Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Learning environment components for automated contents adaptation

This document specifies two methods for adaptive content automation. Firstly, a learning environment profile for the expression of device and learning environment information required for mobile learning providers of both content and services, and for effective use of such services. Secondly, a grouping method is specified so that similar learning environment profiles can be bound into one and expressed collectively.

Technologies·de·l'information·—·Apprentissage,·éducation·et·formation·—·Composantes d'un milieu propice à l'apprentissage pour l'adaptation des contenus automatisée

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
20-Jun-2018
Completion Date
18-Jul-2018
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 20821
First edition
2018-08
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Learning
environment components for
automated contents adaptation
Technologies·de·l'information· — ·Apprentissage,·éducation·et·for
mation·--·Composantes d'un milieu propice à l'apprentissage pour
l'adaptation des contenus automatisée
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Learning environment profile ................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Components ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Common characteristics (CommonCharacteristics) ......................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Hardware platform (HardwarePlatform) ................................................................................................... 3

4.1.3 Software platform (SoftwarePlatform) ........................................................................................................ 3

4.1.4 Network characteristics (NetworkCharacteristics)........................................................................... 3

4.1.5 User agent (UserAgent) ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.6 Usage environment (UsageEnvironment) ................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Attribute ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Resolution rule ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.4 Data type ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Learning environment profiles ................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.5.1 Common characteristics ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.5.2 Hardware platform ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5.3 Software platform ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.4 Network characteristics ............................................................................................................................................ 6

4.5.5 User agent .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.5.6 Environment of use ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Schema definition rule ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Learning environment group profile .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General concept ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.1 Group ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.2 Group producer ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.3 Group name .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Group component ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Group attribute ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.1 Data type ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.2 Value ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Profile and relationship ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Relationship between profile groups .................................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
Introduction

Mobile learning is a term used to describe education conducted via digital learning environments

where mobile devices are used. It is an evolved form of education that exploits the functionality and

convenience provided via computers and the Internet. Mobile learning allows students to participate in

classes via various devices regardless of the student’s location, free from traditional time constraints

while engaged in daily life. Providing content optimized for the student is the most important element

of mobile learning, however, there is an exponentially increasing amount of customized educational

content, often with the same context available. This content is increasingly created and shared in mobile

learning environments that need to support many different device types. Content providers should be

aware of various characteristics of user devices and learning environments so that they can provide

optimized content. In order to select content meeting the requirements of both the end users’ devices

and the learning environment, profile data and metadata that describes the characteristics of those

devices and learning environments is used.

This document describes a learning environment profile to support the establishment of mobile

learning environments and defines a standard set of terms used to express device information and

learning environments for mobile learning. It aims to energize a mobile learning market that is tailored

to meet individual student’s needs by allowing them to receive recommendations on, and use suitable

content for, both their devices and learning environments.
This document contains two methods:

— The profile expression method is a technical method of displaying device information language that

includes definitions of schema and vocabulary.

— The profile grouping method is a technical method of grouping and displaying terminal information

language that includes a group profile example.

The standards herein express basic information needed to function successfully across different

devices and environments. These standards will help establish a foundation for successful delivery of

mobile learning.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Learning environment components for
automated contents adaptation
1 Scope

This document specifies two methods for adaptive content automation. Firstly, a learning environment

profile for the expression of device and learning environment information required for mobile learning

providers of both content and services, and for effective use of such services. Secondly, a grouping

method is specified so that similar learning environment profiles can be bound into one and expressed

collectively.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
attribute

item that describes data elements that a resource description framework (RDF) contains

Note 1 to entry: Each attribute is related to a value or resource.
3.2
component
element that classifies CPI (3.3) at a high level

EXAMPLE UAProf, HardwarePlatform, SoftwarePlatform, NetworkCharacteristics, WAPCharacteristics, and

BrowserUA, CommonCharacteristics, HardwarePlatform, SoftwarePlatform, NetworkCharacteristics, UserAgent

and UsageEnvironment.
3.3
CPI
capabilities and preference information

item that contains the function of device, operation and network environments, student information, etc.

3.4
profile

instance by schema (3.8) that has all attributes (3.1) of a device, network and learning environment

Note 1 to entry: This profile will have all vocabularies available in the schema (3.1).

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ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
3.5
profile repository
repository where the profiles (3.4) are collected and stored

Note 1 to entry: A profile is usually saved in a resource description framework (RDF) file.

3.6
property
characteristic expressing the capability of the resource
Note 1 to entry: Resources may have many properties.
3.7
resource
objective or element expressed in RDF format

Note 1 to entry: Resource description framework (RDF) resource is usually expressed in uniform resource

identifier (URI).
3.8
schema
RDF format vocabulary (3.11) created to express the resource (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Schema contains only meaning (structural) information of REF data model, and does not have

any values.
3.9
user
individual (student or teacher) or a group that acts as an individual

Note 1 to entry: A user will authenticate his or her identity in order to access resources or content from the server.

3.10
user agent
browser or program that operates in users’ (3.9) devices

Note 1 to entry: In the mobile learning environment, user may express CPI (3.3) anywhere, anytime, by using

various user agents.
3.11
vocabulary
set of terms used to express CPI (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: Vocabulary is related to schema (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: Profile vocabulary for mobile learning devices include device functions and network

characteristics.
4 Learning environment profile
4.1 Components
4.1.1 Common characteristics (CommonCharacteristics)

A set of common attributes related to users’ devices. Each device has, common attributes (the attributes

commonly needed to select a content), such as character set, language, local time, supported content

type, etc.
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ISO/IEC TR 20821:2018(E)
4.1.2 Hardware platform (HardwarePlatform)

A set of hardware attributes related to the users’ devices. Devices use various hardware and support

various functions. To accommodate such variety, Hardware will describe functions that can be

supported according to the characteristics of hardware unique to the device. Hardware platform

includes type of device, kind of model, etc.
4.1.3 Software platform (SoftwarePlatform)

Software platform describes the software components supported by the device. Software platform

includes functions the installed operating system supports and other characteristics such as supported

video and audio formats, etc.
4.1.4 Network characteristics (NetworkCharacteristics)

A set of attributes related to network a user uses. A user using a device may use various networks,

and depending on the characteristics of network, availability of functions may be limited. Network

characteristics include mobile phone number, information on the network connected to and

communication protocol.
4.1.5 User agent (UserAgent)

A set of attributes related to HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language) browser application. There are many

browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc. Each browser may support different

functions. User agent includes type of browser and whether ActiveX, Java applet and Java script are

supported.
4.1.6 Usage environment (UsageEnvironment)

A set of attributes related to current circumstances of users. A user’s circumstances may change at any

time. Usage environment includes location, prior knowledge level, education target, schedule, etc. of a user.

4.2 Attribute

An attribute can be included in only one schema and will be defined using a format where a name is

paired with a value. Description of RDF attribute will be unique to a meaning and a value, and will

never be ambiguous.

Attribute description within RDF component description block will be a vocabulary or RDF resource

included to express a value in advance. The RDF resource uses indirect remote reference or remote

reference, such as URI.
In case of an attribute with complex or m
...

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