Road Vehicles -- Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology

ISO 20077-1:2017 defines the concepts and the terms related to extended vehicles. ISO 20077-1:2017 presents general information regarding these vehicles, specifies the dedicated terminology and describes the interrelation with other standards related to extended vehicles. ISO 20077-1:2017 concerns: - road vehicles with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of persons that are defined as Category 1 vehicles in the United Nations Special Resolution No.1 in TRANS/WP.29/1045, as last amended on 19 June 2012; - road vehicles with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of goods that are defined as Category 2 vehicles in the United Nations Special Resolution No.1 in TRANS/WP.29/1045, as last amended on 19 June 2012, where these road vehicles are still in accordance with the specifications of the vehicle manufacturer. While this document mentions already standardized interfaces and devices (e.g. external test equipment) connected to these interfaces, the specification of these interfaces and devices is not within the scope of this document.

Véhicules routiers -- Méthodologie du véhicule étendu (ExVe)

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Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
14-Sep-2017
Completion Date
01-Dec-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20077-1
First edition
2017-12
Road Vehicles — Extended vehicle
(ExVe) methodology —
Part 1:
General information
Véhicules routiers — Méthodologie du véhicule étendu (ExVe) —
Partie 1: Information générale
Reference number
ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
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© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 The extended vehicle ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 The “extended vehicle” concept ............................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 The design constraints applicable to an extended vehicle .............................................................................10

5.4 The areas where the extended vehicles are expected to be used .............................................................10

6 ISO standards dealing with the extended vehicles.........................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Generic ExVe standards: The ISO 20077 series .......................................................................................................12

6.2.1 Content of the ISO 20077 series ......................................................................................................................12

6.2.2 ISO 20077-2: The ISO methodology standard for designing an

extended vehicle .................. ......................................................................................................................... .................12

6.3 Standards related to ExVe interfaces ................................................................................................................................14

6.3.1 Content of the standards related to ExVe interfaces ......................................................................14

6.3.2 Standards defining an ExVe interface in the case of web services .....................................14

6.4 Standards related to ExVe use case clusters ...............................................................................................................15

6.4.1 Content of the standards related to ExVe use case clusters .....................................................15

6.4.2 Example of the ISO 20080 project on remote diagnostics ........................................................15

6.5 Practical usage of the extended vehicles standards .............................................................................................15

6.5.1 Example of designing an extended vehicle for remote diagnostics purposes .........15

6.5.2 Generalization .................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Diagnostic and prognostic processes — Practical cases: The

malfunction of an air conditioning system.............................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Practical usage of the extended vehicles standards (Generalization) ..............21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22 Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31,

Data communication.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20077 series can be found on the ISO website.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Introduction

This document is the first part of a series of ISO Standards dedicated to the extended vehicle.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Road Vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology —
Part 1:
General information
1 Scope
This document defines the concepts and the terms related to extended vehicles.

It presents general information regarding these vehicles, specifies the dedicated terminology and

describes the interrelation with other standards related to extended vehicles.
It concerns:

— road vehicles with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of

persons that are defined as Category 1 vehicles in the United Nations Special Resolution No.1 in

TRANS/WP.29/1045, as last amended on 19 June 2012;

— road vehicles with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of

goods that are defined as Category 2 vehicles in the United Nations Special Resolution No.1 in

TRANS/WP.29/1045, as last amended on 19 June 2012,

where these road vehicles are still in accordance with the specifications of the vehicle manufacturer.

While this document mentions already standardized interfaces and devices (e.g. external test

equipment) connected to these interfaces, the specification of these interfaces and devices is not within

the scope of this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20077-2:— , Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology – Part 2: Methodology for designing

the extended vehicle
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

NOTE Illustration through a practical case of the interrelation between the diagnostics and prognostics

concepts defined respectively in 3.2 to 3.4 and 3.13 may be found in Annex A.
3.1
diagnosis
result of a diagnostic process (3.2) carried out on a vehicle
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 20077-2:2017
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
3.2
diagnostics
diagnostic process

process including the detection process of possible vehicle malfunctions (3.10), the identification of the

likely root cause of these malfunctions and the appraisal of its relevance for the operation of the vehicle

3.3
diagnostics step 1
detection process of possible vehicle malfunctions (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: The detection process of possible vehicle malfunctions (diagnostics step 1) may lead to the

conclusion of an absence of malfunction.
3.4
diagnostics step 2
identification of the likely root cause of malfunctions (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Root cause analysis (diagnostics step 2) is only performed in presence of a malfunction. Root

cause analysis is performed if diagnostics step 1 has been performed.
3.5
extended vehicle

entity, still in accordance with the specifications of the vehicle manufacturer (3.20), that extends beyond

the physical boundaries of the road vehicle and consists of the road vehicle, off-board systems (3.11),

external interfaces and the data communication between the road vehicle and the off-board systems

Note 1 to entry: Road vehicles without off-board systems and road vehicles equipped with telematics units are

extended vehicles.
3.6
ExVe manufacturer
vehicle manufacturer (3.20) responsible for the extended vehicle (3.5)
3.7
function

task, action or activity that should be achieved to satisfy a functional requirement

EXAMPLE “KEY ON-ENGINE OFF”.

Note 1 to entry: The same function may be used in several different use cases (3.17).

3.8
functionality

set of functions (3.7) that ensures the overall capability of the system to satisfy a functional

requirement (3.9)

EXAMPLE The set of functions necessary for “establishing the communication with an extended vehicle (3.5)”.

Note 1 to entry: In the set of functions necessary for “establishing the communication with an extended vehicle”,

one can find such functions as “KEY ON-ENGINE OFF”, etc.

Note 2 to entry: The same functionality may be used in several different use cases (3.17).

3.9
functional requirement

statement issued by the vehicle manufacturer (3.20) that identifies what a product

or process must accomplish to produce required behaviour and/or results

Note 1 to entry: The functional requirement is issued by the body in charge of the design of the product or

process.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010, 3.1229, definition 1, modified — source entry has been modified

to introduce that, in the case of extended vehicles, the statement is issued by the vehicle manufacturer

and Note 1 has been added to source entry.]
3.10
malfunction

state of a system or a component that deviates from the specifications of the vehicle manufacturer (3.20)

Note 1 to entry: A malfunction may be the object of an alert on board the vehicle and possibly lead to a DTC, but a

malfunction does not necessarily preclude a DTC.

Note 2 to entry: A slight deterioration of a system, such as the normal wear of that system, is not a malfunction

as long as it does not impair the performance of that system against the design specifications of the vehicle

manufacturer.
3.11
off-board system

software and hardware components off-board a road vehicle that have been specified,

designed, developed and/or manufactured to address the requested functionalities (3.8)

3.12
prognosis
prediction which is the result of a prognostic process (3.13)
3.13
prognostics
prognostic process

process of forecasting the possible occurrence of vehicle malfunctions (3.10) and

appraising the likely remaining operation time of the vehicle until these malfunctions occur

Note 1 to entry: A prognostic process cannot be performed without having performed the detection process of

possible malfunctions of the same functionally related system [diagnostics step 1 (3.3)].

Note 2 to entry: A diagnostic process (3.2) may be performed without performing a prognostic process (for

example, in the case of the presence of a malfunction, when diagnostics step 2 (3.4) is performed).

3.14
remote, adjective

performed on a vehicle from a distance where the operator responsible for the concerned operation is

not co-located with the vehicle and where the vehicle is connected via an external network

EXAMPLE Remote diagnostics, remote access.

Note 1 to entry: The “operator responsible for the concerned operation” is a specific actor in terms of use case (3.17).

3.15
remote diagnostician
remote diagnostics operator
physical person that performs a remote diagnostic process
3.16
remote diagnostic support

information provided to a remote diagnostician (3.15) to assist in the performance of the remote

diagnostic process of a vehicle
Note 1 to entry: Typical examples of remote diagnostics support are:

— information for performing a remote diagnostic process on a vehicle (for example, instructions, training

material, etc.),
— information specified for remote diagnostics use cases (3.17), and
— information used by the after-sales remote diagnostics tool equipment systems.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)

Note 2 to entry: Diagnostic support that is provided for performing conventional diagnostics is the foundation for

remote diagnostic support (the access to that information in the case of conventional diagnostics is standardized

in ISO 18541-1).
3.17
use case

sequence of interactions between one or several actors and the concerned system, which has a defined

goal and provides a measurable result
EXAMPLE Read all active DTCs

Note 1 to entry: “Read all active DTCs” may be comprised of the following interactions: initialization of the

communication, identification of the vehicle, sending the request to get DTC information (“read DTC”), receiving

DTC information, terminating of the communication.
Note 2 to entry: Actors may be both human and machines.

Note 3 to entry: In the case of an extended vehicle (3.5), the concerned system is the extended vehicle itself.

Note 4 to entry: In order to be able to perform the design of an extended vehicle, it is necessary that the use cases

are completed by the appropriate use case scenarios and use case functional requirements.

3.18
use case cluster

grouping of use cases (3.17) that together have the same goal measurable result

EXAMPLE Remote diagnostics, fleet management.

Note 1 to entry: Use case clusters may be themselves regrouped into areas, the typology of which may generate

different types of technical solutions, although some solutions may be common to several areas.

Note 2 to entry: Extended vehicles have been developed to be used in all the use case clusters areas where vehicle

connectivity is expected, for example, cooperative ITS, fleet management, remote diagnostic, car sharing, etc.

3.19
use case scenario

set of circumstances under which the sequence of interaction describing a use case (3.17) takes place

EXAMPLE Vehicle is in a workshop, vehicle is in a manufacturing process, vehicle is immobilized, etc.

Note 1 to entry: The same use case may take place under different scenarios, but the sequence of interaction may

also be affected by the circumstances. In that case, one would have more than one use case.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of an operation performed on an immobilized vehicle, the presence or absence of a

technician may be part of the use case scenario.
3.20
vehicle manufacturer

person or body who is responsible to the approval authority for all aspects of the type approval or

authorization process and for ensuring conformity of production of a vehicle

Note 1 to entry: It is not essential that the person or body be directly involved in all stages of the construction of

the vehicle, system, component or separate technical unit which is the subject of the approval process.

Note 2 to entry: Adapted from Directive 2007/46/EC.
[SOURCE: ISO 18541-1:2014, 3.1.46]
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
3.21
web service

software system, with an interface described in a machine-processable format and designed to support

interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network

[SOURCE: WORLD WIDE WEB Consortium Glossary - W3C Working Group Note 11 - February 2004,

modified — source entry has been modified not to restrict the concept to one protocol or one type of

messages and to partly include Note 1 to source entry and Note 2 to source entry has been disregarded.]

4 Abbreviated terms
DTC Diagnostic trouble code
ExVe Extended Vehicle
FMS Fleet Management System
IT Information Technology
ITS Intelligent Transport Systems
OBD On-board Diagnostics
PTI Periodical Technical Inspection
RDS Remote Diagnostic Support
rFMS remote Fleet Management System
RMI Repair and Maintenance Information
RSI Road Side Inspection
VCI Vehicle Communication Interface
VM Vehicle Manufacturer
V2I Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
V2V Vehicle-to-Vehicle
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
WS Web Service
5 The extended vehicle
5.1 Background

The technology improvements, especially IT improvements, have permitted vehicle manufacturers

to address the constant evolution of the needs of its customers by providing solutions that are not

solely on-board the conventional vehicle (whether car, truck or bus) but that also involve off-board

components and systems.

Typically, these improvements have been based on new ways of communicating with the vehicle where

information can be accessed wirelessly.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)

The removal of the constraints linked with a physical connection has enabled the possibility of new

services based on:

— an access to vehicle functionalities in a way that was previously impossible or very hard;

— multiple access to the vehicle instead of e.g. a single OBD connector; and
— a time-critical access to vehicle operation data.

This evolution adds the additional risks related to remote access (hacking, intrusion, information

misuse, etc.) to the already existing typical automotive risks. Accordingly, it is the responsibility of

the vehicle manufacturer to take additional specific security measures when designing an extended

vehicle.

Figure 1 and Figure 2 illustrate this evolution by presenting typical examples of the 2010s extended

vehicles, respectively, the use of an “intelligent” key and the use of a VM server for reprogramming a

vehicle ECU.
EXAMPLE 1
The use of an “intelligent key”.

In Figure 1, the VM has provided the owner of a vehicle an off-board device that is an intelligent key.

This key communicates with the conventional vehicle and enables the opening of the doors and the

“activate in-vehicle network” process. For the owner as well as for the manufacturer, this device is

part of the vehicle.
EXAMPLE 2
The use of a VM server for reprogramming a vehicle ECU.

In Figure 2, the VM has developed, e.g. in order to comply with the EU legislation on RMI, a

reprogramming system that permits reprogramming a vehicle ECU through the OBD connector

of the vehicle using a standardized VCI (for example, according to SAE J2534 or ISO 22900). To

reprogram, the repairer has first to connect the VCI to a manufacturer end-point, where he will get

the information that is necessary to perform the operation. For the owner of the vehicle, the VCI is

not part of his vehicle.

The extended vehicle concept is expected to satisfy emerging new services, for example, remote

services.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)

Figure 1 — Legacy and non-standardized extended vehicle: Conventional vehicle with an

intelligent key
NOTE The reprogramming device is outside the ExVe.
Figure 2 — Extended vehicle example to comply with the EU legislation on RMI
5.2 The “extended vehicle” concept

An extended vehicle refers to all the technical components which enable a vehicle function, including

the on-board and off-board data and systems required to perform this function.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)

Thereby, the extended vehicle also includes all the interfaces permitting to access its data from the

outside. This is illustrated by Figure 3 and Figure 4, as a global concept in Figure 3 and with interface

examples in Figure 4. In these figures, the colours used for the interfaces shall be understood as follows.

— The red colour represents the interfaces used for retrieving OBD-related information by means of a

wired connection (this interface is here symbolized by the ISO OBD-connector).

— The blue colour represents the interfaces in case of web services (this interface is here symbolized

by a server that is part of the extended vehicle, as in the ISO 20078 project).

— The yellow colour represents the interface necessary for wireless time critical communication (for

example, for V2V communication in cooperative ITS use-cases).

— The grey colour segment represents all interfaces (in Figure 3) or all other interfaces (in Figure 4)

to the extended vehicle, interfaces that may or may not be standardized.
Figure 3 — Extended vehicle and its interfaces
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Figure 4 — Typical interfaces of an extended vehicle

It shall be noted that, because the road vehicle is per definition part of the extended vehicle, some

interfaces of the extended vehicle may also be physical interfaces to the road vehicle (see Figure 4).

Web services are part of the typical interfaces of an extended vehicle, as shown in Figure 4. This

corresponds to the software system designed by the manufacturer in order to support an interoperable

machine-to-machine interaction between one of the servers that are part of the extended vehicle and

other servers that are managed by service providers, who are external to the extended vehicle and

through which a third party may communicate (as shown in the example of Figure 5).

This permits, for example, a diagnostic operator to diagnose the vehicle, in a remote manner, thanks to

the services of a service operator adhering to the server-to-server interaction principles retained by the

vehicle manufacturer for the relevant use case (for example, the principles of the ISO 20078 project) .

Figure 5 — Description of the web service interface of an extended vehicle according to the

ISO 20078 project
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
5.3 The design constraints applicable to an extended vehicle

The design of an extended vehicle shall take into consideration the following fundamental constraints:

— Remote access shall not jeopardize the basic safety of persons or goods (inside or outside the vehicle)

and the security of the vehicle (including cybersecurity) during all its life phases.

5.4 The areas where the extended vehicles are expected to be used

The extended vehicle is not a particular technical solution to solve a particular need (for example, to

address remote diagnostics expectations). It is a technology where the conventional road vehicle has

been extended to include off-board systems. It shall be used in all the areas where vehicle connectivity

is applied.

Although not exhaustive, the following six major areas have been considered because they may generate

different types of technical solutions (see Figure 6).

— The vehicle repair and maintenance area. A typical use case cluster of this area is remote diagnostics.

A characteristic of this area is that national or regional regulations are very much influencing the

design of the extended vehicles.

— The vehicle inspection area. A typical use case cluster of this area is remote road-side inspection

(RSI). A characteristic of this area is that the main actors of the inspection report to local authorities.

— The road-traffic management area. Typical use case clusters of this area are vehicle-to-vehicle and

vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. A characteristic of this area is the need for an extremely

high communication speed.

— The transport management area. A typical use case cluster of this area is remote fleet management.

A characteristic of this area is that the vehicle is considered as an entity among others for logistic

purposes.

— The manufacturing and sales area. A typical use case cluster of this area would be remote diagnostics

of vehicles during the manufacturing process. A characteristic of this area is that the owner of the

vehicle is still the vehicle manufacturer.

— The non-automotive areas. Typical use-case clusters of this area are infotainment and vehicle

insurance remote drivers and driving survey programs. A characteristic of this area is the very

high variety of use cases that typically originate from outside the automotive industry.

With such a variety of needs, a good description of the use case clusters is essential for the development

of an appropriate technical solution which is based on the extended vehicle.
This use case description is typically realized:
— through a particular legislation;
— through a particular standard (see 6.4);

— through a full documentation by means of the standardized template specified in ISO 20077-2.

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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
Figure 6 — Examples of possible needs for use case clusters
6 ISO standards dealing with the extended vehicles
6.1 General

The ISO Standards connected with the concept of extended vehicles may be grouped in three categories:

— standards dealing with generic specifications concerning the extended vehicle such as definitions,

methodologies, etc.,

— standards dealing with specific technical specifications of the extended vehicle such as interface

specifications, etc., and

— standards dealing with information necessary for an extended vehicle to address specific needs

(use cases, usage support, etc.).
EXAMPLE

Figure 7 illustrates this grouping by taking the example of the ISO 20077, ISO 20078 and ISO 20080

standards and projects.

It shall be noted that, because the road vehicle is per definition an element of the extended vehicle,

the ISO Standards regarding physical interfaces of the road vehicle (such as, for example, the OBD

connector) shall be considered as belonging to the second category of standards.
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ISO 20077-1:2017(E)
NOTE The three categories of standards and
...

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