Energy management and energy savings — Guidance for net zero energy in operations using an ISO 50001 energy management system

This document gives guidance on the use of an energy management system (EnMS) in accordance with ISO 50001:2018 to achieve net zero energy (NZE), and supports the achievement of net zero carbon (NZC) and other sustainability goals. It describes how to establish an enhanced EnMS designed to achieve: a) improvement of operational and maintenance practices based on NZE principles; b) integration of renewable energy into operations and maintenance; c) planning for facilities, systems, equipment or processes to implement NZE and NZC. This document does not apply to technologies, design or construction. The technical specification of passive, active or renewable energy for NZE or NZC is also not included because of different regional conditions by countries.

Management de l'énergie et économies d'énergie — Recommandations pour zéro énergie nette dans le cadre des opérations utilisant un système de management de l'énergie ISO 50001

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Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
30-Aug-2023
Completion Date
04-Jan-2023
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023 - Energy management and energy savings — Guidance for net zero energy in operations using an ISO 50001 energy management system Released:4. 01. 2023
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PUBLICLY ISO/PAS
AVAILABLE 50010
SPECIFICATION
First edition
2023-01
Energy management and energy
savings — Guidance for net zero
energy in operations using an
ISO 50001 energy management
system
Management de l'énergie et économies d'énergie —
Recommandations pour zéro énergie nette dans le cadre des
opérations utilisant un système de management de l'énergie
ISO 50001
Reference number
ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to net zero .............................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Terms related to net zero energy operation ................................................................................................................. 3

4 EnMS implementation for NZE ..............................................................................................................................................................5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Scope and boundaries for NZE ................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 NZE plans ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.2 NZE policy as part of an organization’s energy plan .......................................................................... 8

4.4 Defining the energy or carbon-emission goals .......................................................................................................... 9

4.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.4.2 Energy management system .................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.3 Renewable energy .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Selecting zero energy performance indicators ...................................................................................................... 11

4.6 Defining future-year goals ........................................................................................................................................................ 13

4.7 Data collection plan ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8 Planning to account year to year variability ............................................................................................................. 15

5 Improving organization operation and maintenance for NZE or NZC .....................................................15

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

5.2 Effective operation and maintenance ............................................................................................................................. 15

5.3 Control technology ........................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6 Integration of renewable energy .....................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 Consideration of renewable off-site energy ............................................................................................................... 16

6.1.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.1.2 Renewable resources acquired by the organization ....................................................................... 17

6.1.3 Renewable energy resources on the grid .................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Utilizing energy provider inducements to change energy use — Demand response .......... 17

6.3 Renewable grid connection ...................................................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Relationship between NZE design, construction and operation ..........................19

Annex B (informative) NZE overview for implementation ........................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 301, Energy management and energy

savings.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

This document shows how an organization that manages its energy performance can use that process

to achieve net zero energy (NZE). It explains what is meant by NZE and how an energy management

system (EnMS) in accordance with ISO 50001:2018 can be implemented to achieve, maintain and

improve NZE. It also considers the integration of renewable energy and issues around planning for NZE

in new and retrofitted facilities which is beyond the scope of ISO 50001. In addition, it is designed to

complement organizational action to achieve net zero carbon (NZC).

This document introduces several new concepts to the determination of whether a facility meets the

criteria it recommends for showing that it meets NZE or NZC goals. Many jurisdictions use the two

terms interchangeably, and others promote one goal over the other as discrete choices. This document

attempts to reconcile these definitions. It distinguishes between several different scopes and boundaries

for these different net zero goals and their targets, which are increasingly effective at reducing energy

and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and correspondingly more difficult to achieve. It suggests that an

EnMS be structured to allow continual improvement from lower targets to higher ones.

A number of countries around the world have pledged to achieve a net zero goal, and many more have

[17]

committed to significant energy savings and carbon reductions in their societies. Meeting these

commitments over the coming decades requires accelerated improvements in energy management.

Many organizations are undertaking specific actions to reduce their carbon emissions by better

management of energy, including targeting NZE. These actions may include:

— measuring, managing and minimizing energy use to achieve NZE through operations;

— designing and constructing new buildings or other facilities to meet a target of NZE;

— retrofitting existing buildings to improve their performance toward or beyond NZE;

— integration of renewable energy, e.g. photovoltaics (PVs), solar water heating, geothermal energy,

on-site wind turbines;

— coordinating robust energy management with other sustainability initiatives, to achieve or surpass

NZC.

This document shows how an EnMS can include objectives such as specified levels of NZE and NZC.

The EnMS conforms to ISO 50001:2018. This document recommends establishing specific, quantifiable

targets for energy consumption that can serve as a pathway to NZE. Use of this document should enable

closer harmonization of claims of NZE within and between organizations, and across regions and

nations.

By following the standardized approach provided, the organization can take advantage of common

resources (e.g. software) to produce reliable and documentable processes and results, and of the basic

structure this document provides in developing its own management system.

This document provides flexibility for organizations to determine their own scope, boundaries

and calculation methodology for calculating net energy consumption, and for setting a pathway

towards NZE. It does not discuss how to measure non-energy-related GHG impacts; for these, see

ISO 14064-2:2019 and ISO 14067:2018.

This document recognizes that energy targets and calculation methods are chosen by the organization

to be specific to its situation and can be determined outside the organization (e.g. by governments

or consequent upon a GHG-calculation methodology). For situations when the measurement and

calculations are developed by the organization itself, this document includes a high-level set of

recommendations based on global best practice.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
0.2 NZE goals are being increasingly adopted

NZE is a key indicator for an organization wishing to demonstrate leadership in energy management

and sustainable development. It is applicable for buildings, industries and other sectors. It may also be

measured at the organizational, district or city level. The buildings sector has been the first to accept

NZE concepts widely, but there are also NZE industrial facilities. To achieve NZE goals, buildings can

use mandatory NZE codes. Meeting challenging targets requires industry to consider residual energy

[14]
use.

The global market for NZE buildings and industries is exhibiting rapid compound annual growth,

spurred on in part by legislation or pledges at the local, national or supranational level (see, for example,

[13]
EU Directive 2018/844 ).

However, if these ambitious targets are to be met, a wide range of users including, but not limited

to, energy service providers, building occupants, industrial managers, energy efficiency experts and

government agencies require a common understanding of NZE and the use of standardized processes

(such as those provided by this document) for targeting, measuring and maintaining it.

NOTE “Net zero building” is abbreviated as either “NZE building” or “NZC building”.

This document aims to meet these needs and uses the EnMS goal of continual improvement, as required

by ISO 50001, to harmonize definitions and claims in the context of improving from one target to the

next over time. It also allows facilities that find it impractical to reach NZE in the short term to show

how close they come to achieving it, and to demonstrate how they choose to approach NZE over time.

0.3 Importance of an energy management system to achieve NZE

In a typical building’s life cycle, the operation and maintenance (O&M) phase (as shown in Figure 1)

[15]

is more than 80 % of the total life-cycle energy consumption of that building and plant. Thus,

good energy management is critical to the life-cycle energy consumption of a building. As energy

management improves as recommended by this document, it is likely that net energy consumption

during operation declines dramatically, while energy consumption in other parts of the life cycle stays

constant or declines by a smaller percentage. Thus, the non-operational energy impacts over the life

cycle become relatively more important. That is one reason why that this document addresses these

effects along with operational energy consumption, particularly when the energy targets are intended

to be met in future years when energy performance is improved, and renewable energy production is

increased.
Figure 1 — Total life cycle energy use of an organization
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
0.4 Contents of this document

Clause 4 provides a high-level introduction to the goals and processes of meeting different defined NZE

targets, which are linked to each other by the process of continual improvement as part of an EnMS.

It discusses how renewable energy should be treated in NZE demonstrations. It looks at how to select

the most appropriate energy performance indicators (EnPIs) within an EnMS that can then be used

to monitor progress towards achieving, maintaining and reaching higher levels of NZE (including

NZC) over future years. The clause also considers how to develop a data collection plan, and ways of

accounting for year-to-year variability, especially where renewable energy generation varies with

weather conditions. The explanations of the rationales for the recommendation for NZE are provided

in Annex B.

The additional NZE targets, which go beyond many existing definitions of NZE, are variants on

the principle of NZC. In this document, “carbon” is used in a variety of terms (e.g. carbon footprint,

carbon neutral) as carbon dioxide (CO ) to represent GHG emissions and CO equivalent, which is a

2 2

unit of measurement for global warming effect. This document develops these recommendations on

the effective O&M with renewable energy and how it is integrated into an EnMS. It highlights demand

response as a way of matching energy consumption with available renewable energy in Clauses 5 and 6.

vii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SPECIFICATION ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
Energy management and energy savings — Guidance for
net zero energy in operations using an ISO 50001 energy
management system
1 Scope

This document gives guidance on the use of an energy management system (EnMS) in accordance with

ISO 50001:2018 to achieve net zero energy (NZE), and supports the achievement of net zero carbon

(NZC) and other sustainability goals. It describes how to establish an enhanced EnMS designed to

achieve:
a) improvement of operational and maintenance practices based on NZE principles;
b) integration of renewable energy into operations and maintenance;

c) planning for facilities, systems, equipment or processes to implement NZE and NZC.

This document does not apply to technologies, design or construction. The technical specification of

passive, active or renewable energy for NZE or NZC is also not included because of different regional

conditions by countries.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 50001:2018, Energy management systems — Requirements with guidance for use
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 50001:2018 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to net zero
3.1.1
net zero

state in which a quantity of a commodity with one attribute is balanced by the same quantity of the

commodity with a different attribute

Note 1 to entry: The commodity can be physical (e.g. water), a waste, a by-product (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions)

or a form of energy.

Note 2 to entry: Net zero can be applied within specified net zero energy target boundaries (3.1.7) over a defined

period of time.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
3.1.2
net zero energy
NZE

state in which a quantity of energy consumption is balanced by the same quantity of clean renewable

energy (3.2.2) generated

Note 1 to entry: The energy consumed can be in the form of a fuel such as gas, oil or coal, or a medium such as

electricity, steam or heat.

Note 2 to entry: NZE can be applied within specified NZE target boundaries (3.1.7) over a defined period of time.

3.1.3
net zero carbon
NZC

state in which a quantity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is balanced by the same quantity of GHG

removals

Note 1 to entry: Where GHGs (3.2.8) take the form of different gases (such as CO , CH , N O, F-gases or SF ) they

2 4 2 6

can be converted to a common unit such as tonnes of CO e using their global warming potential.

Note 2 to entry: NZC can be applied within boundaries specified by the organization over a defined period of

time.

Note 3 to entry: The GHG removals can be achieved by clean renewable energy (3.2.2) generation.

Note 4 to entry: This document uses the term “net zero carbon” to mean net zero GHG emissions, following

common practice among net zero energy practitioners. The difference between CO and GHGs can be small or

negligible for buildings but can be significant for industrial facilities.
3.1.4
energy independence rate
EIR

rate of energy generation compared with energy consumption within the same net zero energy target

boundaries (3.1.7)
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a percentage.
3.1.5
zero energy performance indicator
zEnPI

indicator which trends to or is equal to zero for net zero energy (NZE) (3.1.2) or net zero carbon (3.1.3)

Note 1 to entry: zEnPI can be a ratio or rate between renewable energy (3.2.1) and delivered energy (3.2.4) within

specified NZE target boundaries (3.1.7) over a defined period of time.

Note 2 to entry: zEnPI can be normalized (3.2.9) energy use (e.g. renewable energy consumption per unit of

output).

Note 3 to entry: zEnPIs do not replace the energy performance indicators for the energy management system and

can be used in defining the zEnPI, e.g. zEnPI is normalized energy consumption (kWh) minus renewable energy

produced (kWh).
3.1.6
NZE target
net zero energy target
quantifiable objective of net zero energy (NZE) (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: The quantifiable objective of NZE is the zero energy performance indicator (zEnPI) value, which

is = 0 based on the definition of zEnPI (3.1.5).
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
3.1.7
NZE target boundaries
net zero energy target boundaries
physical or organizational limits within which an NZE target (3.1.6) is assessed

EXAMPLE A process, a group of processes, a site, multiple sites under the control of an organization, an

entire organization.
Note 1 to entry: The organization defines its NZE target boundaries.
3.2 Terms related to net zero energy operation
3.2.1
renewable energy

energy not depleted by extraction as it is replenished at a rate equal to or faster than it is extracted

Note 1 to entry: Renewable energy excludes recovered or wasted energy.

Note 2 to entry: Organic fraction of municipal waste can be considered as a renewable energy.

Note 3 to entry: Whether the energy stored in a technical system is renewable or not depends upon the nature of

the original energy.

Note 4 to entry: Criteria to categorize an energy source as renewable can differ amongst jurisdictions, based on

local environmental or other reasons.

[SOURCE: ISO 50007:2017, 3.38, modified — “naturally” deleted before “replenished” and “equal to or”

added before “faster” in the definition.]
3.2.2
clean renewable energy

renewable energy (3.2.1) whose direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) (3.2.8), other gases

with adverse impacts on human health, water pollutants, or other toxic releases, and whose impacts on

ecosystems are substantially lower than those of fossil fuels

Note 1 to entry: Geothermal energy that releases high levels of SO gases to the atmosphere does not qualify

under this definition.

Note 2 to entry: Wood pellet or solid wood combustion does not qualify if the GHG emissions associated with

producing the wood-derived fuels are not substantially lower than those from gas-fired generation.

[SOURCE: ISO 50007:2017, 3.38, modified — “fossil fuels” replaced “conventional alternatives such as

gas-fired generation” in the definition. “wood-derived fuels are not substantially lower than those from

gas-fired generation” replaced “wood are similar to those of coal on the basis of a megajoule of fuel” in

Note 2 to entry.]
3.2.3
off-site energy

energy (such as electricity and heat) necessary for the organization and originating from outside the

organization’s boundary

Note 1 to entry: Off-site energy is one of the energy production and supply methods to achieve net zero energy

(3.1.2).

Note 2 to entry: On-site energy generation is a method of supplying and producing energy within the boundary

of the site.
Note 3 to entry: The electricity generated is delivered to the grid first.
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
3.2.4
delivered energy
energy arriving at the boundaries of an organization
[SOURCE: ISO 50047:2016, 3.3, modified — Note 1 to entry deleted.]
3.2.5
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

Note 1 to entry: Primary energy can be either a non-renewable or a renewable energy (3.2.1), or a combination of

both.
[SOURCE: ISO 50047:2016, 3.17]
3.2.6
embodied energy

energy consumed in the processes associated with the production, transportation, installation and

assembly of materials, products and services through their lifecycle

[SOURCE: ISO 6707-3:2017, 3.7.6, modified — “total of all the” deleted before “energy” and

“transportation, installation and assembly of materials, products and services through their lifecycle”

replaced “of materials and products” in the definition.]
3.2.7
demand response

ability of an organization consuming energy to respond to a trigger by lowering or raising their power

consumption temporarily

Note 1 to entry: The trigger may be from a utility system operator, load-serving entity, regional transmission

organization/independent system operator or other entity.
Note 2 to entry: The trigger may be a reliability trigger or a price trigger.

Note 3 to entry: Demand response is a temporary change in energy consumption, sometimes with a decrease in

service level (e.g. less comfortable climate, non-optimal lighting).
3.2.8
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits

radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s

surface, the atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: For a list of GHGs, see the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report.

Note 2 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs, but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties, in most cases, in isolating the human-induced component of global warming

attributable to their presence in the atmosphere.
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.1.1]
3.2.9
normalize

modify data to account for changes to enable comparison of energy performance under equivalent

conditions
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ISO/PAS 50010:2023(E)
4 EnMS implementation for NZE
4.1 General

This document should be used by the management of a facility or an organization with multiple facilities

in the context of the implementation of an EnMS based on ISO 50001:2018. It is also recommended

that the EnMS follow the guidance in ISO 50004:2020. This document describes how to extend the

organization’s EnMS to achieve net zero outcomes for energy or carbon emissions.

It recommends the organization develop and implement an energy plan to achieve one or more specific

quantitative targets for net energy consumption. These can take into account the organization’s

situation such as size, region and goals to reduce emissions and possible use of renewable energy. The

energy targets can be expressed in absolute terms, relative terms or other metrics such as an energy

independence rate (EIR).

The organization should develop a multi-year strategy using its energy plan to meet progressively

more demanding targets (see 4.4). For the more ambitious goals, a Management System Standard

that parallels that of an EnMS should be established to continually improve performance in reducing

emissions of other GHGs than energy-related carbon dioxide whenever they are found to be significant.

4.2 Scope and boundaries for NZE
Before developing a plan to reach NZE, the organization should determine:
— the boundaries of the organization’s NZE target(s);
— the scope for NZE (see 4.6).

Where there is an EnMS based on ISO 50001:2018, or other EnMS, the NZE target boundaries may be

aligned with those of the EnMS. However, it is possible that the NZE target boundaries are different

than those of the EnMS. If they are different, this should be indicated in the documented information.

An organization’s EnMS boundaries can differ from its NZE target boundaries due to on-site energy

consumption or off-site renewable energy use.
EXAMPLE 1 An organization’s EnMS includes all its
...

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