Gasoline engines with direct fuel injection (GDI engines) -- Installation of the injectors to the engine

This document specifies the dimensions required for the installation and integration of the fuel injectors in gasoline (GDI) engines. It also describes the interface of the fuel injector cup within the fuel rail to the individual injector. NOTE When the word "fuel" is used in the terms listed, it can be omitted, provided there is no misunderstanding.

Moteurs à essence à injection directe de carburant (moteurs à injection directe d'essence) -- Installation des injecteurs sur le moteur

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Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Nov-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
20-Oct-2020
Completion Date
20-Oct-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22561
First edition
2020-11
Gasoline engines with direct fuel
injection (GDI engines) — Installation
of the injectors to the engine
Moteurs à essence à injection directe de carburant (moteurs à
injection directe d'essence) — Installation des injecteurs sur le moteur
Reference number
ISO 22561:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Injector dimensions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Rail assembly and injector cup bore dimensions ...................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Cylinder head bore dimensions ................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Injector description ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Injector mounting arrangement .............................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Dimensions and tolerances ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Injector cup ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3 Cylinder head bore .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4 High pressure connector ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Introduction

The motor vehicle industry is increasingly being pressured by the world's regulators to improve fuel

consumption thus reducing exhaust CO emissions. The challenge for automotive engineers is to balance

the trade-offs between the technology to improve fuel consumption and to reduce any other regulated

emissions (such as NO , HC and particulates).

The most promising new engine technology of late is the direct injection spark ignition engine [also

known as the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine]. Listed amongst the advantages of GDI are a

significantly improved fuel economy and corresponding lower CO emissions than on contemporary

gasoline engines.

With this technology comes new fuel system components and updates to their interfaces with the

engine. One component of the GDI fuel system is the injectors, which inject the fuel directly into the

combustion chambers using fuel which is supplied at high pressure from the fuel rail.

This document provides design engineers with standard dimensions for the mounting of the GDI

injectors in the cylinder head and for their connection to the fuel rail.

NOTE Gasoline direct injection systems typically operate at a pressure range of up to about 35 MPa. For

gasoline systems this is considered as high pressure, thus the pump is called high pressure pump. If this pressure

range is regarded in the view of all injection systems, diesel and gasoline, it is considered as medium pressure, as

diesel injection operates at much higher pressures. So, even if the terms differ (high pressure connector in this

document, medium pressure liquid fuel supply connections in ISO 18418-1 and ISO 18418-2), they mean the same

pressure range and are designed for the same purpose.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22561:2020(E)
Gasoline engines with direct fuel injection (GDI engines) —
Installation of the injectors to the engine
1 Scope

This document specifies the dimensions required for the installation and integration of the fuel

injectors in gasoline (GDI) engines. It also describes the interface of the fuel injector cup within the fuel

rail to the individual injector.

NOTE When the word “fuel” is used in the terms listed, it can be omitted, provided there is no

misunderstanding.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2974, Diesel engines — 60° female cones for high-pressure fuel injection components

ISO 18418-1, Gasoline engines — Medium pressure liquid fuel supply connections — Part 1: 60° female cone

connectors
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22561
First edition
Gasoline engines with direct fuel
injection (GDI engines) — Installation
of the injectors to the engine
Moteurs à essence à injection directe de carburant (moteurs à
injection directe d'essence) — Installation des injecteurs sur le moteur
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 22561:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Injector dimensions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Rail assembly and injector cup bore dimensions ...................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Cylinder head bore dimensions ................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Injector description ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Injector mounting arrangement .............................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Dimensions and tolerances ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Injector cup ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.3 Cylinder head bore .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.4 High pressure connector ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www. iso. org/d irectives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www. iso. org/p atents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www. iso. org/

iso/f oreword. html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www. iso. org/m embers. html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22561:2020(E)
Introduction

The motor vehicle industry is increasingly being pressured by the world's regulators to improve fuel

consumption thus reducing exhaust CO emissions. The challenge for automotive engineers is to balance

the trade-offs between the technology to improve fuel consumption and to reduce any other regulated

emissions (such as NO , HC and particulates).

The most promising new engine technology of late is the direct injection spark ignition engine [also

known as the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine]. Listed amongst the advantages of GDI are a

significantly improved fuel economy and corresponding lower CO emissions than on contemporary

gasoline engines.

With this technology comes new fuel system components and updates to their interfaces with the

engine. One component of the GDI fuel system is the injectors, which inject the fuel directly into the

combustion chambers using fuel which is supplied at high pressure from the fuel rail.

This document provides design engineers with standard dimensions for the mounting of the GDI

injectors in the cylinder head and for their connection to the fuel rail.

NOTE Gasoline direct injection systems typically operate at a pressure range of up to about 35 MPa. For

gasoline systems this is considered as high pressure, thus the pump is called high pressure pump. If this pressure

range is regarded in the view of all injection systems, diesel and gasoline, it is considered as medium pressure, as

diesel injection operates at much higher pressures. So, even if the terms differ (high pressure connector in this

document, medium pressure liquid fuel supply connections in ISO 18418-1 and ISO 18418-2), they mean the same

pressure range and are designed for the same purpose.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22561:2020(E)
Gasoline engines with direct fuel injection (GDI engines) —
Installation of the injectors to the engine
1 Scope

This document specifies the dimensions required for the installation and integration of the fuel

injectors in gasoline (GDI) engines. It also describes the interface of the fuel injector cup within the fuel

rail to the individual injector.

NOTE When the word “fuel” is used in the terms listed, it can be omitted, provided there is no

misunderstanding.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2974, Diesel engines — 60° female cones for high-pressure fuel injection components

ISO 18418-1, Gasoline engines — Medium pressure liquid fuel supply connections — Part 1: 60° female cone

connectors
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the foll

...

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