Earth-moving machinery -- Safety

ISO 20474-1:2017 specifies the general safety requirements for earth-moving machinery as defined in ISO 6165, each of these requirements being common to two or more earth-moving machine families. It is also applicable to machine attachments, and to derivative machinery designed primarily for equipment used to excavate, load, transport, drill, spread, compact or trench earth, rock, and other materials. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of ISO 20474, which give the provisions that are specific to particular machine families. Those specific requirements take precedence over the requirements of this document for the machines concerned. For multipurpose machinery, all of those parts of ISO 20474 whose requirements cover the functions and applications of such machines are applicable. EXAMPLE For a compact loader also used as a trencher, the relevant requirements of ISO 20474‑1, ISO 20474‑3 and ISO 20474‑10 are applicable. ISO 20474-1:2017 deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to the earth-moving machinery within its scope (see Annex A) when used as intended or under conditions of misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. It specifies the appropriate technical measures for eliminating or reducing risks arising from relevant hazards, hazardous situations or events during commissioning, operation and maintenance. Specific requirements related to autonomous machines are covered in ISO 17757. ISO 20474-1:2017 is not applicable to machines manufactured before the date of its publication.

Engins de terrassement -- Sécurité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jul-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
07-Apr-2017
Completion Date
07-Jul-2017
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 20474-1:2017 - Earth-moving machinery -- Safety
English language
38 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20474-1
Second edition
2017-07
Earth-moving machinery — Safety —
Part 1:
General requirements
Engins de terrassement — Sécurité —
Partie 1: Sécurité
Reference number
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Safety requirements and protective measures ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Access systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.2 Access to articulated machines ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Operator’s station ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3.2 Operator’s station equipped with a cab ....................................................................................................... 8

4.3.3 Operator-protective structures ........................................................................................................................... 9

4.3.4 Falling-object protective structures (FOPS) ..........................................................................................10

4.3.5 Elevating operator’s station ................................................................................................................................10

4.3.6 Replacement of operator protective structure ...................................................................................10

4.4 Seats ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.4.1 Operator’s seat ................................................................................................................................................................10

4.4.2 Additional seat ................................................................................................................................................................10

4.5 Operator’s controls and indicators .....................................................................................................................................11

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.2 Starting and stopping system ............................................................................................................................11

4.5.3 Inadvertent activation ..............................................................................................................................................11

4.5.4 Pedals ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.5 Emergency attachment lowering ...................................................................................................................11

4.5.6 Uncontrolled motion .................................................................................................................................................12

4.5.7 Remote control ...............................................................................................................................................................12

4.5.8 Visual displays/control panels, indicators and symbols ............................................................12

4.5.9 Ride-on machine controls accessible from ground level............................................................12

4.5.10 Non-riding machine controls .............................................................................................................................12

4.6 Steering systems .................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.6.2 Wheeled machines ......................................................................................................................................................12

4.6.3 Crawler machines.........................................................................................................................................................13

4.7 Brake systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.8 Visibility .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.8.1 Operator’s field of view ...........................................................................................................................................13

4.8.2 Lighting, signalling and marking lights, and reflex-reflector devices ..............................13

4.9 Warning devices and safety signs ........................................................................................................................................13

4.10 Tyres and rims ......................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.11 Stability .......................................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.12 Object handling ....................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.12.1 Lifting devices for object handling ................................................................................................................14

4.12.2 Lowering control device .........................................................................................................................................14

4.13 Noise .............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.13.1 Requirements for noise reduction .................................................................................................................14

4.13.2 Noise emission measurement ...........................................................................................................................14

4.14 Protective measures and devices .........................................................................................................................................15

4.14.1 Contaminated area ......................................................................................................................................................15

4.14.2 Hot parts ..............................................................................................................................................................................15

4.14.3 Moving parts .....................................................................................................................................................................15

4.14.4 Guards ....................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)

4.14.5 Articulated frame lock ........................................................................................................................................... ...15

4.14.6 Sharp edges and acute angles ............................................................................................................................15

4.14.7 Fenders ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

4.15 Retrieval, transportation, lifting and towing ..............................................................................................................16

4.15.1 Common use .....................................................................................................................................................................16

4.15.2 Retrieval ...............................................................................................................................................................................16

4.15.3 Tying-down........................................................................................................................................................................16

4.15.4 Lifting ...................................................................... ................................................................................................................16

4.15.5 Off-road towing ..............................................................................................................................................................16

4.15.6 Transportation ................................................................................................................................................................16

4.16 Electrical and electronic systems .........................................................................................................................................16

4.16.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.16.2 Degree of protection ..................................................................................................................................................17

4.16.3 Electrical connections ..............................................................................................................................................17

4.16.4 Over-current protective devices ......................................................................................................................17

4.16.5 Batteries ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

4.16.6 Battery disconnection ..............................................................................................................................................17

4.16.7 Electrical connectors for auxiliary starting aids................................................................................17

4.16.8 Electric sockets for lighting .................................................................................................................................17

4.17 Pressurized systems ........................................................................................................................................................................18

4.17.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................18

4.17.2 Hydraulic lines ................................................................................................................................................................18

4.17.3 Hydraulic hose assemblies ...................................................................................................................................18

4.17.4 Air pressure vessels ...................................................................................................................................................18

4.18 Fuel tanks, diesel emission fluid tanks and hydraulic oil tanks .................................................................18

4.18.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................18

4.18.2 Filler openings ................................................................................................................................................................18

4.18.3 Fuel tanks ............................................................................................................................................................................19

4.19 Fire protection ......................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.19.1 Fire resistance .................................................................................................................................................................19

4.19.2 Fire extinguisher ...........................................................................................................................................................19

4.20 Attachments ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.20.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

4.20.2 Identification ....................................................................................................................................................................19

4.20.3 Instructions .......................................................................................................................................................................19

4.20.4 Quick couplers ................................................................................................................................................................19

4.20.5 Lifting devices .................................................................................................................................................................19

4.21 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.21.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

4.21.2 Routine maintenance ................................................................................................................................................20

4.21.3 Support devices .............................................................................................................................................................20

4.21.4 Access to the engine compartment ...............................................................................................................20

4.21.5 Tiltable cab support device .................................................................................................................................20

4.22 Underground operation in non-explosive atmosphere.....................................................................................20

4.23 Rear-mounted winch ......................................................................................................................................................................21

4.23.1 Mounting ..............................................................................................................................................................................21

4.23.2 Controls .................................................................................................................................................................................21

4.23.3 Protection ............................................................................................................................................................................21

4.24 Speed limit for non-riding machines ................................................................................................................................21

5 Verification of safety requirements ...............................................................................................................................................21

6 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.1 Safety labels ............................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.2 Operator’s manual.............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.3 Machine marking ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

Annex A (informative) List of significant hazards................................................................................................................................23

Annex B (normative) Requirements for elevating operator’s stations .........................................................................27

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)

Annex C (normative) Requirements for lifting devices used in object handling .................................................29

Annex D (normative) Requirements for earth-moving machinery used underground in

non-explosive atmospheres ...................................................................................................................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery,

Subcommittee SC 2, Safety, ergonomics and general requirements.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 20474-1:2008), which has been technically

revised with the following changes:
— normative references have been updated;

— references to national and regional provisions in the withdrawn ISO/TS 20474-14 have been deleted;

— new safety requirements and protective measures have been added, including the normative

annexes, requirements for elevating operator’s stations, for lifting devices used in object handling

and for earth-moving machinery used underground in non-explosive atmospheres.
It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of ISO 20474.

A list of all parts in the ISO 20474 series, published under the general title, Earth-moving machinery —

Safety, can be found on the ISO website.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or B

standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the

other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this

type-C standard.

ISO 20474 provides acceptable safety requirements for earth-moving machinery. This standard does

not necessarily provide requirements to meet all national and regional regulatory provisions, e.g. Japan

does not allow object handling with earth-moving machinery.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20474-1:2017(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Safety —
Part 1:
General requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies the general safety requirements for earth-moving machinery as defined in

ISO 6165, each of these requirements being common to two or more earth-moving machine families. It is

also applicable to machine attachments, and to derivative machinery designed primarily for equipment

used to excavate, load, transport, drill, spread, compact or trench earth, rock, and other materials.

It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of ISO 20474, which give the provisions

that are specific to particular machine families. Those specific requirements take precedence over the

requirements of this document for the machines concerned. For multipurpose machinery, all of those

parts of ISO 20474 whose requirements cover the functions and applications of such machines are

applicable.

EXAMPLE For a compact loader also used as a trencher, the relevant requirements of ISO 20474-1,

ISO 20474-3 and ISO 20474-10 are applicable.

This document deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to the

earth-moving machinery within its scope (see Annex A) when used as intended or under conditions of

misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. It specifies the appropriate technical measures

for eliminating or reducing risks arising from relevant hazards, hazardous situations or events during

commissioning, operation and maintenance.
Specific requirements related to autonomous machines are covered in ISO 17757.

This document is not applicable to machines manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2860, Earth-moving machinery — Minimum access dimensions
ISO 2867, Earth-moving machinery — Access systems

ISO 3164, Earth-moving machinery — Laboratory evaluations of protective structures — Specifications for

deflection-limiting volume

ISO 3411:2007, Earth-moving machinery — Physical dimensions of operators and minimum operator space

envelope

ISO 3449, Earth-moving machinery — Falling-object protective structures — Laboratory tests and

performance requirements

ISO 3450, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines — Performance

requirements and test procedures for brake systems
ISO 3457:2003, Earth-moving machinery — Guards — Definitions and requirements
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20474-1:2017(E)

ISO 3471:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Roll-over protective structures — Laboratory tests and

performance requirements

ISO 3795, Road vehicles, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry — Determination of

burning behaviour of interior materials

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety

signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-2, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 2: Design principles for product

safety labels
ISO 4250-3, Earth-mover tyres and rims — Part 3: Rims

ISO 4413, Hydraulic fluid power — General rules and safety requirements for systems and their components

ISO 4871, Acoustics — Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and equipment

ISO 5006, Earth-moving machinery — Operator’s field of view — Test method and performance criteria

ISO 5010, Earth-moving machinery — Rubber-tyred machines — Steering requirements
ISO 6011, Earth-moving machinery — Visual display of machine operation
ISO 6014, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of ground speed

ISO 6165, Earth-moving machinery — Basic types — Identification and terms and definitions

ISO 6395, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of sound power level — Dynamic test conditions

ISO 6396, Earth-moving machinery — Determination of emission sound pressure level at operator’s

positio
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.