Plastics — Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) — Part 2: Determination of coefficient of linear thermal expansion and glass transition temperature

This document specifies a test method, using thermodilatometry[1], for the determination of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics in a solid state by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). This document also specifies the determination of the glass transition temperature using TMA. NOTE The coefficient of linear thermal expansion can be measured using various types of thermodilatometry apparatus. This document concerns only TMA apparatus.

Plastiques — Analyse thermomécanique (TMA) — Partie 2: Détermination du coefficient de dilatation thermique linéique et de la température de transition vitreuse

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Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Nov-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
12-Nov-2021
Completion Date
12-Nov-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11359-2
Second edition
2021-11
Plastics — Thermomechanical
analysis (TMA) —
Part 2:
Determination of coefficient of
linear thermal expansion and glass
transition temperature
Plastiques — Analyse thermomécanique (TMA) —
Partie 2: Détermination du coefficient de dilatation thermique
linéique et de la température de transition vitreuse
Reference number
ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.2 Conditioning.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3

7.1 Calibration of apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.2 Determination ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Expression of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1 Method of calculation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1.1 Differential coefficient of linear thermal expansion, ....................................................................... 4

8.1.2 Mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion, ....................................................................................... 5

8.1.3 Glass transition temperature .................................................................................................................................. 6

8.1.4 Representative temperature ................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Precision ......... .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................ 7

9 Test report .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (informative) Precision and reproducibility data for the determination of the

mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion using TMA ...................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical-

chemical properties.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11359-2:1999), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the testing procedure has been revised with regard to test load and purge gas conditions;

— the evaluation of determination of the mean coefficient of thermal expansion with reference

specimen has been specified more precisely;
— the document has been editorial revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 11359 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
Plastics — Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) —
Part 2:
Determination of coefficient of linear thermal expansion
and glass transition temperature
1 Scope
[1]

This document specifies a test method, using thermodilatometry , for the determination of the

coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics in a solid state by thermomechanical analysis (TMA).

This document also specifies the determination of the glass transition temperature using TMA.

NOTE The coefficient of linear thermal expansion can be measured using various types of thermodilatometry

apparatus. This document concerns only TMA apparatus.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO 11359-1, Plastics — Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) — Part 1: General principles

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472, ISO 11359-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
differential coefficient of linear thermal expansion

expansion, normalised to the reference length L at room temperature, for any of the three dimensions

at temperature T and at constant pressure p , given in reciprocal kelvins, by the following formula:

()dL ()ddLt/
p 11p
α = ×= ×
dTL ddTt/ L
() ()
p p
where
L is the reference length at room temperature T , in the axis of measurement;
0 0
L is the length at temperature T , in the axis of measurement;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11359-2:2021(E)
is the change in length over the time interval dt at constant pressure p ;
is the change in temperature over the time interval dt at constant pressure p
3.2
mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion

expansion, normalised to the reference length L at room temperature, for any of the three dimensions

in a specified temperature interval ΔT at constant pressure, given in reciprocal kelvins, by the following

formula:
ΔL 1
α =×
ΔTL
where
is the change in length of the test specimen between two temperatures T and T ;
1 2

L is the reference length of the test specimen at room temperature in the axis of measurement;

is the change in temperature, equal to TT−

Note 1 to entry: The determination is made over a temperature interval ΔT between T and T . The

1 2
representative temperature T is given by
rep
TT+
T =
rep

Note 2 to entry: By replacing the term “length” by “volume” in the formulae in 3.1 and 3.2, the coefficient of

volumetric thermal expansion can be obtained.
4 Principle

The change in a dimension of a test specimen is measured as a function of temperature using a TMA

apparatus to generate a TMA curve from which the coefficient of linear thermal expansion can be

calculated.
5 Apparatus

The components of the TMA apparatus used for this document shall be as specified in ISO 11359-1 and

shall also be capable of
a) operating in a compression mode or a tension mode or both, and

b) maintaining the specimen under a controlled atmosphere in accordance with ISO 291.

NOTE 1 Measurements on specimens of film or fibre are made in the tension mode.

NOTE 2 Typically, an atmosphere of dry air or an inert gas such as nitrogen is used.

6 Test specimens
6.1 Preparation
Test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 11359-1.

The standard test specimen is a rectangular specimen 5 mm to 10 mm in length and about 5 mm in

width. However, specimens of other dimensions may be used by agreement between the interested

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11359-2:2021(E)

parties. The ends of the test specimen shall be parallel. If applicable, the orientation of the specimen

with respect to the direction of production shall be recorded, i.e. machine direction, transverse

direction or other.

Reference shall be given to the relevant material standards for the number of test specimens, but at

least three specimens shall be prepared and tested from each sam
...

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