Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test methods — Part 3: Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

This document defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 18000‑3. It does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods intend to verify the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application-specific functionality criteria that are not available in the general case. This document includes the following interrogator and tag conformance parameters: — mode-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances; — parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability. This document does not include the following: — parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements; — high-level data encoding conformance test parameters (these are specified in ISO/IEC 15962).

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18047-3
First edition
2022-03
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification device
conformance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for air interface
communications at 13,56 MHz
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 — 13,56 MHz ................................................................................................ 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Default conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................. 3

4.2.1 Test environment ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Pre-conditioning ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2.3 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.4 Spurious inductance ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.5 Total measurement uncertainty ........................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1 ..................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Functional test — Tag .................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.4 Functional test — Interrogator ............................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 2 .................................................................................................. 10

4.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.4.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................ 10

4.4.3 Functional test — Tag .................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.4 Functional test — Interrogator .......................................................................................................................... 13

4.5 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 3 (mandatory ASK part) ........................................ 14

4.5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.5.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................ 14

4.5.3 Functional test – tag ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

4.5.4 Functional test — interrogator .......................................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (normative) Test setup parameters and dimensions for tags smaller than or equal

to an ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 outline .........................................................................................................................................................21

Annex B (normative) Guideline for RFID tags larger than ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 size ..........................................23

Annex C (normative) Test interrogator antenna .................................................................................................................................27

Annex D (informative) Test interrogator antenna tuning .........................................................................................................30

Annex E (normative) Sense coil ..............................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex F (normative) Reference tag for interrogator power test .......................................................................................35

Annex G (informative) Reference tag for load modulation test ...........................................................................................37

Annex H (informative) Program for evaluation of the spectrum ......................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 18047 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 18000 defines the air interfaces for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices used in item

management applications. ISO/IEC 18000-3 defines the air interface for these devices operating in the

13,56 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band and used in these applications.

Each part of ISO/IEC 18047 contains all measurements required to be made on a product in order to

establish whether it conforms to the corresponding part of ISO/IEC 18000. For ISO/IEC 18047-3, each

product should be assessed following either the procedure defined for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1, for

Mode 2 or for Mode 3.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device conformance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56
MHz
1 Scope

This document defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification

devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 18000-3.

It does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements.

The test methods intend to verify the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are

implemented. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application-specific

functionality criteria that are not available in the general case.

This document includes the following interrogator and tag conformance parameters:

— mode-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances;

— parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability.

This document does not include the following:
— parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements;

— high-level data encoding conformance test parameters (these are specified in ISO/IEC 15962).

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
3.1.1
loading effect

change in interrogator antenna current caused by the presence of tag(s) in the field due to the mutual

coupling modifying the interrogator antenna resonance and quality factor
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ar reference tag width
ASK amplitude shift keying
asp air spacing
br reference tag height
ca calibration coil width
cb calibration coil height
co calibration coil corner radius
dis distance between test interrogator antenna and sense coils
DUT device under test
fc frequency of the operating field
fs frequency of sub-carrier
H maximum field strength of the interrogator antenna field
max
H minimum field strength of the interrogator antenna field
min
ISM industrial scientific and medical
lx length of test interrogator assembly connection cable
lya test interrogator and sense coil PCB width
lyb test interrogator and sense coil PCB height
lyd test interrogator coil diameter
lyw test interrogator coil track width
nr number of turns of reference tag
oa calibration coil outline width
ob calibration coil outline height
PCB printed circuit board
rs sense coil corner radius
sa sense coil width
sb sense coil height
sr reference tag track spacing
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
wr reference tag track width
4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 — 13,56 MHz
4.1 General

This document specifies a series of tests to determine the conformance of interrogators and tags. The

results of these tests shall be compared with the values of the parameters specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3

to determine whether the interrogator-under-test or tag-under-test conforms.

Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document shall be applied exclusively to RFID tags and

interrogators defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1, Mode 2 and Mode 3.
4.2 Default conditions applicable to the test methods
4.2.1 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in an environment of temperature 23 °C ± 3 °C and

of relative humidity 40 % to 60 %.
4.2.2 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification tags to be tested shall be

conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 h before testing.
4.2.3 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of ±5 % shall be applied to the quantity values given

to specify the characteristics of the test equipment (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method

procedures (e.g. test equipment adjustments).
4.2.4 Spurious inductance
Resistors and capacitors should have negligible inductance.
4.2.5 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
4.3 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1
4.3.1 General

The conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 mode 1 are described independent of the tag size. For tests

of tags smaller or equal to ID-1 (as defined in ISO/IEC 7810) all dimensions shall be as specified in

Annex A. Dimensions of larger tags shall be in accordance with Annex B.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
4.3.2 Test apparatus and test circuits
4.3.2.1 General

This subclause defines the test apparatus and test circuits for verifying the operation of a tag or an

interrogator according to the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3. The test apparatus includes:

— calibration coil (see 4.3.2.2);
— test interrogator assembly (see 4.3.2.3);
— reference tag (see 4.3.2.5);
— digital sampling oscilloscope (see 4.3.2.6).
4.3.2.2 Calibration coil
4.3.2.2.1 General

This subclause defines the size, thickness and characteristics of the calibration coil PCB.

4.3.2.2.2 Size of the Calibration coil

The calibration coil PCB consists of an area, which has the height and width defined in Figure 1. Figure 1

shows an example calibration coil containing a single turn coil concentric with the tag outline.

Key
A coil ca x cb, 1 turn
B connections
C outline oa x ob
Figure 1 — Example calibration coil
4.3.2.2.3 Thickness and material of the calibration coil substrate

The thickness of the calibration coil PCB shall be 0,76 mm ±10 %. It shall be constructed of a suitable

insulating material such as FR4 or equivalent.
4.3.2.2.4 Coil characteristics

The coil on the calibration coil PCB shall have one turn. The outer size of the coil shall be as defined in

Figure 1, with a corner radius, co.

The coil is made as a printed coil on PCB plated with 35 µm copper. The track width shall be 500 μm

±20 %. The size of the connection pads shall be 1,5 mm × 1,5 mm.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)

A high impedance oscilloscope probe (e.g. >1 MΩ, <14 pF) shall be used to measure the open circuit

voltage in the coil. The resonant frequency of the whole set (calibration coil, connecting leads and

probe) shall be above 60 MHz.
4.3.2.3 Test interrogator assembly
4.3.2.3.1 General

The test interrogator assembly for load modulation consists of an interrogator antenna and two parallel

sense coils: sense coil A and sense coil B. The test set-up is shown in Figure 2. The sense coils are

connected such that the signal from one coil is in opposite phase to the other. The 50 Ω potentiometer P1

serves to fine adjust the balance point when the sense coils are not loaded by a tag or any magnetically

coupled circuit. The capacitive load of the probe including its parasitic capacitance shall be less than

14 pF.

The capacitance of the connections and oscilloscope probe should be kept to a minimum for

reproducibility.
Key
A interrogator antenna
B sense coil B
C sense coil A
D identical length of twisted pairs of less than lx mm
E probe
F to oscilloscope
NOTE The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.2.
Figure 2 — Example test set-up
4.3.2.3.2 Test interrogator antenna

The test interrogator antenna shall have a diameter and a construction conforming to the drawings in

Annex C. The tuning of the antenna may be accomplished with the procedure given in Annex D.

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
4.3.2.3.3 Sense coils

The size and the sense coil construction shall conform to the drawings in Annex E.

4.3.2.4 Assembly of test interrogator

The sense coils and test interrogator antenna shall be assembled parallel to each other. The sense and

antenna coils shall be coaxial and the distance between the active conductors shall be as defined in

Figure 3. The distance between the coil in the DUT and the coil of the test interrogator antenna shall be

equal to the distance between the calibration coil and the coil of the test interrogator antenna.

Key
A DUT
B sense coil A
C interrogator antenna
D sense coil B
E calibration coil

NOTE 1 The asp air spacing avoids parasitic effects such as detuning by closer spacing or ambiguous results

due to noise and other environmental effects.
NOTE 2 The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.2.
Figure 3 — Test interrogator assembly
4.3.2.5 Reference tags
4.3.2.5.1 General
Reference tags are defined:

— to test H and H produced by an interrogator (under conditions of loading by a tag) and thus to

min max
test the ability of an interrogator to power a tag;
— to generate the minimum tag reply load modulation signal.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
4.3.2.5.2 Reference tag for interrogator power

The schematic for the power test shall be as defined in Annex F. Power dissipation can be set by the

resistor R1 or R2, in order to measure H and H , respectively as defined in 4.3.4.1.2. The resonant

min max
frequency can be adjusted with C2.
4.3.2.5.3 Reference tag for load modulation reception test

A suggested schematic for the load modulation reception test is shown in Annex G. The load modulation

can be chosen to be resistive or reactive.

This reference tag is calibrated by using the test interrogator assembly as follows.

The reference tag is placed in the position of the DUT. The load modulation signal amplitude is measured

as described in 4.3.3. This amplitude should correspond to the minimum amplitude at all values of field

strength required by the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3.
4.3.2.5.4 Dimensions of the reference tags

The reference tag which is used for the measurements shall be described in the measurement report.

Figure 4 shows as an example an ISO card sized reference tag which consists of an area containing a coil

which has the same height and width as those defined in ISO/IEC 7810 for ID-1 type.

An area external to this, containing the circuitry that emulates the required tag functions, is appended

so as to allow insertion into the test set-ups described below and so as to cause no interference to the

tests.
Key
A coil
B example outline ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 type
C circuitry
Figure 4 — Example of an ISO card sized reference tag
4.3.2.5.5 Thickness of the reference tag board
The thickness of the reference tag active area shall be 0,76 mm ±10 %.
4.3.2.5.6 Coil characteristics

The coil in the active area of the reference tag shall have nr turns and shall be concentric with the area

outline.
The outer size of the coils shall be ar x br.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
The coil is printed on PCB plated with 35 µm copper.
Track width shall be wr and spacing shall be sr.
NOTE The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.3.
4.3.2.6 Digital sampling oscilloscope

The digital sampling oscilloscope shall be capable of sampling at a rate of at least 100 million samples

per second with a resolution of at least 8 bits at optimum scaling. The oscilloscope should have the

capability to output the sampled data as a text file to facilitate mathematical and other operations such

as windowing on the sampled data using external software programs. An example of the program is

shown in Annex H.
4.3.3 Functional test — Tag
4.3.3.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to determine the amplitude of the tag load modulation signal within the

operating field range (H , H ) as specified in the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3 and the

min max

functionality of the tag with the modulation under emitted fields as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3

parameter table for tag to interrogator link (reference M1-Tag:7).
4.3.3.2 Test procedure

Step 1: Use the load modulation test circuit of Figure 2 and the test interrogator assembly of Figure 3.

The RF power delivered by the signal generator to the test interrogator antenna shall be adjusted

to produce the required field strength (H and H ) and modulation waveforms defined in

min max

ISO/IEC 18000-3 as measured by the calibration coil without any tag. The output of the load modulation

test circuit of Figure 2 is connected to a digital sampling oscilloscope. The 50 Ω potentiometer P1 shall

be trimmed to minimize the residual carrier. This signal shall be at least 40 dB lower than the signal

obtained by shorting one sense coil.

Step 2: The tag under test shall be placed in the DUT position, concentric with sense coil A. The RF drive

into the test interrogator antenna shall be re-adjusted to the required field strength.

Care should be taken to apply a proper synchronization method for low amplitude load modulation.

Exactly two sub-carrier cycles of the sampled modulation waveform shall be Fourier transformed. A

discrete Fourier transformation with a scaling such that a pure sinusoidal signal results in its peak

magnitude shall be used. To minimize transient effects, a sub-carrier cycle immediately following a

non-modulating period should be avoided. In case of two sub-carrier frequencies, this procedure shall

be repeated for the second sub-carrier frequency.

The resulting amplitudes of the upper sideband(s) at fc + fs1 (and fc + fs2 if both are present) and the

lower sideband(s) at fc - fs1 (and fc - fs2, if present) respectively shall be above the value defined in the

base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3.

An appropriate command sequence as defined in the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3 shall be sent by

the test interrogator to obtain a signal or load modulation response from the tag.

NOTE See ISO/IEC 10373-7 for appropriate command sequence.
4.3.3.3 Test report

The test report shall give the measured amplitudes of the upper sideband(s) at fc + fs1 (and fc + fs2,

if present) and the lower sideband(s) at fc - fs1 (and fc - fs2, if present) and the applied fields and

modulations. The pass/fail condition is determined by the values defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3 parameter

table for tag to interrogator link (reference M1-Tag:7).
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
4.3.4 Functional test — Interrogator
4.3.4.1 Interrogator field strength and power transfer
4.3.4.1.1 Purpose

This test measures the field strength produced by an interrogator with its specified antenna in its

operating volume as defined in accordance with the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3. The test procedure

of 4.3.4.1.2 is also used to determine that the interrogator with its specified antenna generates a field

not higher than the value specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3 parameter table for interrogator to tag link

(reference M1-Int:3 for H and reference M1-Int:3a for H ).
max min

This test shall use a reference tag as defined in Annex F to determine that a specific interrogator to be

tested can supply a certain power to a tag placed anywhere within the defined operating volume.

4.3.4.1.2 Test procedure
a) Procedure for H test:
max
1) Tune the reference tag to 13,56 MHz.

The resonant frequency of the reference tag is measured by using an impedance analyzer or a

LCR-meter connected to a calibration coil. The coil of the reference tag should be placed at a distance

of 10 mm from the calibration coil, with the axes of the two coils being congruent. The resonant

frequency is that frequency at which the resistive part of the measured complex impedance is at

maximum.
2) Set jumper J1 to position b to activate R2 (see Figure F.1).

3) Sweep the reference tag coaxially with the antenna through the defined operating volume of

the interrogator under test at a maximum rate of 1 cm/s.

4) The DC voltage (V ) across resistor R3 (see Annex F) is measured with a high impedance

voltmeter and shall not exceed 3 V where the load resistor parallel to the coil L is set to R2 and

the field strength equals H .
max
b) Procedure for H test:
min
1) Tune the reference tag to 13,56 MHz.
2) Set jumper J1 to position a to activate R1 (see Figure F.1).

3) Sweep the reference tag coaxially with the antenna through the defined operating volume of

the interrogator under test at a maximum rate of 1 cm/s.

4) The DC voltage (V ) across resistor R3 is measured with a high impedance voltmeter and

shall exceed 3 V where the load resistor parallel to the coil L is set to R1 and the field strength

equals H .
min
4.3.4.1.3 Test report

The test report shall give the measured values for V at H and H under the defined conditions.

DC min max

The pass/fail condition is determined by the values defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3 parameter table for

interrogator to tag link (reference M1-Int:3 for H and reference M1-Int:3a for H ).

max min
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-3:2022(E)
4.3.4.2 Modulation index and waveform
4.3.4.2.1 Purpose

This test is used to determine the index of modulation of the interrogator field as well as the rise

and fall times and t
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
18047-3
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31
Information technology — Radio
Secretariat: ANSI
frequency identification device
Voting begins on:
2021-11-22 conformance test methods —
Voting terminates on:
Part 3:
2022-01-17
Test methods for air interface
communications at 13,56 MHz
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 — 13,56 MHz ................................................................................................ 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Default conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................. 3

4.2.1 Test environment ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Pre-conditioning ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2.3 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.4 Spurious inductance ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.5 Total measurement uncertainty ........................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1 ..................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Functional test – tag ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3.4 Functional test — Interrogator ............................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 2 .................................................................................................. 10

4.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.4.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................ 10

4.4.3 Functional test — Tag .................................................................................................................................................12

4.4.4 Functional test — Interrogator .......................................................................................................................... 13

4.5 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 3 (mandatory ASK part) ........................................ 14

4.5.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.5.2 Test apparatus and test circuits ........................................................................................................................ 14

4.5.3 Functional test – tag ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

4.5.4 Functional test — interrogator .......................................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (normative) Test setup parameters and dimensions for tags smaller than or equal

to an ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 outline .........................................................................................................................................................21

Annex B (normative) Guideline for RFID tags larger than ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 size ..........................................23

Annex C (normative) Test interrogator antenna .................................................................................................................................27

Annex D (informative) Test interrogator antenna tuning .........................................................................................................30

Annex E (normative) Sense coil ..............................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex F (normative) Reference tag for interrogator power test .......................................................................................35

Annex G (informative) Reference tag for load modulation test ...........................................................................................37

Annex H (informative) Program for evaluation of the spectrum ......................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iii
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 18047 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 18000 defines the air interfaces for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices used in item

management applications. ISO/IEC 18000-3 defines the air interface for these devices operating in the

13,56 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band and used in these applications.

Each part of ISO/IEC 18047 contains all measurements required to be made on a product in order to

establish whether it conforms to the corresponding part of ISO/IEC 18000. For ISO/IEC 18047-3, each

product should be assessed following either the procedure defined for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1, for

Mode 2 or for Mode 3.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device conformance test methods —
Part 3:
Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56
MHz
1 Scope

This document defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification

devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 18000-3.

It does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements.

The test methods intend to verify the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are

implemented. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application-specific

functionality criteria that are not available in the general case.

This document includes the following interrogator and tag conformance parameters:

— mode-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances;

— parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability.

This document does not include the following:
— parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements;

— high-level data encoding conformance test parameters (these are specified in ISO/IEC 15962).

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
3.1.1
loading effect

change in interrogator antenna current caused by the presence of tag(s) in the field due to the mutual

coupling modifying the interrogator antenna resonance and quality factor
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ar reference tag width
ASK amplitude shift keying
asp air spacing
br reference tag height
ca calibration coil width
cb calibration coil height
co calibration coil corner radius
dis distance between test interrogator antenna and sense coils
DUT device under test
fc frequency of the operating field
fs frequency of sub-carrier
H maximum field strength of the interrogator antenna field
max
H minimum field strength of the interrogator antenna field
min
ISM industrial scientific and medical
lx length of test interrogator assembly connection cable
lya test interrogator and sense coil PCB width
lyb test interrogator and sense coil PCB height
lyd test interrogator coil diameter
lyw test interrogator coil track width
nr number of turns of reference tag
oa calibration coil outline width
ob calibration coil outline height
PCB printed circuit board
rs sense coil corner radius
sa sense coil width
sb sense coil height
sr reference tag track spacing
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
wr reference tag track width
4 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 — 13,56 MHz
4.1 General

This document specifies a series of tests to determine the conformance of interrogators and tags. The

results of these tests shall be compared with the values of the parameters specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3

to determine whether the interrogator-under-test or tag-under-test conforms.

Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document shall be applied exclusively to RFID tags and

interrogators defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1, Mode 2 and Mode 3.
4.2 Default conditions applicable to the test methods
4.2.1 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in an environment of temperature 23 °C ± 3 °C and

of relative humidity 40 % to 60 %.
4.2.2 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification tags to be tested shall be

conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 h before testing.
4.2.3 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of ±5 % shall be applied to the quantity values given

to specify the characteristics of the test equipment (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method

procedures (e.g. test equipment adjustments).
4.2.4 Spurious inductance
Resistors and capacitors should have negligible inductance.
4.2.5 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
4.3 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1
4.3.1 General

The conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-3 mode 1 are described independent of the tag size. For tests

of tags smaller or equal to ID-1 (as defined in ISO/IEC 7810) all dimensions shall be as specified in

Annex A. Dimensions of larger tags shall be in accordance with Annex B.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
4.3.2 Test apparatus and test circuits
4.3.2.1 General

This subclause defines the test apparatus and test circuits for verifying the operation of a tag or an

interrogator according to the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3. The test apparatus includes:

— calibration coil (see 4.3.2.2);
— test interrogator assembly (see 4.3.2.3);
— reference tag (see 4.3.2.5);
— digital sampling oscilloscope (see 4.3.2.6).
4.3.2.2 Calibration coil
4.3.2.2.1 General

This subclause defines the size, thickness and characteristics of the calibration coil PCB.

4.3.2.2.2 Size of the Calibration coil

The calibration coil PCB consists of an area, which has the height and width defined in Figure 1. Figure 1

shows an example calibration coil containing a single turn coil concentric with the tag outline.

Key
A coil ca x cb, 1 turn
B connections
C outline oa x ob
Figure 1 — Example calibration coil
4.3.2.2.3 Thickness and material of the calibration coil substrate

The thickness of the calibration coil PCB shall be 0,76 mm ±10 %. It shall be constructed of a suitable

insulating material such as FR4 or equivalent.
4.3.2.2.4 Coil characteristics

The coil on the calibration coil PCB shall have one turn. The outer size of the coil shall be as defined in

Figure 1, with a corner radius, co.

The coil is made as a printed coil on PCB plated with 35 µm copper. The track width shall be 500 μm

±20 %. The size of the connection pads shall be 1,5 mm × 1,5 mm.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)

A high impedance oscilloscope probe (e.g. >1 MΩ, <14 pF) shall be used to measure the open circuit

voltage in the coil. The resonant frequency of the whole set (calibration coil, connecting leads and

probe) shall be above 60 MHz.
4.3.2.3 Test interrogator assembly
4.3.2.3.1 General

The test interrogator assembly for load modulation consists of an interrogator antenna and two parallel

sense coils: sense coil A and sense coil B. The test set-up is shown in Figure 2. The sense coils are

connected such that the signal from one coil is in opposite phase to the other. The 50 Ω potentiometer P1

serves to fine adjust the balance point when the sense coils are not loaded by a tag or any magnetically

coupled circuit. The capacitive load of the probe including its parasitic capacitance shall be less than

14 pF.

The capacitance of the connections and oscilloscope probe should be kept to a minimum for

reproducibility.
Key
A interrogator antenna
B sense coil B
C sense coil A
D identical length of twisted pairs of less than lx mm
E probe
F to oscilloscope
NOTE The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.2.
Figure 2 — Example test set-up
4.3.2.3.2 Test interrogator antenna

The test interrogator antenna shall have a diameter and a construction conforming to the drawings in

Annex C. The tuning of the antenna may be accomplished with the procedure given in Annex D.

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
4.3.2.3.3 Sense coils

The size and the sense coil construction shall conform to the drawings in Annex E.

4.3.2.4 Assembly of test interrogator

The sense coils and test interrogator antenna shall be assembled parallel to each other. The sense and

antenna coils shall be coaxial and the distance between the active conductors shall be as defined in

Figure 3. The distance between the coil in the DUT and the coil of the test interrogator antenna shall be

equal to the distance between the calibration coil and the coil of the test interrogator antenna.

Key
A DUT
B sense coil A
C interrogator antenna
D sense coil B
E calibration coil

NOTE 1 The asp air spacing avoids parasitic effects such as detuning by closer spacing or ambiguous results

due to noise and other environmental effects.
NOTE 2 The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.2.
Figure 3 — Test interrogator assembly
4.3.2.5 Reference tags
4.3.2.5.1 General
Reference tags are defined:

— to test H and H produced by an interrogator (under conditions of loading by a tag) and thus to

min max
test the ability of an interrogator to power a tag;
— to generate the minimum tag reply load modulation signal.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
4.3.2.5.2 Reference tag for interrogator power

The schematic for the power test shall be as defined in Annex F. Power dissipation can be set by the

resistor R1 or R2, in order to measure H and H , respectively as defined in 4.3.4.1.2. The resonant

min max
frequency can be adjusted with C2.
4.3.2.5.3 Reference tag for load modulation reception test

A suggested schematic for the load modulation reception test is shown in Annex G. The load modulation

can be chosen to be resistive or reactive.

This reference tag is calibrated by using the test interrogator assembly as follows.

The reference tag is placed in the position of the DUT. The load modulation signal amplitude is measured

as described in 4.3.3. This amplitude should correspond to the minimum amplitude at all values of field

strength required by the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3.
4.3.2.5.4 Dimensions of the reference tags

The reference tag which is used for the measurements shall be described in the measurement report.

Figure 4 shows as an example an ISO card sized reference tag which consists of an area containing a coil

which has the same height and width as those defined in ISO/IEC 7810 for ID-1 type.

An area external to this, containing the circuitry that emulates the required tag functions, is appended

so as to allow insertion into the test set-ups described below and so as to cause no interference to the

tests.
Key
A coil
B example outline ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 type
C circuitry
Figure 4 — Example of an ISO card sized reference tag
4.3.2.5.5 Thickness of the reference tag board
The thickness of the reference tag active area shall be 0,76 mm ±10 %.
4.3.2.5.6 Coil characteristics

The coil in the active area of the reference tag shall have nr turns and shall be concentric with the area

outline.
The outer size of the coils shall be ar x br.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
The coil is printed on PCB plated with 35 µm copper.
Track width shall be wr and spacing shall be sr.
NOTE The values for the parameters are listed in Table A.3.
4.3.2.6 Digital sampling oscilloscope

The digital sampling oscilloscope shall be capable of sampling at a rate of at least 100 million samples

per second with a resolution of at least 8 bits at optimum scaling. The oscilloscope should have the

capability to output the sampled data as a text file to facilitate mathematical and other operations such

as windowing on the sampled data using external software programs. An example of the program is

shown in Annex H.
4.3.3 Functional test – tag
4.3.3.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to determine the amplitude of the tag load modulation signal within the

operating field range (H , H ) as specified in the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3 and the

min max

functionality of the tag with the modulation under emitted fields as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3

parameter table for tag to interrogator link (reference M1-Tag:7).
4.3.3.2 Test procedure

Step 1: Use the load modulation test circuit of Figure 2 and the test interrogator assembly of Figure 3.

The RF power delivered by the signal generator to the test interrogator antenna shall be adjusted

to produce the required field strength (H and H ) and modulation waveforms defined in

min max

ISO/IEC 18000-3 as measured by the calibration coil without any tag. The output of the load modulation

test circuit of Figure 2 is connected to a digital sampling oscilloscope. The 50 Ω potentiometer P1 shall

be trimmed to minimize the residual carrier. This signal shall be at least 40 dB lower than the signal

obtained by shorting one sense coil.

Step 2: The tag under test shall be placed in the DUT position, concentric with sense coil A. The RF drive

into the test interrogator antenna shall be re-adjusted to the required field strength.

Care should be taken to apply a proper synchronization method for low amplitude load modulation.

Exactly two sub-carrier cycles of the sampled modulation waveform shall be Fourier transformed. A

discrete Fourier transformation with a scaling such that a pure sinusoidal signal results in its peak

magnitude shall be used. To minimize transient effects, a sub-carrier cycle immediately following a

non-modulating period should be avoided. In case of two sub-carrier frequencies, this procedure shall

be repeated for the second sub-carrier frequency.

The resulting amplitudes of the upper sideband(s) at fc + fs1 (and fc + fs2 if both are present) and the

lower sideband(s) at fc - fs1 (and fc - fs2, if present) respectively shall be above the value defined in the

base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3.

An appropriate command sequence as defined in the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3 shall be sent by

the test interrogator to obtain a signal or load modulation response from the tag.

NOTE See ISO/IEC 10373-7 for appropriate command sequence.
4.3.3.3 Test report

The test report shall give the measured amplitudes of the upper sideband(s) at fc + fs1 (and fc + fs2,

if present) and the lower sideband(s) at fc - fs1 (and fc - fs2, if present) and the applied fields and

modulations. The pass/fail condition is determined by the values defined in ISO/IEC 18000-3 parameter

table for tag to interrogator link (reference M1-Tag:7).
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18047-3:2021(E)
4.3.4 Functional test — Interrogator
4.3.4.1 Interrogator field strength and power transfer
4.3.4.1.1 Purpose

This test measures the field strength produced by an interrogator with its specified antenna in its

operating volume as defined in accordance with the base standard, ISO/IEC 18000-3. The test procedure

of 4.3.4.1.2 is also used to determine that the interrogator with its specified antenna generates a field

not higher than the value specified in ISO/IEC 18000-3 parameter table for interrogator to tag link

(reference M1-Int:3 for H and reference M1-Int:3a for H ).
max min

This test shall use a reference tag as defined in Annex F to determine that a specific interrogator to be

tested can supply a certain power to a tag placed anywhere within the defined operating volume.

4.3.4.1.2 Test procedure
a) Procedure for H test:
max
1) Tune the reference tag to 13,56 MHz.

The resonant frequency of the reference tag is measured by using an impedance analyzer or a

LCR-meter connected to a calibration coil. The coil of the reference tag should be placed at a distance

of 10 mm from the calibration coil, with the axes of the two coils being congruent. The resonant

frequency is that frequency at which the resistive part of the measured complex impedance is at

maximum.
2) Set jumper J1 to position b to activate R2 (see Figure F.1).

3) Sweep the reference tag coaxially with the antenna through the defined operating volume of

the interrogator under test at a maximum rate of 1 cm/s.

4) The DC voltage (V ) across resistor R3 (see Annex F) is measured with a high impedance

voltmeter and shall not exceed 3 V where the load resistor parallel to the coil L is set to R2 and

the field strength equals H .
max
b) Procedure for H test:
min
1) Tune the reference tag to 13,56 MHz.
2) Set jumper J1 to position a to activate R1 (see Figure F.1).

3) Sweep the reference tag coaxially with the antenna through the defined operating volume of

the interrogator under test at a maximum rate of 1 cm/s.

4) The DC voltage (V ) across resistor R3 is measured with a high impedance voltmeter and

shall exceed 3 V where the load resistor parallel to the coil L is se
...

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