Water efficiency labelling programmes – Requirements with guidance for implementation

This document specifies requirements for a water efficiency labelling programme for plumbing products and water using appliances along with guidance for their implementation. This document applies to the following products: a) showers; b) tap (faucet) equipment; c) flow regulators (flow controllers); d) water closet (toilet) equipment; e) urinal equipment; f) dishwashers; g) clothes washing machines; h) the dryer function of combination washer/dryers, where they use water to dry a load.

Programmes d’étiquetage pour une utilisation rationnelle de l’eau - Exigences et recommandations pour la mise en œuvre

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
15-Mar-2022
Completion Date
21-Jun-2022
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 31600:2022 - Water efficiency labelling programmes – Requirements with guidance for implementation Released:21. 06. 2022
English language
66 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 31600
First edition
2022-06
Water efficiency labelling programmes
– Requirements with guidance for
implementation
Reference number
ISO 31600:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Pressure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4 Water efficiency labelling programme requirements ................................................................................................. 3

Annex A (informative) General guidance for a water efficiency labelling programme ................................5

Annex B (informative) Existing water efficiency labelling programmes by country or

region — Plumbing products ...............................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (informative) Existing water efficiency labelling programmes by country – Water

using appliances ................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex D (informative) Guidance on conformity assessment .................................................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Examples of existing water efficiency programme labels ...........................................60

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................64

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Project Committee ISO/PC 316, Water efficient products - Rating.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
Introduction

The purpose of ISO 31600 is to provide a set of best practices and guidance for the preparation and

implementation of a water efficiency labelling programme for plumbing products and water using

appliances. A key focus is to provide the criteria for developing countries to establish an effective water

efficiency labelling standard that will save water resources.

This project was approved on the basis that consumer empowerment through the communication of a

product’s water efficiency is a proven way of saving both water and energy. Several countries around

the world already have well-established and effective water efficiency labelling programmes which

empower consumers to make choices favouring more water efficient fixtures and appliances without

compromising on human hygiene and sanitation. These existing labelling programmes were consulted

in the development of this document.

ISO 31600 aims to globally encourage the development of national standards for water efficiency

labelling, which will further lead to development and marketing of water efficient products, and

enable consumers to make an informed choice, positively influencing manufacturers to improve the

performance of their products through consumer demand. This document does not seek to establish

ways to use water efficiency labelling in policies or programmes. The intention is to provide an

understanding of the essential requirements for the development of an effective water efficiency

labelling programme.

This document refers to existing national standards for the determination of water consumption and

other important test procedures and requirements that form the critical underpinnings of a water

efficiency labelling programme. Countries without national standards for products may formulate

their own national standard either by adopting a national standard from a supporting country or by

preparing an indigenous standard, to meet the requirements in Clause 4.
NOTE National regulations can also apply.

This document contains five informative annexes, with Annex A providing suggested universal tests

for the determination of water consumption and Annexes B to E providing descriptions of a number

of existing schemes/programmes. Countries that do not have an existing water efficiency labelling

programme may consider these examples to select and adopt those best suited for their markets and

conditions when developing their own water efficiency labelling programme.

Application of this document presupposes awareness of water efficiency programmes and regulations

in the applicable country.

An overview of how to use this document, including the pathway to demonstrate conformance, is

provided in Figure 1.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
Figure 1 — Pathway to ISO 31600 conformance
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 31600:2022(E)
Water efficiency labelling programmes – Requirements
with guidance for implementation
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for a water efficiency labelling programme for plumbing

products and water using appliances along with guidance for their implementation.

This document applies to the following products:
a) showers;
b) tap (faucet) equipment;
c) flow regulators (flow controllers);
d) water closet (toilet) equipment;
e) urinal equipment;
f) dishwashers;
g) clothes washing machines;

h) the dryer function of combination washer/dryers, where they use water to dry a load.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
water efficiency

accomplishment of a function, task, process, service or result, with the minimum amount of water

needed for the safe operation of the product

[SOURCE: ISO 24513:2019, 3.4.7, modified — At the end of the definition, "practicable" has been replaced

by "needed for the safe operation of the product".]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
3.1.2
banded (tiered) labelling programme

programme that allows products to be labelled with various rated levels of water consumption

Note 1 to entry: Products can be differentiated by various visual means, e.g. stars or other markings, for

identifying incremental levels of water efficiency (3.1.1). See Annex E for examples of existing water efficiency

programme labels.
3.1.3
single threshold labelling programme

programme that requires all labelled products to meet a single water consumption requirement,

typically expressed as a maximum

Note 1 to entry: Labelled products may or may not include the product’s water efficiency (3.1.1) rating. See

Annex E for examples of existing water efficiency programme labels.
3.1.4
shower assembly

combination of a shower control (valve) complete with shower hose (flexible or rigid) and shower outlet

3.1.5
shower outlet device

device through which water is intended to pass to form spray for bathing purposes

EXAMPLE showerheads, handheld showerheads, body sprays and rain shower outlet devices

Note 1 to entry: A shower outlet device can be sold separately or as part of a shower assembly.

3.1.6
tap(s)
faucet(s)

device through which water is intended to pass with an inlet and connection, and a control (valve) for

drawing or regulating the flow of water

Note 1 to entry: A typical application for a tap (faucet) is over a basin (lavatory) (3.2.6), sink or laundry tub.

3.1.7
flow regulator
flow controller

flow control device used to control the rate of water flow in a tap (faucet) (3.1.6), shower outlet device

(3.1.5) or shower assembly (3.1.4)

Note 1 to entry: Device can be sold separately or located within (upstream of the outlet) or at the very end

(forming part of the outlet) of the water flow passage through a product.

Note 2 to entry: When sold separately, they are typically sold as part of an aerator subassembly or as a stand-

alone component intended to be installed in a shower outlet device or shower assembly solution.

3.1.8
water closet
toilet

sanitary plumbing fixture that consists typically of a water-flushed bowl connected to a drainage

system and fitted with a device for flushing water to cleanse the bowl after defecation and urination

3.1.9
urinal

sanitary plumbing fixture typically connected to a water flushing device for the reception and flushing

away of urine into a drainage system
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
3.1.10
pressure flush valve
flushometer valve

device that controls the release of water to flush a urinal (3.1.9) or water closet (toilet) (3.1.8)

3.2 Pressure
3.2.1
pressure
measured force behind water system delivered through a plumbing system

Note 1 to entry: The plumbing system water supply of each country will determine the amount of pressure

delivered to a water using outlet or fixture.
3.2.2
high pressure

hot-water and cold-water static supply pressures at or above a stated pressure for the country of

intended installation

Note 1 to entry: This is typically in a fully pumped plumbing system installation.

3.2.3
low pressure

hot water and cold-water static supply pressures below a stated pressure for the country of intended

installation
Note 1 to entry: This is typically in gravity fed plumbing system installations.
3.2.4
static pressure
measure of the at rest pressure in a plumbing system
3.2.5
dynamic pressure
pressure in a plumbing system under flow conditions
3.2.6
basin
lavatory

fixture for holding water for washing the hands or face, whether with one tap (faucet) (3.1.6) to allow a

single user or a number of taps (faucets) spaced to allow simultaneous users

Note 1 to entry: The term lavatory is used in some countries, but can also refer to the room in which water closets

(toilets) (3.1.8) or urinals (3.1.9) can be positioned, along with a basin for washing of hands.

4 Water efficiency labelling programme requirements

To demonstrate conformance to this document, the water efficiency labelling programme shall:

a) For the product, include or reference to (a) national standard(s);

NOTE 1 A national standard(s) provides the foundation for enabling a water efficiency labelling

programme and can cover requirements for inherent product characteristics, e.g. public health and safety,

material requirements, interchangeability, durability (life testing), performance requirements, and

minimum conformance marking and/or labelling requirements.
NOTE 2 Reference can also be made to national regulations.

b) Include aspects of water efficiency test(s) requirements for the product or reference the applicable

water efficiency test in the national standard(s);
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)

c) Have a method to evaluate and determine a product’s water efficiency or water efficiency rating

based on the results of the water efficiency test(s) as per Clause 4 b);

d) Have a labelling method that identifies the product as being water efficient based on the assessment

provided as per Clause 4 c).

NOTE 3 For guidance on the requirements for setting up a complete water efficiency labelling programme, see

Annex A.

NOTE 4 For information and guidance on the above requirements and water efficiency tests as applied to

existing water efficiency labelling programmes, see Annex B for plumbing products and Annex C for water using

appliances.

NOTE 5 For information on conformity assessment procedures for products of a water efficiency labelling

programme, see Annex D.

NOTE 6 For examples of labels for a water efficiency labelling programme, see Annex E.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
Annex A
(informative)
General guidance for a water efficiency labelling programme
A.1 General

This annex provides the aspects of water efficiency tests for plumbing products and water using

appliances that form part of a water efficiency labelling programme. Best practice options are provided,

including existing test methodologies and test methods based on parameters as specified in this annex.

This annex allows a country to evaluate the most suitable water efficiency labelling programme criteria

for that country.

This annex sets the basic principles for what is required for a water efficiency labelling programme

that meets the requirements of this document. The use of this annex provides the necessary criteria

for the development of a water efficiency labelling programme based on best practices. It provides the

methodology parameters to achieve determination of a product’s/appliance’s water efficiency. Water

efficiency testing criteria are provided for guidance and use in this annex.
A.2 Generic labelling programme guidelines
A.2.1 Banded (tiered) and single threshold labelling programmes
A.2.1.1 General

Developers of water efficiency labelling programmes may choose between developing a banded (tiered)

labelling programme or a single threshold labelling programme. Both have advantages, as detailed

below. Both types of programmes have proven to be effective at improving water efficiency at national

levels.
A.2.1.2 Banded (tiered) labelling programmes
Banded (tiered) labelling programmes offer the following advantages:

a) Allow for the use of product with different rated levels of water consumption to support varied

water infrastructure needs of the country of intended installation (e.g. to support drainline

transport of solid waste in building drains or sewers);

b) Provide manufacturers with an incentive to achieve higher levels of efficiency.

A.2.1.3 Single threshold labelling programmes
Single threshold labelling programmes offer the following advantages:

a) Allow for more precise forecasts of water use as all newly installed products provide the maximum

allowed water efficiency level, or less;

b) Allow manufacturers to focus product development efforts on a single, maximum level of efficiency;

c) Allow programme developers to update programme requirements as improved technologies enter

the marketplace.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
A.2.2 Water efficiency rating systems
A.2.2.1 Objective

A rating system in a water efficiency labelling programme is intended to differentiate the more water

efficient product/appliance from less efficient models and to provide water efficiency information of

the model.

NOTE As mentioned in Clause 4 d), the label can or cannot include the product’s water efficiency rating. The

clauses in this Annex serve as a guidance for other countries that intend to develop their own rating system and

labelling system.
A.2.2.2 Rating systems

A rating system can consist of a number of metrics applicable to the plumbing fitting or appliance being

rated.

Typically, this is based on the consumption of water in relation to the specific use, for example:

a) Litres per minute [typically used for taps (faucets) and showerheads];

b) Litres per cycle, load, place setting, or other such basis for comparison [typically used for clothes

washers, dishwashers and metering taps (faucets)];
c) Litres per flush [typically used for water closets (toilets) and urinals].

Additional metrics can be used to help qualify the rating of the water consumption:

— Maximum water consumption;
— Minimum water consumption;

— The test pressure at which a flow rate was determined [typically used for taps (faucets) and

showerheads];
— Minimum and / or maximum place settings (typically used for dishwashers).

An example of a rating system in a banded (tiered) labelling programme for basin taps (faucets) is

illustrated in Table A.1.
Table A.1 — Basin taps (faucets) rating system example
Rating Flow rate Q
(l/min)
1 7,5 ≤ Q ≤ 9,0
2 6,0 ≤ Q < 7,5
3 4,5 ≤ Q < 6,0
4 1,5 ≤ Q < 4,5
NOTE 1 ‘Rating 4’ is the most water efficient.
NOTE 2 ‘Rating 1’ is the least water efficient.
NOTE 3 ‘9,0 l/min’ is the maximum water consumption.
NOTE 4 ‘1,5 l/min’ is the lowest water consumption.
NOTE 5 ‘l/min’ is the water consumption unit.
NOTE 6 ‘4,5 ≤ Q < 6,0’ is the water consumption range.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
A.2.3 Water consumption
A.2.3.1 Determination of water consumption

The water consumption of the product should be determined in accordance with the following

subclauses for plumbing products:
— A.4 Shower Outlet Devices and Shower Assembly Solutions;
— A.5 Taps (faucets);
— A.6 Flow regulators (flow controllers);
— A.7 Water closets (toilets);
— A.8 Urinals.

The water consumption of the product should be determined in accordance with the following

subclauses for water using appliances:
— A.9 Dishwashers;
— A.10 Clothes washers;
— A.11 Combination washers / dryers.
A.2.3.2 Rating of product/appliance

The rating of a product/appliance should be determined in accordance with the rating system specified

in A.2.2.
A.2.4 Labelling guidelines
A.2.4.1 Labels

Every model should be issued with a water efficiency label. Every label should meet the minimum

requirements as specified in A.2.4.2 and A.2.4.3.
NOTE See Annex E for examples of existing water efficiency programme labels.
A.2.4.2 Label specifications
The specifications of a label should consist of the following:
a) Rating representation, e.g. pass, meets, conforms, star rating, tick;
b) Design of label;
c) Font type e.g. Arial;
d) Font size;
e) Language, e.g. all information in English;
f) Water efficiency label information (see A.2.4.3).
A.2.4.3 Label information
A label should contain the following information:
a) Water efficiency rating;
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
b) Product brand;
c) Product model number;
d) Water consumption;
e) Type of product;
f) Number of place settings (applicable for dishwashers);
g) Rated capacity (applicable for washing machine and washer/dryer).
A.2.4.4 Additional label information
The following additional information can be included on the label:
a) Standard number (e.g. ISO 31600:2022);
b) Name of supplier;
c) Recommended wash programme (applicable for clothes washing machines);
d) Intended application, e.g. shower outlet;
e) Label dimensions;
f) Colour specifications and minimum resolutions, e.g. pantone codes;

g) Registration number or unique number issued to the model, QR code or its equivalent;

h) Any other information.
A.2.4.5 Printed labels

The label should be produced or printed in full or proportionately larger, in accordance with any

applicable national label specifications, or in any case of a size such that it can be reasonably read and

comprehended by consumers.
A.2.4.6 Display of label

The water efficiency labelling programme should detail the appropriate manner the label is displayed at

the point of sale. The label may be affixed securely on the physical model or placed near to the product/

appliance or on its packaging at point of sale. For product sold at retail, the label should be affixed in a

prominent position for consumers to view the water efficiency information and compare with ease.

A.2.4.7 Use of label in advertisements

The water efficiency labelling programme should detail the appropriate manner for the use of the label

in product advertisements or marketing.

Where it is not feasible to place all water efficiency information as specified in A.2.4.3 for each model in

a printed advertisement, for example, due to space constraints, the advertisement for the model should

contain the following:
a) Water efficiency rating;
b) Product brand;
c) Product model number.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
The following additional information can be included on the label:
— Registration number or unique number issued to the model or its equivalent.
A.2.4.8 Modification of a labelled product/appliance

Where there is any change to the critical components of the product that affects its performance and

water efficiency, the model should be retested and recertified.
A.2.5 Additional guidance on labelling

Countries that intend to develop their own water efficiency labelling programme are recommended to

include the following provisions:

a) requirements to maintain a proper record system of the labels issued to the products for traceability

and for review of the water efficiency labelling programme;

b) rules and requirements regarding changes of ownership of the manufacturer, supplier or importer

of the labelled product/appliance;

c) rules and requirements on modifications of labelled products that can affect the validity of the

label;
d) rules and requirements on altering, falsifying or forging of the label;

e) rules and requirements to monitor the ongoing conformance of products to the labelling programme

requirements. General information on the various approaches that countries or regions have taken

for this is provided in Annex D.
A.3 General requirements for plumbing products
A.3.1 General
This subclause applies to:
— A.4 Shower Outlet Devices and Shower Assembly Solutions;
— A.5 Taps (faucets);
— A.6 Flow regulators (flow controllers);
— A.7 Water closets (toilets);
— A.8 Urinals.
A.3.2 Conformance to national standard(s)

As a prerequisite, all labelled plumbing products and all components included as part of a labelled

product assembly should conform to all the requirements contained in the applicable national

standard(s) of the country of intended installation.
NOTE National regulations can also apply.
A.3.3 Instructions

The water efficiency labelling programme should require that all labelled products not be packaged,

marked, nor provided with instructions directing the user to an alternative water use setting that

would override the rated flow rate or water consumption volume, as established by the water efficiency

labelling programme. All included instructions related to the maintenance of the product should direct

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)

the user on ways to maintain the labelled product at the rated flow rate or water consumption volume

of the product.
A.4 Shower outlet devices and shower assembly solutions
A.4.1 General
This subclause applies to:
— Shower outlet devices;
— Shower assembly solutions.
A.4.2 Included components

Shower assembly solutions should include a shower control valve [tap (faucet)] and a shower outlet

device. Where handheld shower outlet devices are supplied, a compatible flexible hose should also

be supplied. All components included with the shower assembly should be installed according to the

manufacturer’s instructions.
A.4.3 Essential testing
A.4.3.1 General

The following test is considered essential for shower outlet devices and should be included in a water

efficiency labelling programme.
A.4.3.2 Determination of shower outlet device flow rate test

The flow rate of the shower outlet device should be determined by the test procedures detailed in the

applicable national standard(s) of the country of intended installation. Flow rates should be expressed

in terms of litres per minute (l/min).
NOTE National regulations can also apply.
A.4.4 Additional suggested testing
A.4.4.1 General

The following tests are offered for consideration for inclusion in a water efficiency labelling programme.

It is possible that they will not be appropriate in all regions.

NOTE 1 The Determination of Spray Coverage and Spray Force tests are only recommended for regions

having predominately pressurized (e.g. water utility supplied) plumbing systems. It is possible that it will not be

appropriate for regions that have predominately low pressure (e.g. roof cistern supplied) plumbing systems.

NOTE 2 Examples of existing water efficiency labelling programmes for plumbing products and water using

appliances are provided in Annexes B and C respectively.
A.4.4.2 Determination of spray coverage

A spray coverage performance test for shower outlet devices should be determined when tested in

accordance with the applicable national standard(s) of the country of intended installation.

NOTE 1 The intent of this test is to ensure that the shower outlet device provides an effective spray coverage

pattern to facilitate bathing. Performance is recorded and expressed in terms of coverage over a defined area.

NOTE 2 National regulations can also apply.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
ISO 31600:2022(E)
A.4.4.3 Determination of spray force test

A spray force test for shower outlet devices should be determined when tested in accordance with

the applicable national standard(s) of the country of intended installation. Performance should be

expressed in terms of newtons (N).

NOTE 1 The intent of this test is to ensure that the shower outlet device provides adequate force to facilitate

bathing.
NOTE 2 National regulations can also apply.
A.4.4.4 P
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.