Water hydraulics — Water-hydraulic pumps — Methods of testing and representing basic steady-state performance

This document specifies methods for determining the performance and the efficiency of water-hydraulic positive displacement pumps having continuously rotating shafts. This document provides test equipment, a test procedure under steady-state conditions and the presentation of test results.

Hydraulique à l'eau — Pompes hydrauliques avec de l'eau — Méthodes d'essai et représentation des performances de base en régime permanent

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Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Nov-2021
Completion Date
19-Nov-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23840
First edition
2021-11
Water hydraulics — Water-hydraulic
pumps — Methods of testing and
representing basic steady-state
performance
Hydraulique à l'eau — Pompes hydrauliques avec de l'eau —
Méthodes d'essai et représentation des performances de base en
régime permanent
Reference number
ISO 23840:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and units............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Water ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Tests .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.1 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6.1.2 Installation of the unit under test ....................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.3 Test fluid .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.4 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Test circuit .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.3 Test measurement ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.4 Preparation of test .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.5 Measurement procedure ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Expression of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Errors and classes of measurement accuracy ............................................................................. 7

Annex B (normative) Permissible variation of mean indicated values of controlled

parameters ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex C (informative) Example of graphs presenting test results ..................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 131, Fluid power systems, Subcommittee

SC 8, Product testing.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)
Introduction

Water hydraulics or water-hydraulic systems (hydraulic systems in which water is used as the power-

transmitting medium in a fluid power system) have potential market demand as they facilitate

maintaining cleanness and permit a reduction in fluid cost, machine size and fire risk. Applications

of water hydraulics have been expanding into new fields which require cleanness, most notably the

cleaning sector, animals and plants, food, packaging, cosmetics and semiconductors, amongst others.

This is due to the environmental cleanliness of water compared with alternative hydraulic fluids, such

as oil.

Although water hydraulics is a generally well-known concept, there are currently no International

Standards specialized in water hydraulics. As the technology of water hydraulics is an emerging

technology, it is considered a relevant topic for international standardization by related countries,

including both developing countries as well as developed ones, and in particular by ISO/TC 131 (Fluid

power systems), in order to accelerate the development of this technology.

The water-hydraulic pump is one of the key components of water hydraulics. The development of an

appropriate International Standard for water-hydraulic pumps, which focuses on methods of testing

and representing basic steady state performance, is therefore critical to business trade and/or product

acceptance by consumers.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23840:2021(E)
Water hydraulics — Water-hydraulic pumps — Methods of
testing and representing basic steady-state performance
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for determining the performance and the efficiency of water-

hydraulic positive displacement pumps having continuously rotating shafts. This document provides

test equipment, a test procedure under steady-state conditions and the presentation of test results.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4391, Hydraulic fluid power — Pumps, motors and integral transmissions — Parameter definitions and

letter symbols
ISO 5598, Fluid power systems and components — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4391 and ISO 5598 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
water-hydraulic pump

positive displacement pump that transforms mechanical energy into water-hydraulic energy with

water as the system fluid
3.2
flow rate of the pump under test
flow rate measured at the outlet port of the pump under test
3.3
pump volumetric efficiency
ratio of the effective output flow rate to the derived output flow rate
3.4
hydromechanical pump efficiency
ratio of the derived torque to the effective torque
3.5
inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test
measured gauge pressure at or near the suction port of the pump under test

Note 1 to entry: The value of “inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test” shows either positive or negative.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)
3.6
outlet gauge pressure of the pump under test
measured gauge pressure at or near the delivery port of the pump under test
3.7
tap water
water supplied through pipes or tubes to taps/faucets
3.8
total dissolved solids
TDS
weight of inorganic and organic matter in true solution per unit volume of water
4 Symbols and units

For the purposes of this document, the symbols and units listed in Table 1 apply. In Table 1, as the unit

3 -1 3

of derived capacity and shaft speed, m and s , as well as m /rev and rev/s, may be used.

Table 1 — Symbols and units
Description Symbols Unit
Rotational frequency rev/s
Inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test Pa
ei,
Outlet gauge pressure of the pump under test p Pa
eo,
Flow rate of the pump under test m /s
Water temperature T K
Effective torque t N·m
Derived capacity V m /rev
Pump overall efficiency η -
Hydromechanical pump efficiency η -
Pump volumetric efficiency η -
5 Water

Tap water can be used for the working fluid of water-hydraulic systems including a water-hydraulic

pump.
6 Tests
6.1 Requirements
6.1.1 General

Installations shall be designed to prevent air entrainment during operation and measures shall be

taken to remove free air from the system before testing.

The tank height level should be designed to be higher than the pump suction port, in order to prevent

the reduction of the suction pressure.

Tap water shall be supplied through a filter with the specified filtration performance (10 microns) to a

hydraulic tank.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23840:2021(E)

Figure 1 illustrates the basic circuit for the test of a water-hydraulic pump. This figure does not

incorporate all the safety devices necessary to protect against damage in the event of any component

fracture or fragmentation. Those who are responsible for carrying out the test shall give due

consideration to safeguarding both personnel and equipment.
6.1.2 Installation of the unit under test
The test circuit shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 1.
6.1.3 Test fluid

Working fluid of water hydraulics shall be tap water. Additives shall not be added to the test fluid.

6.1.4 Temperature

Tests shall be carried out at a stated test fluid temperature. The test fluid temperature shall be measured

in a tank or at the pump inlet. The position of the temperature measurement shall be determined by

the manufacturer and user of the pump under test. Water temperature shall be controlled by a heat

exchanger within the range recommended by the manufacturer. Measurements shall be made at

temperature levels between 20 °C and 40 °C.

The test fluid temperature shall be maintained within the limits stated in Table 2. The temperature

tolerance (either A, B, or C) shall be recorded.
Table 2 — Indicated test fluid temperature tolerance
Temperature accuracy class (see Annex A) A B C
Temperature tolerance (°C) ±1,0 ±2,0 ±4,0
6.2 Test circuit
The test circuit shown in Figure 1 shall be used.
The first shut-off valve (Key 14 of
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23840
ISO/TC 131/SC 8
Water hydraulics — Water-hydraulic
Secretariat: BSI
pumps — Methods of testing and
Voting begins on:
2021­08­20 representing basic steady-state
performance
Voting terminates on:
2021­10­15
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and units ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Water ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1.2 Installation of the unit under test ..................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.3 Test fluid .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.1.4 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Test circuit ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Test measurement ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.4 Preparation of test ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

Annex A (informative) Errors and classes of measurement accuracy ............................................................................... 7

Annex B (normative) Permissible variation of mean indicated values of controlled parameters ......9

Annex C (informative) Example of graphs presenting test results .....................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 131, Fluid power systems, Subcommittee

SC 8, Product testing.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
Introduction

Water hydraulics or water-hydraulic systems (hydraulic systems in which water is used as the power-

transmitting medium in a fluid power system) have potential market demand as they facilitate

maintaining cleanness and permit a reduction in fluid cost, machine size and fire risk. Applications

of water hydraulics have been expanding into new fields which require cleanness, most notably the

cleaning sector, animals and plants, food, packaging, cosmetics and semiconductors, amongst others.

This is due to the environmental cleanliness of water compared with alternative hydraulic fluids, such

as oil.

Although water hydraulics is a generally well-known concept, there are currently no international

standards specialized in water hydraulics. As the technology of water hydraulics is an emerging

technology, it is considered a relevant topic for international standardization by related countries,

including both developing countries as well as developed ones, and in particular by ISO/TC 131 (Fluid

power systems), in order to accelerate the development of this technology.

The water-hydraulic pump is one of the key components of water hydraulics. The development of an

appropriate standard for water-hydraulic pumps, which focuses on methods of testing and representing

basic steady state performance, is therefore critical to business trade and/or product acceptance by

consumers.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
Water hydraulics — Water-hydraulic pumps — Methods of
testing and representing basic steady-state performance
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for determining the performance and the efficiency of water-

hydraulic positive displacement pumps having continuously rotating shafts. This document provides

test equipment, a test procedure under steady-state conditions and the presentation of test results.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4391, Hydraulic fluid power — Pumps, motors and integral transmissions — Parameter definitions and

letter symbols
ISO 5598, Fluid power systems and components — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4391 and ISO 5598 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
water-hydraulic pump

positive displacement pump that transforms mechanical energy into water-hydraulic energy with

water as the system fluid
3.2
flow rate of the pump under test
flow rate measured at the outlet port of the pump under test
3.3
pump volumetric efficiency
ratio of the effective output flow rate to the derived output flow rate
3.4
hydromechanical pump efficiency
ratio of the derived torque to the effective torque
3.5
inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test
measured gauge pressure at or near the suction port of the pump under test

Note 1 to entry: The value of “inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test” shows either positive or negative.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)
3.6
outlet gauge pressure of the pump under test
measured gauge pressure at or near the delivery port of the pump under test
3.7
tap water
water supplied through pipes or tubes to taps/faucets
3.8
total dissolved solids
TDS
weight of inorganic and organic matter in true solution per unit volume of water
4 Symbols and units

For the purposes of this document, the symbols and units listed in Table 1 apply. In Table 1, as the unit

3 ­1 3

of derived capacity and shaft speed, m and s , as well as m /rev and rev/s, may be used.

Table 1 — Symbols and units
Description Symbols Unit
Pump overall efficiency η ­
Hydromechanical pump efficiency η ­
Pump volumetric efficiency η ­
Rotational frequency rev/s
Inlet gauge pressure of the pump under test p Pa
ei,
Outlet gauge pressure of the pump under test Pa
eo,
Flow rate of the pump under test m /s
Effective torque t N·m
Water temperature T K
Derived capacity V m /rev
5 Water

Tap water can be used for the working fluid of water-hydraulic systems including a water-hydraulic

pump.
6 Tests
6.1 Requirements
6.1.1 General

Installations shall be designed to prevent air entrainment during operation and measures shall be

taken to remove free air from the system before testing.

The tank height level should be designed to be higher than the pump suction port, in order to prevent

the reduction of the suction pressure.

Tap water shall be supplied through a filter with the specified filtration performance (10 microns)

whilst tap water is supplied to a hydraulic tank.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23840:2021(E)

Figure 1 illustrates the basic circuit for the test of a water-hydraulic pump. This figure does not

incorporate all the safety devices necessary to protect against damage in the event of any component

fracture or fragmentation. Those who are responsible for carrying out the test shall give due

consideration to safeguarding both personnel and equipment.
6.1.2 Installation of the unit under test
The test circuit shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 1.
6.1.3 Test fluid

Working fluid of water hydraulics shall be tap water. Additional additives shall not be added.

6.1.4 Temperature

Tests shall be carried out at a stated test fluid temperature. The test fluid temperature shall be measured

in a tank or at the pump inlet. The position of the temperature measurement shall be determined by the

manufacturer and user of the pump under test. Water temperature shall be controlled by heat exchanger

within the range recommended by the manufacturer. Measurements shall be made at temperature

levels 20 °C to 40 °C.

The test fluid temperature shall be maintained within the limits stated in Table 2. The temperature

tolerance (either A, B, or C) shall be recorded.
Table 2 — Indicated test fluid temperature tolerance
Temperature accuracy class (see Annex A) A B C
Temperature tolerance (°C) ±1,0 ±2,0 ±4,0
6.2 Test circuit
The test circuit shown in Figure 1 shall be used.
The first shut-off valv
...

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