Graphic technology -- Quantification and communication for calculating the carbon footprint of print media products

ISO 16759:2013 specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those processes, materials and technologies required to produce print media products using any form of printing technology and that are within the user's knowledge and control. It is based on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a specified functional unit as the basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. This data can be referenced throughout supply chains for individual print media products. ISO 16759:2013 defines standards of completeness to be followed when communicating the results of a carbon footprint study for print media products to business and consumers. ISO 16759:2013 provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow, and that can be used as the structure for market or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies and tools constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of print media products that can be validated and verified.

Technologie graphique -- Quantification et communication relatives au calcul de l'empreinte carbone des produits imprimés

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Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Jul-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-Jun-2013
Completion Date
03-Jul-2013
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16759
First edition
2013-07-01
Graphic technology — Quantification
and communication for calculating
the carbon footprint of print media
products
Technologie graphique — Quantification et communication relatives
au calcul de l’empreinte carbone des produits imprimés
Reference number
ISO 16759:2013(E)
ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16759:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint ........................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ............................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 Terms relating to organisations and consumers ....................................................................................................... 4

3.5 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Prepress .......................................................... 4

3.6 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Press .................................................................. 5

3.7 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Postpress........................................................ 6

3.8 Terms relating to data and data quality ............................................................................................................................ 7

4 Principles for carbon footprint quantification ..................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Life cycle perspective ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.3 Relative approach and functional unit ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.4 Relevance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5 Completeness ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.6 Consistency ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.7 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.8 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.9 Avoidance of double counting .................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.10 Implementation criteria .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Goal and scope ......................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.3 System boundary definitions ...................................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Time boundary for data ...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.5 Carbon footprint quantification of life-cycle stages .............................................................................................12

6 Reporting ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Documentation requirements.................................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Interpretation of the carbon footprint of a product ............................................................................................18

7 Communication requirements ............................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Interpretation and comparison .............................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Product definitions and product category rules (PCRs) ..................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) General requirements and guidelines for CFP communication options —

Greenhouse gases .............................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Inventory analysis of input criteria used to define the product profile ..........23

Annex C (informative) Operations and materials in processes and data collection items within the

system boundary ...............................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex D (informative) Intergraf recommendations on CO emissions calculation in the

printing industry ...............................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex E (normative) Guidelines for comparisons of the carbon footprints of print media ...................34

Annex F (informative) Calculation samples by Europe, Germany and Thailand .................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................41

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
Introduction

Reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions is central to the mitigation of climate

change (see Annex A), considered to be arising from natural and anthropogenic activities. Industry and

governments are already aware of the importance of contributing to this reduction, both nationally and

internationally. The printing and associated industries (prepress, finishing, postpress, paper making

and related services) have substantially reduced their GHG emissions in recent years. Although this

data reduction can be formally captured and measured, it is difficult to compare without a common

reference methodology.

This International Standard has been developed to provide a consistent framework methodology

for carbon footprint calculation. It is written for prepress, print service providers, printers, media

companies, other print content publishers, related industry associations and providers of carbon

footprinting tools. It offers a program-neutral method for calculating and communicating the life cycle

GHG emissions of print media products, based on calculated CO e values, for the single impact category

of climate change. This single criteria approach provides the foundation for future work addressing

multicriteria impacts which assess all potential impacts that a print media product can have on the

environment. This International Standard is based on work done for ISO/TS 14067 and PAS 2050 to

provide a specific implementation for the graphic arts industry. Multicriteria calculations based on all

four phases of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), as outlined in ISO 14040, are not within the scope of this

International Standard. Further information for conducting LCA are outlined in ISO 14044.

According to this International Standard, quantification of the carbon footprint of a print media product

requires a defined goal and scope for the carbon footprinting study. This International Standard also

requires a specification of the system boundaries and process inventory as the basis for calculations. It

allows for calculations of the whole or part life cycle of print media products.

This International Standard provides consistency, transparency, flexibility and accountability for print

media carbon footprint quantifications and their communication. It may provide the following benefits

to companies, public bodies and consumers, industry and regulatory bodies:

— consistency in carbon footprint calculator design, to aid relevance and applicability for different

print media product sectors and geographies;

— provide print buyers and consumers with a means of quantifying and communicating the carbon

footprint of print media products using a common methodology and defined boundaries;

— provide the printing industry with a framework for quantifying and communicating the carbon

footprint of print media products using a common methodology and defined boundaries;

— encourage media buyers and consumers of print media products to make informed media investment,

purchase and usage decisions, using information validated with calculation, communication and

reporting tools that are consistent with this International Standard;

— facilitate the continuous monitoring of the carbon footprint of print as part of its overall

environmental impact, and encourage constant improvement within all print sectors;

— enhance the credibility of the printing industry’s efforts to quantify, communicate and reduce the

carbon footprints of print media products and their raw materials;
— be used as part of GHG emissions management; and

— facilitate performance tracking and progress in GHG emissions reduction for the printing industry.

This International Standard provides a framework methodology for calculating the life cycle GHG

emissions of print media products. It aids the print customer’s contribution to national and international

CO e reduction targets, via government schemes or through industry associations. A common framework

for calculation and parameter requirements minimizes ambiguity and enables the comparison of

the carbon footprints of print media products, based on the goals and scopes of individual carbon

footprinting studies (see Annex E). This framework allows contributors to print media supply chains to

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16759:2013(E)

calculate partial carbon footprints for use in the supply chain. This International Standard can also be

used to calculate carbon footprint values for use in carbon offsetting programs.

A print media product’s carbon footprint calculated in compliance with this International Standard can

be benchmarked against similar products. This, over time, may provide the following benefits:

— reduced environmental impact of print media products;
— assistance for print buyers making media purchase decisions;

— a framework for comparative estimates of average carbon footprints in different print media

sectors, such as newspapers, magazines, books, signs and displays, etc.;

— greater appreciation of the differences in media carbon footprints, and more informed process and

supply chain choice for print buyers, printers, service providers, customers and other interested parties;

— enhanced market awareness of print’s sustainability and environmental impact;

— criteria for selecting a carbon footprinting tool to calculate the carbon footprint or partial carbon

footprint of print media products; and

— comparable preliminary estimations of the carbon footprint of a print media product, based on a

pre-existing study.

This International Standard includes examples of carbon footprinting studies and guidance for

communicating and verifying carbon footprint information to printers, print buyers, consumers,

industry and any other interested parties.

Use of this International Standard facilitates the comparison of the carbon footprint of cross media

content and media products delivered digitally, for instance to websites, in emails, on DVDs, mobile

devices and so on. However the carbon footprint of specific digital media is outside the scope of this

International Standard.
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16759:2013(E)
Graphic technology — Quantification and communication
for calculating the carbon footprint of print media products
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those

processes, materials and technologies required to produce print media products using any form of

printing technology and that are within the user’s knowledge and control. It is based on a Life Cycle

Assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a specified functional unit as the

basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. This data can be referenced throughout supply

chains for individual print media products.

Together with ISO 14020 and other ISO standards, this International Standard defines standards of

completeness to be followed when communicating the results of a carbon footprint study for print media

products to business and consumers.

This International Standard provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow,

and that can be used as the structure for market or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies

and tools constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of

print media products that can be validated and verified.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14044, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO/TS 14067, Carbon footprint of products — Requirements and guidelines for quantification and

communication
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Terms relating to carbon footprint
3.1.1
carbon footprint (CF)
net amount of GHG emissions and GHG removals, expressed in CO equivalents
3.1.2
carbon footprint of a product
CFP
carbon footprint of a product system
3.1.3
carbon footprinting tool
means of calculating the carbon footprint of an object or process
3.1.4
carbon storage
carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored as carbon
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.1.5
product system

collection of processes with elementary and product flows performing one or more defined functions

and which models the life cycle of a product
3.1.6
product category rules

set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for one or more product categories

3.2 Terms relating to greenhouse gases
3.2.1
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO e
CO equivalent
unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide

Note 1 to entry: The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated using the mass of a given GHG multiplied by its global

warming potential.
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006; 2.19, without Note 2]
3.2.2
global warming potential
GWP

factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given GHG relative to an

equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of time

Note 1 to entry: Annex A contains a list of GHGs and their global warming potentials published by the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006; 2.18, modified]
3.2.3
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation

at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the

atmosphere, and clouds

Note 1 to entry: See Annex A for a list of GHGs and their CO e values, per Kyoto.

Note 2 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are also anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties in calculating their global warming potentials.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006; 2.1, modified]
3.2.4
greenhouse gas emission
mass of a GHG released to the atmosphere
[SOURCE: SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2006, 2.5, modified]
3.2.5
greenhouse gas emission factor

mass of a GHG emitted relative to an input or an output of a unit process or a combination of unit processes

3.2.6
greenhouse gas removal
mass of a GHG removed from the atmosphere
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.2.7
greenhouse gas sink
process that removes a GHG from the atmosphere
3.2.8
greenhouse gas source
mechanical or natural process that releases a GHG into the atmosphere

EXAMPLE Electrical energy use where the electrical energy has been created from fossil fuel resources.

3.3 Terms relating to life cycle assessment
3.3.1
allocation method

method by which inputs and outputs are allocated to different print media products

3.3.2
cumulative method

method by which values for inputs and outputs for print media products are accumulated throughout

the supply chain
3.3.3
end-of-life

stage which begins when the used product is ready for disposal, recycling, reuse, etc. and ends when the

product is returned to nature (combustion, deterioration), or is recycled or reused

3.3.4
energy
sources of GHG emissions used for the provision and use of the product
3.3.5
functional unit

quantified and defined single iteration of a printed product, used as a reference unit in a carbon

footprinting study
Note 1 to entry: to entry See Figure B.1.

EXAMPLE An A4 page, one square metre printed, a single iteration of a printed product or a complete print run.

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006; 3.20, modified to be specific to ISO 16759]
3.3.6
interpretation

process of explaining the results of a life cycle assessment such that it is relevant to the goal and scope

of a CFP study
3.3.7
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation

from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006; 3.1]
3.3.8
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product

system throughout its life cycle
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.3.9
life cycle impact assessment
LCIA

phase of life cycle assessment aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of

the potential environmental impacts for a product system throughout the life cycle of the product

3.3.10
life cycle inventory
LCI

phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and qualification of inputs and outputs for a

product throughout its life cycle
3.3.11
process
set of interrelated or interacting activities transforming inputs into outputs
[SOURCE: SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006; 3.11, modified to be specific to ISO 16759]
3.3.12
product group
collection of print media products that share common physical characteristics
3.4 Terms relating to organisations and consumers
3.4.1
consumer
individual purchasing products or services for personal or private use
3.4.2
organization

company, corporation, firm, business, authority or institution with its own administration and purpose

3.4.3
supply chain

linked and interdependent processes that result in the delivery of print media products to consumers

3.4.4
unit process

smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis for which input and output data are quantified

[SOURCE: SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.34]
3.4.5
user
individual using print media products
3.5 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Prepress
3.5.1
prepress
preparation of data files in analogue or digital format for printing
EXAMPLE Separating RGB files into CMYK.
3.5.2
prepress consumables

materials used as part of the prepress process, including materials which can be recycled or otherwise reused

3.5.3
data
information known or assumed as fact
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.5.4
data management

process of keeping track of all data and/or information related to the creation, production and distribution

of a print media product, and associated processes
3.5.5
colour management

process of managing all data in a colour production workflow, such that the colours are accurate and

consistent in appearance across substrates and imaging processes, including print and electronic rendering

3.5.6
file preparation

readying data files for subsequent production in the print media product supply chain

3.5.7
preflight checking

file inspection to determine that the digital data contained therein will process such that all data can be

accurately imaged to a image carrier or substrate
3.5.8
file delivery
delivery of print media data files within the supply chain
3.5.9
proofing

process of evaluation of pre-production files used to check the accuracy of content and colour reproduction

3.5.10
imposition

arrangement of pages on the image carrier such that when cut, trimmed and finished the pages are in

the correct reading sequence
3.5.11
raster image processing

conversion of content data into a bitmap file including screening, trapping, imposition and all other

process data, relevant to the output constraints
3.5.12
screening

predominantly electronic process to create the printing and nonprinting elements of a page to mimic the

halftone values of an original contone
3.5.13
trapping

process of how overprinted colours should be defined so that on press the positioning of separations

disguises any misregistration
3.5.14
workflow management
process of managing all tasks in the print media supply chain
3.6 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Press
3.6.1
press consumables

materials used as part of the printing process, including materials which can be recycled or otherwise reused

3.6.2
image carrier

surface prepared such that some parts of it transfer printing ink whereas other parts do not

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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.6.3
ink
substance containing pigment(s) or dye(s), resin(s) and carrier fluid(s)
3.6.4
toner

solid material, which might or might not include colorant, capable of taking on an electrostatic charge,

designed for deposition onto a substrate under the control of electrostatic forces in conjunction with a

surface having a controlled distributed charge
3.6.5
plastic

synthetic or semi-synthetic organic material used to produce certain categories of print media products

3.6.6
substrate
material onto which inks, coatings and varnishes are printed or laid down
3.6.7
print
material onto the surface of which a mark or impression has been made
EXAMPLE Printed documents, sign and display material, magazines, newspapers.
3.6.8
printing

process of transferring text, line art and graphic content in one or more colours to a substrate

3.6.9
printing process
technology used to produce print, including analogue and digital methods
3.6.10
coating
process of applying an additional layer on top of printed inks
3.6.11
coatings and varnishes
substances applied to a substrate in addition to printed inks
3.6.12
drying

process of removing moisture, solvents or co-solvents from a substrate, localized environment or film

formation by resins
3.6.13
laminating
process of applying a transparent layer to protect a printed substrate
3.6.14
oxidation
process resulting from the combination of a substance with oxygen
3.7 Terms relating to printed media product and process — Postpress
3.7.1
postpress consumables

materials consumed as part of the finishing process, including materials which can be recycled or

otherwise reused
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ISO 16759:2013(E)
3.7.2
binding

process of holding materials together by means of staples, adhesives, thread, wire or other

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