Space systems -- Space debris mitigation design and operation manual for spacecraft

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital stages for mitigating space debris. This document provides information to engineers on what are required or recommended in the family of space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft is designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Conception de réduction des débris spatiaux et manuel d’utilisation pour les engins spatiaux

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Publication Date
25-Oct-2020
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6000 - International Standard under publication
Start Date
26-Oct-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 18146
Second edition
2020-10
Space systems — Space debris
mitigation design and operation
manual for spacecraft
Systèmes spatiaux — Conception de réduction des débris spatiaux et
manuel d’utilisation pour les engins spatiaux
Reference number
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative reference ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 System-level activities ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects ......................................................................................................................... 3

[1]

5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures ................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Design measures .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.5 Monitoring during operation ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.6 Preventing failure ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Prevention of break-up .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.2 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy ................................................... 6

5.3.3 Break-up caused by a collision with catalogued objects ............................................................... 7

5.3.4 Break-up caused by the impact of debris or meteoroid ..............................................................11

5.4 Disposal after the end of mission to minimize interference with the protected regions ....14

[1]

5.4.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................14

5.4.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................15

5.4.3 Procedure for determination of mission extension or termination .................................17

5.4.4 Disposal plan ....................................................................................................................................................................19

5.4.5 Estimation of the orbital lifetime .................. ..................................................................................................20

5.4.6 Design of the function to remove spacecraft from the protected regions ...................20

5.4.7 Assurance of resources for disposal manoeuvre ..............................................................................21

5.4.8 Reliability of disposal function up to the design life ......................................................................21

5.4.9 Useful life limited items ..........................................................................................................................................22

5.4.10 Health assessment procedure and contingency planning ........................................................22

5.4.11 Design the monitoring system to monitor the critical parameters ...................................23

5.4.12 Assessment of the risk of debris impact ...................................................................................................24

5.4.13 Operational remediations .....................................................................................................................................24

5.4.14 Decision-making to extend or terminate the mission ..................................................................25

5.4.15 Disposal ................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.4.16 Registration of objects launched into outer space complying with the UN

treaty .......................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.4.17 Specific subjects for GEO mission ..................................................................................................................26

5.4.18 Specific subjects for LEO mission ...................................................................................................................26

5.4.19 High elliptical orbit mission ................................................................................................................................26

5.5 Ground safety from re-entering objects .........................................................................................................................26

[1]

5.5.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................26

5.5.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................26

5.5.3 Identification of requirements ..........................................................................................................................27

5.5.4 Hazards analysis ............................................................................................................................................................27

5.5.5 Design measures ...........................................................................................................................................................28

5.5.6 Specific design for controlled re-entry in subsystem level ......................................................29

5.5.7 Notification ........................................................................................................................................................................29

5.5.8 Conduct controlled re-entry and monitoring .......................................................................................29

5.6 Quality and reliability assurance ..........................................................................................................................................29

6 Debris-related work in the development cycle ..................................................................................................................30

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.2 Concept of debris-related work in phased planning ...........................................................................................30

6.3 Mission analysis phase (phase 0 or pre-phase A) ..................................................................................................34

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

6.3.2 Debris-related work ...................................................................................................................................................34

6.4 Feasibility phase (phase A) .......................................................................................................................................................35

6.5 Definition phase (phase B) ........................................................................................................................................................35

6.5.1 Work in phase B .............................................................................................................................................................35

6.5.2 Work procedure .............................................................................................................................................................35

6.6 Development phase (phase C) ................................................................................................................................................36

6.6.1 Work in phase C .............................................................................................................................................................36

6.6.2 Conditions ...........................................................................................................................................................................37

6.7 Production phase (phase D) .....................................................................................................................................................38

6.7.1 Work in phase D ............................................................................................................................................................38

6.7.2 Qualification review ...................................................................................................................................................38

6.8 Utilization phase (phase E) .......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.1 Launch preparation ....................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.2 Lift-off time ........................................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.3 Initial operation .............................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.4 Normal operation .........................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.5 Decision to terminate or extension of operations ............................................................................40

6.9 Disposal phase (phase F) ............................................................................................................................................................40

7 System-level information..........................................................................................................................................................................41

7.1 Mission design ......................................................................................................................................................................................41

7.2 Mass allocation ....................................................................................................................................................................................41

7.3 Propellant allocation .......................................................................................................................................................................42

7.4 Power allocation .................................................................................................................................................................................42

8 Subsystem/component design and operation ....................................................................................................................42

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.2 Debris-mitigation measures and subsystem-level actions for realizing them ..............................42

8.3 Propulsion subsystem ....................................................................................................................................................................44

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.3.2 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................44

8.3.3 Information of propulsion subsystems .....................................................................................................44

8.3.4 Information in component design .................................................................................................................46

8.4 Attitude and orbit control subsystem ..............................................................................................................................48

8.4.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................48

8.4.2 Information of AOCS ..................................................................................................................................................48

8.4.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................49

8.5 Power-supply subsystem ............................................................................................................................................................49

8.5.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................49

8.5.2 Information of power-supply subsystems ..............................................................................................50

8.5.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................51

8.6 TT&C subsystem .................................................................................................................................................................................52

8.6.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................52

8.6.2 Information of TT&C subsystems ...................................................................................................................52

8.6.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................53

8.7 Structural subsystem ......................................................................................................................................................................53

8.7.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................53

8.7.2 Information of structural subsystems ........................................................................................................53

8.8 Thermal-control subsystem .....................................................................................................................................................54

8.8.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................54

8.8.2 Information of thermal-control subsystem ...........................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/TR 18146:2015), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
[1]
— text has been updated to be aligned with ISO 24113:2019 ;

— information has been added that the ejection of slag debris from solid rocket motors is limited newly

in low Earth orbit in addition to GEO previously;

— information relating to collision avoidance against catalogued space objects has been improved;

— information of the intention of the new requirement avoiding fragmentation caused by impact of space

debris and meteoroid, and typical assessment procedure in the world space agencies has been added;

— corresponding to the new requirement limiting the total probability of successful disposal to be at

least 0,9, the state of the art to confirm the compliance with that taken in the world space industries

and national agencies has been added;
— other information relating to the changes in ISO 24113 has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Introduction

Coping with debris is essential to preventing the deterioration of the orbital environment and ensuring

the sustainability of space activities. Effective actions are also taken to ensure the safety of those on

the ground from re-entering objects that were disposed of from low-Earth orbit.

Recently, the orbital environment has become so deteriorated by debris that action is taken to prevent

damage due to the impact. Collision avoidance manoeuvres are taken to avoid large debris (larger than

10 cm, for example), which can be observed from the ground. Spacecraft design protects against micro-

debris (even smaller than 1 mm) that can cause critical damage to vulnerable components.

[1]

ISO 24113:2019 and other ISO documents, introduced in Bibliography, were developed to encourage

debris mitigation activities.
In Clause 5, the major space debris mitigation requirements are informed.

In Clause 6, the information of life-cycle implementation of space debris mitigation related activities is

provided.

In Clause 7, the system level aspects stemming from the space debris mitigation requirements are

highlighted; while in Clause 8, the impacts at subsystem and component levels are detailed.

This document provides comprehensive information on what ISO requires to do for the design and

operation of the launch vehicles, and where such requirements and recommendations are registered in

a set of ISO documents.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Space systems — Space debris mitigation design and
operation manual for spacecraft
1 Scope

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital

stages for mitigating space debris.

This document provides information to engineers on what are required or recommended in the family

of space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft is

designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout

their orbital lifetime.
2 Normative reference
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
A/M area-to-mass
AOCS attitude and orbit control system
CDR critical design review
CFRP carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic
CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
CSpOC Combined Space Operations Center (USA)
DAS debris assessment software (NASA)
COTS commercial off-the-shelf
DRAMA debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (ESA)
EOMDP end-of-mission (operation) disposal plan
ESA European Space Agency
FDIR failure detection, isolation and recovery
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
FMEA failure mode and effect analysis
GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit
GPSR global positioning system receiver
IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee
IRU inertial reference unit
LEO low Earth orbit
MASTER meteoroid and space debris terrestrial environment reference
MIDAS MASTER (-based) impact flux and damage assessment software
NOTAM notice to airmen and notice to mariners
OLI operation time limited item
ORDEM orbital debris engineering model
PDR preliminary design review
PNF probability of no failures
QA quality assurance
QR qualification review
RCS reaction control system
SDA Space Data Association
SDR system definition review
SDMP space-debris-mitigation plan
STELA semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (CNES)
USSTRATCOM United States strategic command
TLE two-line element set
TT&C telemetry tracking and command
UN United Nations
5 System-level activities
5.1 General

To accomplish comprehensive activities for debris mitigation and protection work, the following steps

are considered:
a) Identify debris-related requirements, recommendations and best practices.

b) Determine how to comply with these requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

c) Apply those methods early and throughout development and manufacturing to ensure sound debris

mitigation capability in the final product.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)

d) Apply appropriate quality assurance and qualification program to ensure compliance with debris

mitigation requirements

e) Apply appropriate procedures during operation/utilisation and disposal to implement proper

space debris mitigation and protection.

This subclause provides information useful for taking comprehensive action at the system level.

More detailed information for action of subsystem and component levels is provided in Clause 6. The

following specific subjects are emphasized:
— limiting the release of objects in protected orbital regions;

— preventing fragmentation in orbit (including intentional break-ups, and accidental break-ups caused

by collision with trackable objects, impact of tiny debris, and stored energy);
— proper disposal at the end of operation;
— minimization of hazard on the ground from re-entering debris;
— quality, safety and reliability assurance.
5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects
[1]
5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019
[1]

ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1 requires avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during

normal operations, including general objects such as fasteners, fragments from pyrotechnics, slag from

solid rocket motors, etc.

The following objects are of concern from an orbital debris mitigation standpoint:

[1]

a) objects released as directed by mission requirements (not directory indicated in ISO 24113:2019 ,

6.1.1.1, though);
[1]

b) mission-related objects, such as fasteners, apogee motor cases, etc. (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.1.1);

[1]

c) fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.2.1);

[1]
d) slag ejected from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.2.2).
[1]

It implies that if objects are unavoidably released despite requirements in ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.1.1,

the orbital lifetime of such objects in LEO and interference with GEO is limited as described in

[1]
ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.1.3.
5.2.2 Work breakdown

Table 1 shows the work breakdown for the actions required to prevent the releasing of debris.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Table 1 — Work breakdown for preventing the release of objects
Process Subjects Major work

Preventive Identification a) In the mission, which releases objects required by mission

measures of released objectives, the effect on the orbital environment and the expected

objects and benefit for the mission will be assessed.”
design
b) Take preventive design to avoid releasing objects turning into space
measures
[1]
debris (ISO 2
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 18146
Second edition
Space systems — Space debris
mitigation design and operation
manual for spacecraft
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative reference ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 System-level activities ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects ......................................................................................................................... 3

[1]

5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Work breakdown ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.3 Identification of released objects and design measures ................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Design measures .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.5 Monitoring during operation ................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.6 Preventing failure ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Prevention of break-up .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.2 Break-up caused by intentional behaviour, or stored energy ................................................... 6

5.3.3 Break-up caused by a collision with catalogued objects ............................................................... 7

5.3.4 Break-up caused by the impact of debris or meteoroid ..............................................................11

5.4 Disposal after the end of mission to minimize interference with the protected regions ....14

[1]

5.4.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................14

5.4.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................15

5.4.3 Procedure for determination of mission extension or termination .................................17

5.4.4 Disposal plan ....................................................................................................................................................................19

5.4.5 Estimation of the orbital lifetime .................. ..................................................................................................20

5.4.6 Design of the function to remove spacecraft from the protected regions ...................20

5.4.7 Assurance of resources for disposal manoeuvre ..............................................................................21

5.4.8 Reliability of disposal function up to the design life ......................................................................21

5.4.9 Useful life limited items ..........................................................................................................................................22

5.4.10 Health assessment procedure and contingency planning ........................................................22

5.4.11 Design the monitoring system to monitor the critical parameters ...................................23

5.4.12 Assessment of the risk of debris impact ...................................................................................................24

5.4.13 Operational remediations .....................................................................................................................................24

5.4.14 Decision-making to extend or terminate the mission ..................................................................25

5.4.15 Disposal ................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.4.16 Registration of objects launched into outer space complying with the UN

treaty .......................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.4.17 Specific subjects for GEO mission ..................................................................................................................26

5.4.18 Specific subjects for LEO mission ...................................................................................................................26

5.4.19 High elliptical orbit mission ................................................................................................................................26

5.5 Ground safety from re-entering objects .........................................................................................................................26

[1]

5.5.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ..................................................................................26

5.5.2 Work breakdown ..........................................................................................................................................................26

5.5.3 Identification of requirements ..........................................................................................................................27

5.5.4 Hazards analysis ............................................................................................................................................................27

5.5.5 Design measures ...........................................................................................................................................................28

5.5.6 Specific design for controlled re-entry in subsystem level ......................................................29

5.5.7 Notification ........................................................................................................................................................................29

5.5.8 Conduct controlled re-entry and monitoring .......................................................................................29

5.6 Quality and reliability assurance ..........................................................................................................................................29

6 Debris-related work in the development cycle ..................................................................................................................30

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.2 Concept of debris-related work in phased planning ...........................................................................................30

6.3 Mission analysis phase (phase 0 or pre-phase A) ..................................................................................................34

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

6.3.2 Debris-related work ...................................................................................................................................................34

6.4 Feasibility phase (phase A) .......................................................................................................................................................35

6.5 Definition phase (phase B) ........................................................................................................................................................35

6.5.1 Work in phase B .............................................................................................................................................................35

6.5.2 Work procedure .............................................................................................................................................................35

6.6 Development phase (phase C) ................................................................................................................................................36

6.6.1 Work in phase C .............................................................................................................................................................36

6.6.2 Conditions ...........................................................................................................................................................................37

6.7 Production phase (phase D) .....................................................................................................................................................38

6.7.1 Work in phase D ............................................................................................................................................................38

6.7.2 Qualification review ...................................................................................................................................................38

6.8 Utilization phase (phase E) .......................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.1 Launch preparation ....................................................................................................................................................38

6.8.2 Lift-off time ........................................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.3 Initial operation .............................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.4 Normal operation .........................................................................................................................................................39

6.8.5 Decision to terminate or extension of operations ............................................................................40

6.9 Disposal phase (phase F) ............................................................................................................................................................40

7 System-level information..........................................................................................................................................................................41

7.1 Mission design ......................................................................................................................................................................................41

7.2 Mass allocation ....................................................................................................................................................................................41

7.3 Propellant allocation .......................................................................................................................................................................42

7.4 Power allocation .................................................................................................................................................................................42

8 Subsystem/component design and operation ....................................................................................................................42

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................42

8.2 Debris-mitigation measures and subsystem-level actions for realizing them ..............................42

8.3 Propulsion subsystem ....................................................................................................................................................................44

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

8.3.2 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................44

8.3.3 Information of propulsion subsystems .....................................................................................................44

8.3.4 Information in component design .................................................................................................................46

8.4 Attitude and orbit control subsystem ..............................................................................................................................48

8.4.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................48

8.4.2 Information of AOCS ..................................................................................................................................................48

8.4.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................49

8.5 Power-supply subsystem ............................................................................................................................................................49

8.5.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................49

8.5.2 Information of power-supply subsystems ..............................................................................................50

8.5.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................51

8.6 TT&C subsystem .................................................................................................................................................................................52

8.6.1 Debris-related designs .............................................................................................................................................52

8.6.2 Information of TT&C subsystems ...................................................................................................................52

8.6.3 Information of component design .................................................................................................................53

8.7 Structural subsystem ......................................................................................................................................................................53

8.7.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................53

8.7.2 Information of structural subsystems ........................................................................................................53

8.8 Thermal-control subsystem .....................................................................................................................................................54

8.8.1 Debris-related design ...............................................................................................................................................54

8.8.2 Information of thermal-control subsystem ...........................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/TR 18146:2015), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
[1]
— text has been updated to be aligned with ISO 24113:2019 ;

— information has been added that the ejection of slag debris from solid rocket motors is limited newly

in low Earth orbit in addition to GEO previously;

— information relating to collision avoidance against catalogued space objects has been improved;

— information of the intention of the new requirement avoiding fragmentation caused by impact of space

debris and meteoroid, and typical assessment procedure in the world space agencies has been added;

— corresponding to the new requirement limiting the total probability of successful disposal to be at

least 0,9, the state of the art to confirm the compliance with that taken in the world space industries

and national agencies has been added;
— other information relating to the changes in ISO 24113 has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Introduction

Coping with debris is essential to preventing the deterioration of the orbital environment and ensuring

the sustainability of space activities. Effective actions are also taken to ensure the safety of those on

the ground from re-entering objects that were disposed of from low-Earth orbit.

Recently, the orbital environment has become so deteriorated by debris that action is taken to prevent

damage due to the impact. Collision avoidance manoeuvres are taken to avoid large debris (larger than

10 cm, for example), which can be observed from the ground. Spacecraft design protects against micro-

debris (even smaller than 1 mm) that can cause critical damage to vulnerable components.

[1]

ISO 24113:2019 and other ISO documents, introduced in Bibliography, were developed to encourage

debris mitigation activities.
In Clause 5, the major space debris mitigation requirements are informed.

In Clause 6, the information of life-cycle implementation of space debris mitigation related activities is

provided.

In Clause 7, the system level aspects stemming from the space debris mitigation requirements are

highlighted; while in Clause 8, the impacts at subsystem and component levels are detailed.

This document provides comprehensive information on what ISO requires to do for the design and

operation of the launch vehicles, and where such requirements and recommendations are registered in

a set of ISO documents.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Space systems — Space debris mitigation design and
operation manual for spacecraft
1 Scope

This document contains information on the design and operational practices for launch vehicle orbital

stages for mitigating space debris.

This document provides information to engineers on what are required or recommended in the family

of space debris mitigation standards to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft is

designed, operated, and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout

their orbital lifetime.
2 Normative reference
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
A/M area-to-mass
AOCS attitude and orbit control system
CDR critical design review
CFRP carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic
CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
CSpOC Combined Space Operations Center (USA)
DAS debris assessment software (NASA)
COTS commercial off-the-shelf
DRAMA debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (ESA)
EOMDP end-of-mission (operation) disposal plan
ESA European Space Agency
FDIR failure detection, isolation and recovery
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ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
FMEA failure mode and effect analysis
GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit
GPSR global positioning system receiver
IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee
IRU inertial reference unit
LEO low Earth orbit
MASTER meteoroid and space debris terrestrial environment reference
MIDAS MASTER (-based) impact flux and damage assessment software
NOTAM notice to airmen and notice to mariners
OLI operation time limited item
ORDEM orbital debris engineering model
PDR preliminary design review
PNF probability of no failures
QA quality assurance
QR qualification review
RCS reaction control system
SDA Space Data Association
SDR system definition review
SDMP space-debris-mitigation plan
STELA semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (CNES)
USSTRATCOM United States strategic command
TLE two-line element set
TT&C telemetry tracking and command
UN United Nations
5 System-level activities
5.1 General

To accomplish comprehensive activities for debris mitigation and protection work, the following steps

are considered:
a) Identify debris-related requirements, recommendations and best practices.

b) Determine how to comply with these requirements, recommendations, and best practices.

c) Apply those methods early and throughout development and manufacturing to ensure sound debris

mitigation capability in the final product.
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ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)

d) Apply appropriate quality assurance and qualification program to ensure compliance with debris

mitigation requirements

e) Apply appropriate procedures during operation/utilisation and disposal to implement proper

space debris mitigation and protection.

This subclause provides information useful for taking comprehensive action at the system level.

More detailed information for action of subsystem and component levels is provided in Clause 6. The

following specific subjects are emphasized:
— limiting the release of objects in protected orbital regions;

— preventing fragmentation in orbit (including intentional break-ups, and accidental break-ups caused

by collision with trackable objects, impact of tiny debris, and stored energy);
— proper disposal at the end of operation;
— minimization of hazard on the ground from re-entering debris;
— quality, safety and reliability assurance.
5.2 Design for limiting the release of objects
[1]
5.2.1 Intents of requirements in ISO 24113:2019
[1]

ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1 requires avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during

normal operations, including general objects such as fasteners, fragments from pyrotechnics, slag from

solid rocket motors, etc.

The following objects are of concern from an orbital debris mitigation standpoint:

[1]

a) objects released as directed by mission requirements (not directory indicated in ISO 24113:2019 ,

6.1.1.1, though);
[1]

b) mission-related objects, such as fasteners, apogee motor cases, etc. (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.1.1);

[1]

c) fragments and combustion products from pyrotechnic devices (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.2.1);

[1]
d) slag ejected from solid motors (ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.2.2).
[1]

It insinuates that if objects are unavoidably released despite requirements in ISO 24113:2019 ,

6.1.1.1, the orbital lifetime of such objects in LEO and interference with GEO is limited as described in

[1]
ISO 24113:2019 , 6.1.1.3.
5.2.2 Work breakdown

Table 1 shows the work breakdown for the actions required to prevent the releasing of debris.

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ISO/TR 18146:2020(E)
Table 1 — Work breakdown for preventing the release of objects
Process Subjects Major work

Preventive Identification a) In the mission, which releases objects required by mission

measures of released objectives, the effect on the orbital environment and the expected

objects and benefit for the mission will be assessed.”
design
b) Take preventive design to avoid releasing objects turning into space
measures
[1]
debris (ISO 24
...

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