Sustainable cities and communities — Descriptive framework for cities and communities

This document specifies a descriptive framework for a city including an associated foundational ontology of the anatomical structure of a city or community. The descriptive framework is intended to have the following qualities: — timeless, i.e. compatible with any human settlement at any time in history; — acultural, i.e. valid for any culture and any type of city; — scalable, i.e. valid for a metropolis, a city, a small town or a village; — generic, so that everything we could define as a "human settlement", such as a "smart city", has a place in this structure.

Développement durable des collectivités — Cadre descriptif pour les villes et les collectivités

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
21-Nov-2019
Completion Date
21-Nov-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37105
First edition
2019-11
Sustainable cities and communities —
Descriptive framework for cities and
communities
Développement durable des collectivités — Cadre descriptif pour les
villes et les collectivités
Reference number
ISO 37105:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 37105:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 37105:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Descriptive framework of cities and communities ........................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General description of a city ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Cities as ecosystems ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 How the descriptive framework supports governance and transformation ..................................... 4

4.4 Basic elements of the descriptive framework for cities and communities ......................................... 4

4.4.1 Structure (system).......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.2 Interactions (system) ................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.3 Society (system) ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Structure (system) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.1 Environment ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5.2 Infrastructures ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.3 Built domain .....................................................................................................................................................................12

4.5.4 The three subsystems of the structure ......................................................................................................13

4.6 Interactions (system) .....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................13

4.6.2 Functions .............................................................................................................................................................................13

4.6.3 Economy ...............................................................................................................................................................................13

4.6.4 Culture ...................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.6.5 Information........................................................................................................................................................................14

4.7 Society (system) ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

4.7.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................15

4.7.2 Citizens ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

4.7.3 Government .......................................................................................................................................................................15

5 A foundation ontology for the descriptive framework of cities and communities .......................15

5.1 The descriptive framework as a basis for the city anatomy ontology (CAO) .................................15

5.2 Ontologies taxonomies and controlled vocabularies ..........................................................................................15

5.3 Descriptive framework city anatomy foundation ontology design principles ..............................16

5.3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................16

5.3.2 Basic competency questions of the descriptive framework foundation CAO ..........17

5.3.3 Strategic design objectives of the descriptive framework CAO ...........................................17

5.3.4 The city as a “system of systems” ...................................................................................................................18

5.4 Structure system .................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................20

5.4.2 Environment .....................................................................................................................................................................21

5.4.3 Infrastructures ................................................................................................................................................................21

5.4.4 Built domain .....................................................................................................................................................................24

5.5 Interactions system ..........................................................................................................................................................................27

5.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................27

5.5.2 City indicators .................................................................................................................................................................30

5.6 Society subsystem .............................................................................................................................................................................33

5.7 City dynamics as city processes ............................................................................................................................................35

Annex A (informative) Applying the descriptive framework to core organizing activities for

cities: governance, evaluation, and transformation .....................................................................................................38

Annex B (informative) Developing guidelines for multipurpose public spaces with

physiological performance described by the descriptive framework .......................................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................54

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
Introduction

The descriptive framework for cities and communities detailed in this document helps city and

community stakeholders define a common language to describe cities and communities. This

framework can facilitate the sharing of ideas, data and solutions within, and also between, cities. The

descriptive framework, which can also be referred to as the city anatomy, serves as a basic blueprint to

[4],[5]

facilitate the integration of operating systems and services within a city or community . Ultimately,

the descriptive framework can be the basis of a formal ontology, or knowledge model, which can be

useful for helping to plan and implement city operating solutions, particularly those that might require

digital machine-readable information.

A city or community is a system of systems and interactions that foster and are fostered by emergent

[6]

human behaviour . It can be seen as an arrangement of, and set of relationships between, the multiple

layers of a permanent human settlement, with an administrative and legal status supported by laws

and generally recognized throughout the world. Rather than being static, discreet entities, cities

or communities often have porous and sometimes ambiguous borders (politically, economically,

environmentally and socially) and can thus often be difficult to describe. The structure, interactions and

societal aspects of a city or community are also integral parts of all wider systems extending beyond

the city borders. However, more than half the world’s population now lives in cities or communities

and many of humanity’s chronic challenges are faced in cities or communities. A common descriptive

framework for cities or communities is a useful tool to assist them in sharing knowledge and finding

solutions to issues common to cities or communities all over the world.

Solutions to the issues cities face are intended to improve the quality of life for all city citizens and

follow sustainable development principles. These principles dictate that the solutions to city issues

implemented today do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG) issued in 2015 resolve this relatively abstract

[7]

ideal into more tangible objectives. The UNSDG Goal 11 provides these objectives for cities, creating

10 targets for improving the quality of life for citizens and the city’s resiliency, while also limiting the

impact of human activity on the environment. Tools such as ISO standards, for example ISO 37101 and

ISO 37120, help cities plan for, monitor and reach these objectives. The purpose of this document is to

provide a common language for the description of cities that will enable those goals and support the

sharing of city solutions.

The descriptive framework is based on work by the City Protocol Society. It uses an analogy to human

anatomy and its dynamic physiology to describe any city or community, of any size, in a manner that

is timeless, culturally agnostic, scalable and generic. The descriptive framework categorizes the

components of the city into three major elemental systems: a set of physical structures (structure),

the living entities that create a city’s society (society) and the flow of interactions between them

(interactions). These elemental systems are further resolved into, or described by, layers that capture

all the activities of importance to a city, both within and outside the city boundaries, as well as all the

natural and built domain components within a city.

ISO 37100 contains a list of relevant terms and definitions which are also useful in understanding the

descriptive framework.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37105:2019(E)
Sustainable cities and communities — Descriptive
framework for cities and communities
1 Scope

This document specifies a descriptive framework for a city including an associated foundational

ontology of the anatomical structure of a city or community. The descriptive framework is intended to

have the following qualities:
— timeless, i.e. compatible with any human settlement at any time in history;
— acultural, i.e. valid for any culture and any type of city;
— scalable, i.e. valid for a metropolis, a city, a small town or a village;

— generic, so that everything we could define as a “human settlement”, such as a “smart city”, has a

place in this structure.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 37100, Sustainable cities and communities — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 37100 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
descriptive framework

logical structure that describes how the key entities within a specific domain can be classified so as to

show their relationship with each other

Note 1 to entry: “Entities” refers not only to tangible things, but also to anything important that has a separate

and distinct existence, for instance elemental conventions, principles, practices, strategies, policies, decision-

making structures and accountabilities.
3.2
ontology

specification of concrete or abstract things, and the relationships among them, in a prescribed domain

of knowledge
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 19763-9:2015, 3.1.3, modified — Note removed.]
3.3
urbanism
urban life and environment
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
4 Descriptive framework of cities and communities
4.1 General description of a city

Figure 1 shows the three overarching logical elements of a city or community ecosystem as the holistic

integration of the physical structure (structure), the people who live in it and occupy this physical space

while carrying out functions (society) and the interactions through which the society engages with the

structure.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37105:2019(E)

Figure 1 — A timeless, culturally agnostic, scalable, generic descriptive framework for any city

or community
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
4.2 Cities as ecosystems

A city can best be viewed and understood as an ecosystem, broken down into three elements:

1) the physical structure of that ecosystem;
2) the living entities that it contains;
3) the flow of interactions and information.

The descriptive framework offers a common language to describe the city ecosystem as a set of physical

structures, the living entities that make up a city’s society and the flow of interactions between them.

In so doing, it suggests an analogy to the human anatomy and its dynamic physiology.

4.3 How the descriptive framework supports governance and transformation

Ultimately, the descriptive framework aims to help enable effective governance, evaluation and

transformation by providing city officials and other stakeholders with:

— a way to describe their aims and objectives, existing or proposed city initiatives, and services in a

manner that is consistent across cities, vendors, service providers and standards developers;

— a comprehensive checklist of key city aspects and domains.

By providing a framework for describing projects and objectives in a way that is consistent with other

cities, city solution providers and standards organisations will enable them to more easily:

a) identify opportunities and potential areas for innovation and collaboration within or between cities;

b) improve communications between different city service owners and/or operators within the city;

c) communicate their objectives and priorities clearly to citizens and service providers;

d) frame and support emerging processes and citizen demands; and

e) identify the standards that are most relevant to the needs they are seeking to address.

The checklist can help them:

1) review their city in a comprehensive way to evaluate areas of strength and weakness and set

priorities for future action;

2) review potential projects to understand the areas of city life they are likely to impact and the city

stakeholders that need to be consulted or involved; and

3) develop comprehensive sets of evaluation criteria to judge the success of projects.

See Annex A for a more detailed description of applying the descriptive framework for cities: governance,

evaluation and transformation.
4.4 Basic elements of the descriptive framework for cities and communities
4.4.1 Structure (system)

The first layer within the structure system element is the environment, which is the physical and

geographic setting of the city, including the natural environment (“nature”). It is formed by nature

(plant and animals) and by the three basic components – air, earth and water – interacting dynamically

in a seasonally variable way, and increasingly subject to the impacts of climate fluctuations linked

to anthropogenic greenhouse gas pollution. The second layer of the structure system element is

1) Anthropogenic sources are those caused or produced by humans, such as the carbon emitted through power

generation or transport.
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ISO 37105:2019(E)

infrastructures, the connective structures that enable resource gathering and extraction from the

environment, transporting resources to the city, and the material and energy cycles within the city

itself. These infrastructures include those that support communications, the water and energy cycles, the

matter cycle that supports the movement of goods and food as well as the resultant waste, the mobility

networks, and nature or green infrastructure of the city. The third layer is the built domain, which

can best be organized according to the approximate number of people that it can accommodate on a

physical basis. Thus, within the built domain, an object corresponds to a single person, house, building,

block, neighbourhood, district, city, and metropolis or region, each increasing the scale by an order of

magnitude. Private and public spaces are contained within each level of scale.
4.4.2 Interactions (system)

The first layer within the interactions system element comprises urban functions including living,

working, education, shopping, caring for health, the performing arts and many more. The second layer is

the economy, which influences urban innovation and the everyday operation of the city, as well as the

life cycles of services provided by cities. The third layer is culture – the languages, traditions, beliefs,

values and ways in which people organize their conceptions of the world around them (i.e. the non-

material assets of the city). The fourth and final layer is information. It includes the city operating system

(city OS), city performance indicators and indexes, tools and applications, city ontology and an information

portal for open data and specific learning protocols and related resources.
4.4.3 Society (system)

The society system element is composed of the living entities of the city. The first layer is citizens, which

can be broken down into: person (the individual), family, organizations and businesses. The second layer

is government, whose head is, typically, the mayor.

NOTE The term governance is used when the descriptive framework of a city is used for evaluation purposes.

The term governance is the process of running a government and, as such, it focuses on its effectiveness.

4.5 Structure (system)
4.5.1 Environment

The first subsystem layer within the structure system element of the descriptive framework (see

Figure 1) is the environment, the setting of the city, as shown in Figure 2.
Key
1 gas
Figure 2 — Environment

The environment existed well before the establishment of the city and includes the topography,

morphology, living systems, and natural flows and cycles that form the city’s physical setting. The

environment is nature (plants and animals) and the three basic components – air, soil and water – which

interact dynamically in seasonally variable ways. Each of these components has its own indicators to

assess quality and other characteristics.
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ISO 37105:2019(E)

Air quality can be assessed by measuring particulate concentration, ozone levels and other chemistry, as

well as CO levels, temperature and other measures related to global warming. The ground topography

(soil) is fundamental for siting a city and serves as an important resource, supporting agriculture, plants

and animals. It is also an important source of minerals and energy. Soil too has physical and chemical

properties, which can be measured. Finally, water cycles through the environment – atmosphere to

surface water to groundwater to oceans. Both water quality and water quantity can be measured in a

number of ways.

These are the components which interact to form the environment layer and are critical in the

functioning of a city.
4.5.2 Infrastructures
4.5.2.1 Introduction

The second subsystem layer within the structure system element is the Infrastructures, the connective

structures that enable resource extraction and use, as well as enabling city life. The infrastructure

layer includes the networks that support communications and mobility, as well as those that support

cycles for water, energy and matter. It also includes the natural – or green – infrastructure that plays an

important role in many communities.
4.5.2.2 Communications network

The first infrastructure depicted in Figure 1 is the communications network shown in detail in

Figure 3. The communications component is composed of all the technologies that carry information,

such as information communication technologies (ICT) (wire and cellular telephone technologies,

radio, television) and the Internet. Centralized models of communication with one emitter and many

receivers (i.e. radio and television) have evolved into a more distributed arrangement of information

with many emitters and many receivers of information (i.e. the Internet). Telecommunications

networks transporting information through copper and/or fibre optic cables, as well as through the

electromagnetic spectrum, are all examples of communication infrastructure.
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
Key
1 TV
2 Web
3 Internet service provider
Figure 3 — Communications network
4.5.2.3 Water cycle

The second infrastructure is the water cycle component, which includes water supply, treatment and

management of wastewater, surface water runoff and floodwaters (see Figure 4). Cities draw water

from the environment, perform treatment processes and consume it. Grey water and wastewater is

discharged back into receiving bodies, often after treatment, and sometimes recycled directly back into

the community’s own water supply. Water infrastructure describes all of the physical elements that

form the water cycle – from its extraction to its disposal or reuse – and that operate it in a structured

way to serve a city or community.

2) Grey water is wastewater from sinks, baths, washing machines, and other sources that can be used or recycled

for other purposes where potable water is not required, like toilet flushing.
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
Figure 4 — Water cycle
4.5.2.4 Energy

The third infrastructure is the energy cycle component (see Figure 5), composed of the entire power

system, including functional nodes producing power (e.g. nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, wind

farms, biomass/bioenergy power plants, hydroelectric plants, solar generating plants) often located

outside of the city; the networks needed to transmit electricity or convey fuel – like natural gas – into

the city; as well as other networks of pipelines, ships, rail and trucks needed for the transport of fossil

fuels and chemicals as raw or refined products. In addition, smaller production nodes, like district-level

generating plants, bio-energy systems and steam generation, often operate in cities, as do distributed

energy nodes, like rooftop solar for thermal energy or electricity.
8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
Key
1 biomass
2 H O
Figure 5 — Energy
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 37105:2019(E)
4.5.2.5 Matter cycle

The fourth infrastructure is the materials or matter cycle (see Figure 6). This infrastructure component

includes the extraction of material resources from nature (including food), their industrial level or

small-scale manipulation
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 37105
ISO/TC 268 Secretariat: AFNOR
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2018-07-09 2018-10-01
Sustainable cities and communities — Descriptive
framework for cities and communities

Développement durable des collectivités — Cadre descriptif pour les villes et les collectivités

ICS: 13.020.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
Contents

Foreword .......................................................................................................................................................................... v

Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Descriptive Framework of Cities and Communities ........................................................................... 2

4.1 General description of the City ................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Cities as Ecosystems ....................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 How the Descriptive Framework supports governance and transformation ........................... 3

4.4 Basic elements of the Descriptive Framework for Cities and Communities .............................. 3

4.4.1 Structure (system) .......................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.2 Interactions (system) ..................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.3 Society (system) ............................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Structure (system) .......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.1 Environment ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.2 Infrastructures ................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.5.3 Built Domain .................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.5.4 The Three Subsystems of the Structure ............................................................................................... 11

4.6 Interactions (system) .................................................................................................................................. 11

4.6.1 Functions ......................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.6.2 Economy .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.6.3 Culture .............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.6.4 Information .................................................................................................................................................... 12

4.7 Society (system) ............................................................................................................................................ 13

4.7.1 Citizens ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.7.2 Government .................................................................................................................................................... 13

5 A Foundation Ontology for the Descriptive Framework of Cities and Communities ........... 13

5.1 The Descriptive Framework as a Basis for the City Anatomy Ontology ................................... 13

5.2 Ontologies taxonomies and controlled vocabularies ...................................................................... 13

5.3 Descriptive Framework City Anatomy Foundation Ontology Design Principles .................. 14

5.3.1 Basic Competency Questions of the Descriptive Framework City Anatomy

Foundation Ontology (CAO) ...................................................................................................................... 15

5.3.2 Strategic Design Objectives of the Descriptive Framework City Anatomy Ontology

(CAO) ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.3.3 The city as a “system of systems” ............................................................................................................ 16

5.4 Structure system ........................................................................................................................................... 18

5.4.1 Environment .................................................................................................................................................. 19

5.4.2 Infrastructures .............................................................................................................................................. 20

5.4.3 Built domain ................................................................................................................................................... 22

5.5 Interactions system ..................................................................................................................................... 24

5.5.1 City Indicators ............................................................................................................................................... 27

5.6 Society system ............................................................................................................................................... 30

5.7 City Dynamics as City Processes.............................................................................................................. 34

Annex A (informative) Applying the Descriptive Framework to Core Organizing Activities

for Cities: Governance, Evaluation, and Transformation ............................................................... 37

A.1 Governance ..................................................................................................................................................... 37

A.2 Evaluation ....................................................................................................................................................... 38

A.3 City Transformation and Knowledge Sharing .................................................................................... 39

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ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
Annex B (informative) Developing guidelines for multi-purpose public spaces with

physiological performance described by the Descriptive Framework ..................................... 41

B.1 Elaboration of the Descriptive Framework City Anatomy Ontology Classes .......................... 43

B.2 Elaboration of the CAO Classes (in the Descriptive Framework) ............................................... 43

B.2.1 The city as a system of systems ............................................................................................................... 43

B.2.2 The Structure system .................................................................................................................................. 44

B.2.3 The Interactions system............................................................................................................................. 49

B.2.4 The Society system ....................................................................................................................................... 53

B.2.5 City dynamics and City processes ........................................................................................................... 54

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
1 Foreword

2 ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

3 bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

4 through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

5 committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

6 organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

7 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

8 electrotechnical standardization.

9 The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

10 described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

11 different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

12 editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

13 Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

14 patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

15 patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

16 the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

17 Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

18 constitute an endorsement.

19 For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

20 expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

21 Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL:

22 www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

23 This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Smart and Sustainable Cities and

24 Communities.
25 This is the first edition of this standard.
26 A list of all parts in the ISO 37100 series can be found on the ISO website.
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ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
27 Introduction

28 The Descriptive Framework for Cities and Communities detailed in this document helps city and

29 community stakeholders define a common language to describe cities and communities. This Framework

30 can facilitate the sharing of ideas, data and solutions within, and also between, cities. The Descriptive

31 Framework, which can also be referred to as the city anatomy, serves as a basic blueprint to facilitate the

32 integration of operating systems and services within a city or community. Ultimately, the Descriptive

33 Framework can be the basis of a formal ontology—or knowledge model—which can be useful for helping

34 to plan and implement city operating solutions, particularly for those cities operating solutions and

35 services that may require digital machine-readable information.

36 A city or community is a system of systems and interactions that fosters emergent human behaviour. It

37 can be seen as an arrangement of, and set of relationships between, the multiple layers of a permanent

38 human settlement, with an administrative and legal status supported by laws and generally recognized

39 throughout the world. Rather than being static, discreet entities, cities or communities often have porous

40 and sometimes ambiguous borders (politically, economically, environmentally, and socially) and can thus

41 often be difficult to describe. The structure, interactions, and societal aspects of a city or community are

42 also integral parts of all wider systems of systems extending beyond the city borders. However, more

43 than half the world’s population now lives in cities or communities and many of humanity’s chronic

44 challenges are faced in cities or communities. A common descriptive framework for cities or communities

45 is a useful tool to assist them in sharing knowledge and finding solutions to issues common to cities or

46 communities all over the world.

47 Solutions to the issues cities face should improve the quality of life for all city citizens and follow

48 sustainable development principles. Those principles dictate that the solutions to city issues

49 implemented today do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The

50 United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG) issued in 2015 resolve this relatively abstract

51 ideal into more tangible objectives. The UNSDG Goal 11 provides these objectives for cities, creating 10

52 targets for improving the quality of life for citizens and the city’s resiliency, while also limiting the impact

53 of human activity on the environment. Tools such as ISO standards, such as ISO 37101 and ISO 37120,

54 help cities plan for, monitor, and reach these objectives. The purpose of this document is to provide a

See: City Protocol Society, City Anatomy: A Framework to Support City Governance, Evaluation, and Transformation

Emergent Human Behavior: its existence and activities are ad hoc and therefore unique to the event. These are small or large groups

that take shape and carry out tasks or activities that institutionalized groups cannot accomplish. Thus the emergent organized response

(people sometimes speak of 'emergent groups' too), is related to the idea of non-traditional and new behavior (example of mutual assistance

groups that form just after a catastrophe to look for the injured and help evacuate them). While the informal emergent groups are generally

organized in the period after the disaster and more rarely during the event, during which period individuals organize their actions more

around their families and friends (Quarantelli, 1988), institutionalized groups, whether emergent or not, act both during and after the event.

EMERGENT HUMAN BEHAVIOR DURING A DISASTER: THEMATIC VERSUS COMPLEX SYSTEMS APPROACHES Damienne

Provitolo, Edwige Dubos-Paillardy and Jean-Pierre Muller EPNACS- September, 2011

Sustainable Development Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable: (11.1) By 2030,

ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums; (11.2) By 2030, provide access to

safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with

special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons; (11.3) By

2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning

and management in all countries; (11.4) Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage; (11.5) By

2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses

relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and

people in vulnerable situations; (11.6) By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special

attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management; (11.7) By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and

accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities; (11.a) Support

positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, per-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional

development planning; (11.b) By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing

integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters,

and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management

at all levels; (11.c) Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and

resilient buildings utilizing local materials.
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55 common language for the description of cities that will enable those goals and support the sharing of city

56 solutions.

57 The Descriptive Framework is based on work by the City Protocol Society. It uses an analogy to human

58 anatomy and its dynamic physiology to describe any city or community, of any size, in a manner that is

59 timeless, culturally agnostic, scalable, and generic. The Descriptive Framework categorizes the

60 components of the city into three major elemental systems: a set of physical structures (Structure), the

61 living entities that create a city’s society (Society), and the flow of interactions between them

62 (Interactions). These elemental systems are further resolved into—or described by—layers that capture

63 all the activities of importance to the city, both within and outside of the city boundaries as well as all the

64 natural and built domain components within a city.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 37105:2018(E)
Sustainable cities and communities — Descriptive framework for
66 cities and communities
67 1 Scope

68 This international standard specifies requirements for a descriptive framework including an associated

69 foundational ontology of the anatomical structure of a city or community. The descriptive framework has the

70 following qualities: timeless, i.e., compatible with any human settlement at any time in history; acultural,

71 i.e., valid for any culture and any type of city; scalable, i.e., valid for a metropolis, a city, a small town, or a

72 village; and generic, so that everything we could define as a “human settlement”, such as a “smart city”, would

73 have a place in this structure.
74 2 Normative references

75 The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

76 constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

77 references, the latest edition of the referenced documents (including any amendments) applies.

78 ISO 37100:2016, Sustainable cities and communities – Vocabulary
79 3 Terms and definitions

80 For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. ISO and IEC maintain

81 terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

82 — IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
83 — ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
84 3.1
85 Descriptive Framework

86 A logical structure that describes how the key entities within a specific domain can be classified so as to show

87 their relationship with each other.

88 Note: “Entities” refers not only to tangible things, but also to anything important that has a separate and

89 distinct existence — for instance: elemental conventions, principles, practices, strategies, policies, decision

90 making structures, and accountabilities.
91 3.2
92 Ontology

93 A specification of concrete or abstract things, and the relationships among them, in a prescribed domain of

94 knowledge.
95 [ISO/IEC TR 19763-9:2015]
96 3.3
97 Stakeholder

98 Any person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision

99 or activity.
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100 3.4
101 Urbanism
102 Urban life and environment.
103 4 Descriptive Framework of Cities and Communities
104 4.1 General description of the City

105 Figure 1 shows the three overarching logical elements of any city or community ecosystem as the holistic

106 integration of: the physical structure (Structure), the people who live in it and occupy this physical space

107 while carrying out functions (Society), and the Interactions through which the Society engages with the

108 Structure.
109

110 Figure 1 — A timeless, culturally agnostic, scalable, generic descriptive framework for any city or

111 community
112 4.2 Cities as Ecosystems

113 Cities can best be viewed and understood as an ecosystem, which shall be broken down into three elements :

114 • The physical structure of that ecosystem;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Margalef
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115 • The living entities that it contains; and
116 • The flow of interactions and information.

117 The Descriptive Framework offers a common language to describe the city ecosystem as: a set of physical

118 structures, the living entities that make up a city’s society, and the flow of interactions between them. In so

119 doing, it suggests an analogy to the human anatomy and its dynamic physiology.

120 4.3 How the Descriptive Framework supports governance and transformation

121 Ultimately, the Descriptive Framework aims to help enable effective governance, evaluation, and

122 transformation by providing city officials and other stakeholders:

123 • A way to describe their aims and objectives, existing or proposed city initiatives, and services in a

124 manner that is consistent across cities, vendors, and service providers, and standards developers;

125 and
126 • A comprehensive checklist of key city aspects and domains.

127 By providing a framework for describing projects and objectives in a way that is consistent with other cities,

128 city solution providers and standards organisations will enable them to more easily:

129 i. Identify opportunities and potential areas for innovation and collaboration within or between cities;

130 ii. Improve communications between different city service owners and/or operators within the city;

131 iii. Communicate their objectives and priorities clearly to citizens and service providers;

132 iv. Frame and support emerging processes and citizen demands; and

133 v. Identify the standards that are most relevant to the needs they are seeking to address.

134 The checklist can help them:

135 i. Review their city in a comprehensive way to evaluate areas of strengths and weaknesses and set

136 priorities for future action;

137 ii. Review potential projects to understand the areas of city life they are likely to impact and the city

138 stakeholders that need to be consulted or involved; and

139 iii. Develop comprehensive sets of evaluation criteria to judge the success of projects.

140 4.4 Basic elements of the Descriptive Framework for Cities and Communities
141 4.4.1 Structure (system)

142 The first layer within the Structure system element is the Environment, which is the physical and geographic

143 setting of the city, including the natural environment (“nature”). It is formed by the three basic components—

144 air, earth, and water—interacting dynamically in a seasonally variable wayand increasingly subject to the

145 impacts of climate fluctuations linked to anthropogenic greenhouse gas pollution. The second layer of the

146 Structure system element is Infrastructures, the connective structures that enable resource gathering and

147 extraction from the environment, transporting resources to the city, and the material and energy cycles

148 within the city itself. These infrastructures include those that support communications, the water and energy

149 cycles, the matter cycle that supports the movement of goods and food as well as the resultant waste, the

150 mobility networks, and nature or green infrastructure of the city. The third layer is the Built Domain, which

151 can best be organized according to the approximate number of people that it can accommodate on a physical

Anthropogenic sources are those caused or produced by humans, such as the carbon pollution emitted through power generation or transport.

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152 basis. Thus, within the Built Domain, an object corresponds to a single person, house, building, block,

153 neighborhood, district, city, and metropolis or region, each increasing the scale by an order of magnitude.

154 Private and public spaces are contained within each level of scale.
155 4.4.2 Interactions (system)

156 The first layer within the Interactions system element comprises urban Functions including living, working,

157 education, shopping, caring for health, the performing arts, and many more. The second layer is the Economy,

158 which influences urban innovation and the everyday operation of the city, as well as the life cycles of services

159 provided by cities. The third layer is Culture — the languages, traditions, beliefs, values, and the ways in

160 which people organize their conceptions of the world around them (i.e., the non-material assets of the city).

161 The fourth and final layer is Information. It includes the City Operating System (City OS), City Performance

162 Indicators and Indexes, Tools and Applications, City Ontology, and an Information Portal for open data and

163 specific learning protocols and related resources.
164 4.4.3 Society (system)

165 The Society system element is composed of the living entities of the city. The first layer is Citizens, which can

166 be broken down into: person (the individual), family, organizations, and businesses. The second layer is

167 government, whose head is, typically, the mayor.

168 Note: The term governance will be used when the Descriptive Framework of a City is used for evaluation

169 purposes. The term governance is the process of running a government and, as such, it focuses on its

170 effectiveness.
171 4.5 Structure (system)
172 4.5.1 Environment

173 The first subsystem layer within the structure system element of the Descriptive Framework (see Figure 1)

174 is the environment, the setting of the city, as shown in Figure 2.
175
176 Figure 2 — Environment

177 The environment existed well before the establishment of the city and includes the topography, morphology,

178 living systems, and natural flows and cycles that form the city’s physical setting. The environment is the

179 nature (plants and animals) and the three basic components—air, soil and water—which interact

180 dynamically in seasonally variable ways. Each of these components has its own indicators to assess quality

181 and other characteristics.
182 Air quality can be assessed by measu
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