Plain bearings — Bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants

ISO 20054:2016 specifies a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants which is used as a solid lubricant bearing.

Paliers lisses — Paliers contenant des lubrifiants solides dispersés

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Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
20-Sep-2016
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
24-Jun-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20054
First edition
2016-09-01
Plain bearings — Bearings containing
dispersed solid lubricants
Paliers lisses — Paliers contenant des lubrifiants solides dispersés
Reference number
ISO 20054:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20054:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20054:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and units ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Characteristics ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5.1 Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5.2 Bearing characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Applicable field ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Material .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Metal matrix .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2 Solid lubricant.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Combination of metal matrix and solid lubricant ..................................................................................................... 4

7 Dimension ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 General dimension ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.1 Seamless bush .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2.2 Wrapped bush .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Tolerance classes and limit deviations ............................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.2 Housing fit ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.3.3 Shaft clearance ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Assembling ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9 Surface finish ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

Annex A (informative) Guide for selection of a bearing metal matrix for bearings

containing dispersed solid lubricants............................................................................................................................................ 9

Annex B (informative) Actual applications of a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants ........10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20054:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 123, Plain bearings, Subcommittee SC 7, Special

types of plain bearings.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20054:2016(E)
Plain bearings — Bearings containing dispersed solid
lubricants
1 Scope

This document specifies a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants which is used as a solid

lubricant bearing.

NOTE In the solid lubricant bearing among self-lubricating bearings there is a solid type, a coated type, an

embedded type and a dispersed type, which is specified by this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3547-1, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 1: Dimensions
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
4 Symbols and units
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols and units
Symbol Description Unit
B Width of the bush mm
D Inside diameter of the bush mm
D Outside diameter of the bush mm
5 Characteristics
5.1 Structure

A bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants is made of sintered composite materials that contain

solid lubricants dispersed uniformly in the metal matrix and is manufactured by powder metallurgy

(see Figure 1).

This document includes multi-layered bearings with the sintered layer on a steel backing and both

seamless and wrapped bushes (see Figure 2).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 20054:2016(E)

Figure 3 shows a typical microstructure of the bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants. The

dispersed solid lubricants in the metal matrix vary in grain size and volume.
a) Seamless bush b) Seamless bush
(fine solid lubricants type) (coarse solid lubricants type)

Figure 1 — Overview of bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants (single-layered)

a) Seamless bush b) Wrapped bush
Key
1 sintered layer
2 steel backing

Figure 2 — Overview of bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants (multi-layered)

a) Fine solid lubricants type b) Coarse solid lubricants type
Key
1 metal matrix
2 dispersed solid lubricant
Figure 3 — Microstructure of a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants
5.2 Bearing characteristics

A bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants obtains its sliding performance from the self-lubricating

effects of solid lubricants and the mechanical strength of metal matrix.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20054:2016(E)

The sliding performance and mechanical strength vary according to the volume of solid lubricants.

Higher sliding performance requires more solid lubricants, while higher mechanical strength requires

less solid lubricants.

Since solid lubricants are dispersed over the entire material, the bearings are particularly suitable for

extra low speed or micro-motion applications, minimising static friction to achieve smooth sliding at

the start of motion.

The solid lubricants are drawn out over both surfaces from the bearing material when it slides

against the mating surface, forming a solid lubricant film. As the solid lubricant film is consumed, it is

replenished from the bearing material to maintain a continuous film throughout the life of the product

(see Figure 4).
Key
1 mating member
2 metal matrix
3 dispersed solid lubricant
4 solid lubricant film
A sliding direction

Figure 4 — Lubricating mechanism of a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants

5.3 Applicable field

The bearing can be used for rotational motion, reciprocating motion, oscillating m

...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 20054
ISO/TC 123/SC 7 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2016-02-10 2016-05-10
Plain bearings — Bearings containing dispersed solid
lubricants
Paliers lisses - Paliers contenant des lubrifiants solides dispersés
ICS: 21.100.10
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 20054:2016(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20054:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20054
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 20054 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 123, Plain bearings, Subcommittee SC 7,

Special types of plain bearings.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 20054
Plain bearings — Bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants which has been

used as a solid lubricant bearing.

NOTE In the solid lubricant bearing among self-lubricating bearings, there is a solid type, a coated type, an

embedded type and a dispersed type which is specified by this standard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 3547-1, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 1: Dimensions

ISO 3547-2, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 2: Test data for outside and inside diameters

ISO 3547-3, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 3: Lubrication holes, grooves and indentations

ISO 3547-4, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 4: Materials

ISO 3547-5, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 5: Checking the outside diameter

ISO 3547-6, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 6: Checking the inside diameter

ISO 3547-7, Plain bearings — Wrapped bushes — Part 7: Measurement of wall thickness of thin-walled

bushes
3 Symbols and units
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols and units
Symbol Description Unit
B Width of the bush mm
D Inside diameter of the bush mm
D Outside diameter of the bush mm
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20054
4 Characteristics
4.1 Structure

A bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants is made of sintered composite materials that contain

solid lubricants dispersed uniformly in the metal matrix and is manufactured by powder metallurgy

(see Figure 1).

This standard includes multi-layered bearings with the sintered layer on a steel backing and both

seamless and wrapped bushes (see Figure 2).

Figure 3 shows a typical microstructure of the bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants. The

dispersed solid lubricants in the metal matrix vary in grain size and volume.
a) seamless bush a) seamless bush
(fine solid lubricants type) (coarse solid lubricants type)

Figure 1 — Overview of bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants (Single-layered)

a) seamless bush b) wrapped bush
Key
1 sintered layer
2 steel backing

Figure 2 — Overview of bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants (Multi-layered)

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20054
a) fine solid lubricants type b) coarse solid lubricants type
Key
1 metal matrix
2 dispersed solid lubricant
Figure 3 — Microstructure of a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants
4.2 Bearing characteristics

A bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants obtains its sliding performance from the self-lubricating

effects of solid lubricants and the mechanical strength of metal matrix.

The sliding performance and mechanical strength vary according to the volume of solid lubricants.

Higher sliding performance requires more solid lubricants, while higher mechanical strength requires

less solid lubricants.

Since solid lubricants are dispersed over the entire material, the bearings are particularly suitable for

extra low speed or micro-motion applications, minimising static friction to achieve smooth sliding at the

start of motion.

The solid lubricants are drawn out over both surfaces from the bearing material when it slides against

the mating surface, forming a solid lubricant film. As the solid lubricant film is consumed, it is

replenished from the bearing material to maintain a continuous film throughout the life of the product

(see Figure 4).
Key
1 mating member
2 metal matrix
3 dispersed solid lubricant
4 solid lubricant film
A sliding direction

Figure 4 — Lubricating mechanism of a bearing containing dispersed solid lubricants

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20054
4.3 Applicable field

The bearing can be used for rotational motion, reciprocating motion, oscillating motion and frequent

start/stop cycles. The bearing is also used in such applications where no fluid lubrication can be

expected because of high load and low speed operation. Bearings with appropriate materials are suited

to applications with high or low temperature, liquids, gases and in vacuo.

The bearing has been developed to operate satisfactorily without oil or grease lubricants. However, if

the application permits, oil or grease may be utilised to improve bearing durability, prevent dust from

entering the bearing, flush out wear debris or prevent corrosion of the bearing components.

5 Material
5.1 Metal matrix

The constituent elements of the metal matrix in the bearing define the physical, chemical and

mechanical properties of the bearing. The chemical composition and manufacturing methods (sintering

and heat treatment) influence the bearing metal matrix properties.

Metal matrix base materials are principally copper, nickel or iron. Table 2 shows the operating

temperature for the alloy types.
Table 2 — Types of alloy and their operating temperature
Operating temperature
Alloy type
Copper based alloys -200 to 450
Nickel based alloys -200 to 600
Iron based alloys 0 to 700
Operating temperature varies according to the composition.

The most commonly-used, copper-based metal matrix group is Cu-Sn, but Cu-Ni-Sn and Cu-Ni-Fe alloys

offer enhanced thermal resistance and strength.

The nickel-based metal matrix group includes Ni-Cu-Fe alloys, which offer high corrosion resistance.

The iron-based metal matrix group includes Fe-Cu alloys which offer higher thermal resistance than

copper-based alloys by the formation of iron oxide lubricant films. In addition there are high-heat

resistant Fe-Ni-Cu alloys and stainless alloys (Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, etc.).

Metal matrix may contain small additive additions to enhance performance. The surface of metal matrix

may have an additional running-in coating.

A guide for the selection of a bearing metal matrix for bearings containing dispersed solid lubricants is

shown in Figure A.1 of Annex A.
5.2 Solid lubricant

Many types of solid lubricants are available. They are selected to suit the operating conditions because

their friction performances are influenced by the operating environment. The majority of bearings

incorporate graphite and molybdenum disulphide as solid lubricants. Other solid lubricants with low

friction, suited to demanding environments, include tungsten disulphid
...

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