11.2 Wind-load testing .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

11.3 Components - wind-load resistance ................................................................................................................................. 13

11.4 Operational forces ............................................................................................................................................................................13

12 Impact criteria and performance testing ...............................................................................................................................13

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.2 Performance category ................................................................................................................................................................... 13

12.3 Impact resistance .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

12.4 Hard body impact testing ..........................................................................................................................................................15

12.4.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

12.4.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 16

12.4.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 16

12.5 Soft body impact testing ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

12.5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

12.5.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

12.5.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 18

12.6 Mesh backing ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

iii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)

13 External corners and edge treatment ........................................................................................................................................19

14 Thermal moisture and structural movement ....................................................................................................................20

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

14.2 Movement ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

14.2.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

14.2.2 Thermal movement .......................................................................................................................................................20

14.2.3 Moisture movement of a masonry structure to which a façade supporting

metal framework is to be attached ................................................................................................................. 21

14.2.4 Permeability to water ................................................................................................................................................. 21

15 Durability and design life ........................................................................................................................................................................21

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21

15.2 Durability ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21

15.3 Simplicity .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

16 Fixing large format porcelain tiles or panels façade systems support rails to a

metallic subframe or directly to the building structure .......................................................................................22

16.1 Strength ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

16.2 Adjustment .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

17 Reaction to fire ...................................................................................................................................................................................................23

18 Handling of materials ..................................................................................................................................................................................23

18.1 Size and weight .................................................................................................................................................................................... 23

18.2 System training of installers ...................................................................................................................................................23

19 Storage and control of materials .....................................................................................................................................................23

19.1 Marking and packing......................................................................................................................................................................23

19.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

19.1.2 Protective packing ......................................................................................................................................................... 23

19.2 Delivery and handling ................................................................................................................................................................... 24

19.3 Storage of prefabricated components ............................................................................................................................. 24

19.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 24

19.3.2 Protection of work ......................................................................................................................................................... 24

20 Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

21 Access for maintenance .............................................................................................................................................................................24

21.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24

21.2 Designing for access ........................................................................................................................................................................ 25

22 Environmental Effects ................................................................................................................................................................................25

22.1 Effect of weathering, atmospheric pollution and chemical attack ........................................................ 25

22.2 Effect of changes in temperature ........................................................................................................................................ 25

22.3 Effect of sunlight ................................................................................................................................................................................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 189, Ceramic tile.
A list of all parts in the ISO 17870 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
Ceramic tiles — Installation —
Part 3:
Installation of large format porcelain tiles and panels by
mechanical means onto a supporting structure
1 Scope

Classes A1a and B1a porcelain (as defined in ISO 13006) are now manufactured in much larger formats

than previously available and are increasingly being used as an external cladding material for buildings.

Classes A1b, A11a, and AIIb extruded ceramics (as defined in ISO 13006) are not covered by the scope

of this document. These materials, when specifically developed for external façade applications, have

been used extensively for many years and established methodologies already exist.

Large format porcelain tiles or panels are generally considered to be too large to be used externally

on high buildings when installed by conventional adhesive fixing methods (ISO/TR 17870-1 and

ISO/TR 17870-2); therefore, mechanical fixings are used.

As there are currently no published standards or guidelines for these products to be installed in this

way, this document provides generic information on some typical types of mechanical fixing systems

in use together with positive and negative wind load factors and typical testing procedures that can

be used for evaluating anchor pull-out or edge fracture resistance. Also, because the current impact

resistance test method for ceramics tiles (ISO 10545-5) relates only to traditional (bedded) installed

tiling – which measures the coefficient of restitution – it is not an appropriate test for unbedded

(unsupported) tiles, so alternative test methods (ISO 7892) are referred to for measuring hard-body

and soft-body impact resistance.

Guidance is provided regarding typical impact zones of vulnerability to hard and soft body impact and

reference is made to anti-shatter mesh backings, which are sometimes applied to porcelain cladding

tiles and panels.

Installation systems which rely upon the chemical adhesion of metal brackets, straps or framing,

etc. onto or into large format porcelain tiles or panels in conjunction with, or instead of, mechanical

attachment, are not included in this document.

The detailed principles for the design and construction of the substructure of ventilated façades,

also known as rain screens, used on the outside of buildings, are well documented in other national

and international standards and are not therefore, included in this document, other than in general

reference.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
arris

sharp edge formed by the intersection of two surfaces such as the corner of a masonry unit text of the

definition
3.2
porcelain
ceramic with water absorption ≤ 0,5 % (Class A1a or B1a according to ISO 13006)
3.3
large format porcelain tile
surface area >3 600 cm and no tile edge >1 200 mm
3.4
porcelain panel
surface area >1 m and any tile edge > 1 200 mm
3.5
ventilated façade

system for cladding the exterior of a building that provides for the formation of a cavity between the

building structure and the cladding to allow for the installation of a thermal/acoustic insulation layer

and an air cavity between the insulation layer (3.8) and the large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panel

Note 1 to entry: Air cavity has a minimum of a 20 mm wide continuous air flow cavity.

3.6
drift

unintended sideways movement of large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels across a support structure

due to differential thermal expansion/contraction of components and/or gusting wind pressures

3.7
primary support

subframe or substructure, usually metal, onto which the large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels are

mounted
3.8
insulation layer
layer included to obtain sound or thermal insulation
3.9
movement joint

joint (3.10) in large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels, backgrounds or substrates, designed to

accommodate movement
3.10
joint
space between adjacent large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels
3.11
undercut anchor

special type of stress-free mechanical anchorage system used to secure brackets or straps onto large

format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels
3.12
support system
metal brackets and rails used to form the subframe
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)
3.13
vapour membrane

impervious layer to resist the passage of water but which will allow vapour from the building structure

to escape
3.14
slotted edge system
kerf edge system

slots formed into the edges of large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels to receive clips which are

secured to the façade subframe
3.15
overlapping clip

visible clips which overlap the edges of large format porcelain tiles (3.3) or panels and secured to the

façade subframe
3.16
hard-body impact

impact by hard projectiles that may be thrown, blown or otherwise caused to impact the façade

3.17
soft-body impact

impact from persons or other significantly heavy soft objects falling or pushing against the façade

3.18
negative wind load
negative load (suction) imposed onto the façade by strong or gusting wind
3.19
positive wind load
load imposed onto a façade by strong or gusting wind
3.20
workshop drawing
project-specific detailed installation drawing
4 Exchange of information

In order for the correct large format porcelain tiles or panels ventilated façade system to be installed in

appropriate conditions, at the right time, etc., it is essential that all parties have a clear understanding

of the requirements of the project. To ensure that this is achieved, it is essential that there is wide

consultation between all the parties involved in the project, including client, façade installer and

materials suppliers.

As each project will be unique, it is impossible to give a definitive list of the information to be exchanged,

but the following are common examples:
a) specification: the information required;

b) special attendances: access, unloading, hoisting and storage facilities, heat, light and power, and

any additional items considered necessary to expedite the work;

c) large format porcelain tiles or panels mechanical fixing system: technical specification and

instructions for transport, storage, use;

d) backgrounds: type of façade subframe construction; location on the building and any need for

movement joints;

e) associated work: services in or passing through the façade substructure and junctions with other

adjacent finishes;
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 17870-3:2023(E)

f) finishes: type, size, and colour of large format porcelain, tiles or panels and layout requirements;

g) installation: type and technique;
h) workshop drawing;
i) wind load: engineering calculations;
j) programme: a time schedule for the progress of the work.
5 Workmanship

The installation of large format porcelain tiles or panels requires efficient supervision and the

employment of skilled operatives properly trained to install large format porcelain tiles or panels

façade systems to an appropriate level of competence.

The large format porcelain tiles or panels façade installers should be properly trained to work safely

from a scaffold or when using access equipment to work at height, including the use of a safety harness

and other equipment where necessary.
6 Ventilated façades
6.1 General

Ventilated façade systems vary in design, depending upon the performance criteria required by the

specifier, e.g. drained and ventilated, pressure equalised, compartmented.

The various requirements and recommendations contained in this document relate only to the

installation of mechanically fixed large format porcelain tiles or panels onto an appropriately designed,

drained and ventilated façade system subframe.

Usually a ventilated façade subframe will consist of primary support brackets that attach a metallic

subframe to the structure of the building, which may be masonry or concrete/steel frame, etc.

Primary support brackets, which are usually available in a range of sizes depending upon the façade

cavity dimension required, are securely fixed to the building structure and normally provide for some

adjustment of the subframe, which is appropriately attached to the primary support brackets after first

aligning it to the required planarity and perpendicularity.

A thermal/acoustic insulation layer may be installed and covered by a waterproof vapour membrane if

recommended by the façade designer or required in accordance with national regulations.

Purpose-designed horizontal rails are then attached to the subframe in accordance with the

specification at the correct levels and spacing to suit the setting out module of the large format porcelain

tiles or panels to be mechanically attached to them (see Figure 1).
Some ventilated façade primary support syst
...

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