Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles for young children

This document specifies safety and performance requirements and test methods for the design, assembly and testing of fully assembled bicycles and sub-assemblies for young children. It also provides guidelines for instructions on the use and care of the bicycles. This document is applicable to bicycles with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less than 635 mm, propelled by a transmitted drive to the rear wheel. It is not applicable to special bicycles intended for performing stunts (e.g. BMX bicycles). NOTE For bicycles with a maximum saddle height of 435 mm or less, see national regulations for ride-on toys, and with a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more, see ISO 4210-1 to ISO 4210-9.

Cycles — Exigences de sécurité pour les bicyclettes pour jeunes enfants

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
12-Sep-2022
Completion Date
10-Jan-2023
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ISO 8098:2023 - Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles for young children Released:10. 01. 2023
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8098
Fourth edition
2023-01
Cycles — Safety requirements for
bicycles for young children
Cycles — Exigences de sécurité pour les bicyclettes pour jeunes
enfants
Reference number
ISO 8098:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
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© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements and test methods ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Brake tests and strength tests — Special requirements .................................................................................. 3

4.1.1 Brake tests to which special requirements apply ................................................................................ 3

4.1.2 Strength tests to which special requirements apply ......................................................................... 3

4.1.3 Numbers and condition of specimens for the strength tests...................................................... 3

4.1.4 Tolerances ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1.5 Fatigue test .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1.6 Plastic material test ambient temperature ................................................................................................. 4

4.1.7 Impact test ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Toxicity .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Sharp edges ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners .................................................................................................. 5

4.4.1 Security of screws ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.4.2 Minimum failure torque .............................................................................................................................................. 5

4.4.3 Quick-release devices ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.4 Foot location devices ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.5 Folding bicycle mechanism ....................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Crack detection methods ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6 Exposed protrusions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Brakes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.7.1 Braking-systems ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.7.2 Hand-operated brakes ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 6

4.7.3 Attachment of brake assembly and cable requirements ................................................................ 8

4.7.4 Brake-block and brake-pad assemblies — Security test ................................................................ 9

4.7.5 Brake adjustment ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.7.6 Back-pedal brake ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.7.7 Braking-system — Strength tests ...................................................................................................................... 9

4.7.8 Braking performance .................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.8 Steering ......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.8.1 Handlebar — Dimensions and end fittings..............................................................................................12

4.8.2 Handlebar grips and end plugs ...........................................................................................................................12

4.8.3 Handlebar-stem — Insertion depth mark or positive stop ....................................................... 14

4.8.4 Steering stability ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.8.5 Steering assembly — Static strength and security tests ............................................................ 14

4.8.6 Handlebar and stem assembly — Fatigue test ..................................................................................... 18

4.9 Frames ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

4.9.1 Frame and front fork assembly — Impact test (falling mass).................................................20

4.9.2 Frame and front fork assembly — impact test (falling frame) ............................................... 21

4.10 Front fork .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

4.10.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................22

4.10.2 Front fork — Bending fatigue test ................................................................................................................... 22

4.11 Wheel and tyre assembly ........................................................................................................................................................... 23

4.11.1 Wheel and tyre assembly — Rotational accuracy .............................................................................23

4.11.2 Wheel and tyre assembly — Clearance ...................................................................................................... 24

4.11.3 Wheel and tyre assembly — Static strength test ............................................................................... 25

4.11.4 Wheels — Wheel retention .................................................................................................................................... 25

4.11.5 Tyre inflation pressure .............................................................................................................................................. 26

4.11.6 Wheel and tyre assembly —Overpressure test ................................................................................... 26

iii
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ISO 8098:2023(E)

4.12 Pedals and pedal/crank drive system ............................................................................................................................ 26

4.12.1 Pedal tread ............................................................................................................................................................................26

4.12.2 Pedal clearance ................................................................................................................................................................. 27

4.12.3 Pedal — Impact test ..................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.12.4 Pedal/pedal-spindle — Dynamic durability test................................................................................28

4.12.5 Drive system static strength test .....................................................................................................................29

4.12.6 Crank assembly — Fatigue tests .......................................................................................................................30

4.13 Saddles and seat-posts .................................................................................................................................................................. 31

4.13.1 Limiting dimensions .................................................................................................................................................... 31

4.13.2 Seat-post — Insertion-depth mark or positive stop ........................................................................ 31

4.13.3 Saddle and seat-post security test ................................................................................................................... 32

4.13.4 Saddle — Static strength test .............................................................................................................................. 32

4.13.5 Saddle and seat-post assembly fatigue test ............................................................................................. 33

4.14 Chain-wheel and belt-drive protective device ........................................................................................................34

4.15 Stabilizers ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 35

4.15.1 Mounting and dismounting.................................................................................................................................... 35

4.15.2 Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 35

4.15.3 Vertical load test ..............................................................................................................................................................36

4.15.4 Longitudinal load test .................................................................................................................................................36

4.16 Luggage carriers ................................................................................................................................................................................ 37

4.17 Lighting systems and reflectors .......................................................................................................................................... 37

4.17.1 Front and rear light ....................................................................................................................................................... 37

4.17.2 Reflectors ............................................................................................................................................................................... 37

4.17.3 Wiring harness ..................................................................................................................................................................38

4.18 Warning device ...................................................................................................................................................................................38

5 Instructions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................38

6 Marking ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................39

6.1 Requirement .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.2 Durability test ......................................................................................................................................................................................40

6.2.1 Requirement ........................................................................................................................................................................40

6.2.2 Test method .........................................................................................................................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Steering geometry .................................................................................................................................................41

Annex B (informative) Verification of free fall velocity ...............................................................................................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 149, Cycles, Subcommittee SC 1, Cycles

and major sub-assemblies, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 333, Cycles, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 8098:2014), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— addition of the terms "3.3 conventional brake-lever", "3.4 parallel brake-lever", and "3.19 wheel and

tyre assembly";
— improvement of 4.4.2 Minimum failure torque;
— addition of 4.7.2.3.2 Parallel brake-lever;
— improvement of 4.8.1 Handlebar — Dimensions and end fittings;
— improvement of 4.8.2 Handlebar grips;

— "Wheels" and "Rims, tyres and tubes" are merged as "4.11 Wheels and tyre assembly";

— improvement of 4.11.2 Wheel and tyre assembly — Clearance;
— improvement of 4.12.6 Crank assembly — Fatigue tests;
— improvement of 4.14 Chain-wheel and belt-drive protective device.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed in response to demand throughout the world, and the aim has been

to ensure that bicycles manufactured in conformity with it will be as safe as is practically possible.

The tests have been designed to ensure the strength and durability of individual parts as well as of the

bicycle as a whole, demanding high quality throughout and consideration of safety aspects from the

design stage onwards.

The scope has been limited to safety considerations and has specifically avoided standardization of

components.
If the bicycle is used on public roads, national regulations apply.

For safety requirements for toy bicycles intended for very young children see national regulations and

standards.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8098:2023(E)
Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles for young
children
1 Scope

This document specifies safety and performance requirements and test methods for the design,

assembly and testing of fully assembled bicycles and sub-assemblies for young children. It also provides

guidelines for instructions on the use and care of the bicycles.

This document is applicable to bicycles with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less

than 635 mm, propelled by a transmitted drive to the rear wheel.

It is not applicable to special bicycles intended for performing stunts (e.g. BMX bicycles).

NOTE For bicycles with a maximum saddle height of 435 mm or less, see national regulations for ride-on

[5]-[13]

toys, and with a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more, see ISO 4210-1 to ISO 4210-9 .

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1101, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Geometrical tolerancing — Tolerances of form,

orientation, location and run-out

ISO 6742-2, Cycles — Lighting and retro-reflective devices — Part 2: Retro-reflective devices

ISO 8124-1:2018, Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

ISO 11243, Cycles — Luggage carriers for bicycles — Requirements and test methods

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bicycle

two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled solely or mainly by the muscular energy of the person on that

vehicle, in particular by means of pedals
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.1.1]
3.2
brake-lever
lever that operates a braking device
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.4.2]
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
3.3
conventional brake-lever
brake-lever (3.2) with a rotational axis perpendicular to the handlebar
3.4
parallel brake-lever
brake-lever (3.2) with rotational axis parallel to the handlebar
3.5
braking force

tangential rearward force between the tyre and the ground or the tyre and the drum or belt of the test

machine
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.4.4]
3.6
crank assembly

assembly consisting of the drive side and the non-drive side crank arm the bottom-bracket spindle or

crank spindle, and all component of the drive system that are affixed to the crankset

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.8.2, modified — EXAMPLE has been removed.]
3.7
exposed protrusion

protrusion which through its location and rigidity could present a hazard to the rider either through

heavy contact with it in normal use or should the rider fall onto it in an accident

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.2.3]
3.8
fracture
unintentional separation into two or more parts
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.2.4]
3.9
highest gear

gear ratio which gives the greatest distance travelled for one rotation of the cranks

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.8.4]
3.10
lowest gear

gear ratio which gives the shortest distance travelled for one rotation of the cranks

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.8.5]
3.11
maximum inflation pressure

maximum tyre pressure recommended by the tyre or rim manufacturer for a safe and efficient

performance, and if the maximum rim pressure was marked on both the tyre and rim, maximum tyre

pressure according to the lower marked maximum inflation pressure on the rim or tyre

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.7.3, modified — Note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.12
maximum saddle height

vertical distance from the ground to the point where the top of the seat surface is intersected by

the seat-post axis, measured with the seat in a horizontal position and with the seat-post set to the

minimum insertion-depth mark
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.2.6]
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
3.13
tread surface
surface of a pedal that is presented to the underside of the foot
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.8.6]
3.14
quick-release devices

lever actuated mechanism that connects, retains, or secures a wheel or any other component

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.2.8]
3.15
stabilizers
removable auxiliary wheels fitted to enable the rider to balance
3.16
toe-clip

device attached to the pedal to grip the toe end of the rider's shoe but permitting withdrawal of the

shoe
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.8.8]
3.17
toe-strap
device to securely locate a rider's shoe on a pedal
3.18
visible crack
crack which results from a test where that crack is visible to the naked eye
[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.2.11]
3.19
wheel and tyre assembly

assembled wheel fitted with tyre and wheel include all necessary parts for its intended use

[SOURCE: ISO 4210-1:2023, 3.7.7]
4 Requirements and test methods
4.1 Brake tests and strength tests — Special requirements
4.1.1 Brake tests to which special requirements apply

Brake tests to which maximum permissible error requirements apply, as in 4.1.4, are those specified in

4.7.2.3 to 4.7.8.4 inclusive.
4.1.2 Strength tests to which special requirements apply

Strength tests to which maximum permissible error requirements apply, as in 4.1.4, are those involving

static, impact or fatigue loading as specified in 4.8 to 4.13 inclusive and 4.15.

4.1.3 Numbers and condition of specimens for the strength tests

In general, for static, impact and fatigue tests, each test shall be conducted on a new test sample, but

if only one sample is available, it is permissible to conduct all of the tests on the same sample with the

sequence of testing being fatigue, static and impact.
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ISO 8098:2023(E)

When more than one test is conducted on the same sample, the test sequence shall be clearly recorded

in the test report or record of testing.

If more than one test is conducted on the same sample, earlier tests can influence the results of

subsequent tests. Also, if a sample fails when it has been subjected to more than one test, a direct

comparison with single testing is not possible.
In all strength tests, specimens shall be in the fully finished condition.

It is permitted to carry out tests with dummy assemblies such as a fork or handlebar when carrying out

frame or handlebar stem tests.
4.1.4 Tolerances

Unless stated otherwise, maximum permissible error tolerances based on the nominal values shall be

as follows:
— Forces and torques: 0/+5 %
— Masses and weights: ±1 %
— Dimensions: ±1 mm
— Angles: ±1°
— Time duration: ±5 s
— Temperatures: ±2 °C
— Pressures: ±5 %
4.1.5 Fatigue test

The force for fatigue tests shall be applied and released progressively, and not exceed 10 Hz. The

tightness of fasteners according to manufacturer's recommended torque can be re-checked not later

than 1 000 test cycles to allow for the initial settling of the component assembly. (This is considered

applicable to all components, where fasteners are present for clamping.) The test bench shall be

qualified to meet dynamic requirements of 4.1.4.
NOTE Examples of suitable methods are listed in Reference [14].
4.1.6 Plastic material test ambient temperature

All strength tests involving any plastic materials shall be pre-conditioned for two hours and tested at

an ambient temperature of 23 °C ± 5 °C.
4.1.7 Impact test

For all vertical impact test, the striker shall be guided in such a way that the efficiency will allow a

value of at least 95 % of the free velocity.
NOTE See Annex B.
4.2 Toxicity

Any items which come into intimate contact with the rider (i.e. causing any hazard due to sucking or

licking) shall comply with national regulations specific to children's products.
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ISO 8098:2023(E)
4.3 Sharp edges

Exposed edges that could come into contact with the rider's hands, legs etc., during normal riding or

normal handling and normal maintenance shall not be sharp, e.g. deburred, broken, rolled or processed

with comparable techniques.
4.4 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners
4.4.1 Security of screws

Any screws used in the assembly of suspension systems, bracket attached electric generators, brake-

mechanisms and mud-guards to the frame or fork, shall be provided with suitable locking devices to

prevent unintentional loosening, e.g. lock-washers, lock-nuts, thread locking compound or stiff nuts.

Screws used to attach hub-generator are not included.
Fasteners used to assemble hub and disc brakes should have hea
...

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