Diesel engines -- Cleanliness assessment of fuel injection equipment

This document specifies cleanliness assessment procedures for evaluating the amount of debris found within the clean side of diesel fuel injection assemblies, which could lead to a reduction in the system’s operational effectiveness. While other International Standards, e.g. ISO 16232, relate to cleanliness of components used in road vehicle fluid circuits, this document is focused on diesel fuel injection assemblies as supplied to diesel engine manufacturers or the service market.

Moteurs diesels -- Évaluation de propreté pour équipement d'injection de combustible

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jun-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
21-May-2021
Completion Date
21-May-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 12345:2021 - Diesel engines -- Cleanliness assessment of fuel injection equipment
English language
36 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF 12345:Version 01-maj-2021 - Diesel engines -- Cleanliness assessment of fuel injection equipment
English language
37 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12345
Third edition
2021-06
Diesel engines — Cleanliness
assessment of fuel injection
equipment
Moteurs diesels — Évaluation de propreté pour équipement
d'injection de combustible
Reference number
ISO 12345:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Pressure source ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Fuel injection pump test bench ........................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Hand-lever-operated testing and setting apparatus ......................................................................... 2

4.1.3 High-pressure pulsating flow rig ....................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.4 Verification low-pressure pump ......................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.5 Verification high-pressure delivery pump ................................................................................................. 3

4.1.6 Pressure vessel .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Flushing pump ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Verification high-pressure pipe assembly ....................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Verification test injector.................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4 Collecting vessel ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Verification rail ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Equipment for contamination measurement ............................................................................................................... 3

4.6.1 Gravimetric analysis apparatus........................................................................................................................... 4

4.6.2 Microscopic analysis apparatus .......................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Test fluid ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7.1 Calibration fluid ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.7.2 Solvent, aliphatic hydrocarbon ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.7.3 Water, de-mineralised ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.8 Clean-up filter .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.9 Pressure gauge ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 High-pressure supply pumps (common rail fuel injection system) .......................................................... 7

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Dynamic test with the test pump running ................................................................................................. 7

5.2.3 Flushing test at low speed with the test pump running by hand ........................................... 8

5.3 Unit injectors ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................... 8

5.3.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Fuel injection pumps ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................... 9

5.4.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 CR fuel injectors ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Continuous high-pressure flow test .............................................................................................................11

5.6 Fuel injectors (nozzle holder assemblies) ....................................................................................................................12

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6.3 Syringe test (washing out injectors) ............................................................................................................12

5.7 High-pressure fuel injection pipes ......................................................................................................................................13

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.7.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)

5.7.3 High-pressure flushing test .................................................................................................................................14

5.7.4 Syringe (solvent dispenser) or hand flush test ...................................................................................14

5.8 Rails ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.8.2 Pressure vessel flushing test...............................................................................................................................15

5.8.3 Low-pressure flushing test ..................................................................................................................................16

5.8.4 Syringe or hand flush test .....................................................................................................................................18

5.9 Low-pressure systems ...................................................................................................................................................................18

5.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.9.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................18

5.9.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................19

6 Sample analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.2 Gravimetric analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................19

7 Reporting of the inspection results ................................................................................................................................................20

8 Designation of cleanliness requirements ................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Typical test equipment for measuring fuel injection equipment

cleanliness ................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex B (normative) Rail low-pressure flushing test ......................................................................................................................27

Annex C (normative) Procedure for verifying test equipment initial cleanliness .............................................29

Annex D (normative) Determination of flushing parameters for rail pressure vessel

flushing test ............................................................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex E (informative) Comparison of CCC (component cleanliness code, ISO 16232) to

FIECC (fuel injection equipment cleanliness code, ISO 12345:2013) ........................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12345:2013), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the reporting of the inspection results (Clause 7) changed from FIECC (fuel injection equipment

cleanliness code, as in ISO 12345:2013) to CCC (component cleanliness code, as in ISO 16232).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Introduction

Modern fuel injection systems contain many closely controlled clearances and rely on the fuel-flowing

characteristics of small orifices; thus they require the close control of sources of contamination in

order to maintain the operational performance demanded of them throughout their design life. To this

end, such systems are designed with integral fuel-filtration equipment, which reduces the amount of

potentially damaging debris that could enter the system from external sources.

However, contamination of the fuel injection system can also occur internally, from system use or

wear, from equipment servicing, or as a result of the original supplier’s manufacturing and assembly

processes. The focus of this document is on the latter source of contamination, and is thus concerned

with the assessment of the cleanliness of the fuel injection equipment as originally supplied to the

engine manufacturer.

Fuel injection systems comprise a number of components. Traditional systems contain low-pressure

elements (fuel tank, pipe work, filters, lift pump, etc.), a fuel injection pump, high-pressure pipes and

fuel injectors, located within the engine cylinder head.

During the preparation of this document, the importance of care in the handling and measurement

of contamination samples was clearly recognized. Moreover, the low levels of contaminant with fuel

injection equipment make this a particularly difficult task. For this document to be used meaningfully

- as an indicator of component cleanliness and a driver towards higher-quality standards - extreme

attention to detail is recommended for the user. Therefore, verification requirements for the used test

equipment are emphasized in detail.

It is not always clear what level and type of cleanliness would be beneficial for improved performance

and life on a cost-effective basis. The actual quantitative levels can only be set in relation to other

parameters, agreed between the manufacturer, supplier and user. This document provides a set of

procedures for evaluating the cleanliness of fuel-injection equipment and a framework for a common

measurement and reporting.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12345:2021(E)
Diesel engines — Cleanliness assessment of fuel injection
equipment
1 Scope

This document specifies cleanliness assessment procedures for evaluating the amount of debris found

within the clean side of diesel fuel injection assemblies, which could lead to a reduction in the system’s

operational effectiveness.

While other International Standards, e.g. ISO 16232, relate to cleanliness of components used in road

vehicle fluid circuits, this document is focused on diesel fuel injection assemblies as supplied to diesel

engine manufacturers or the service market.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4008-1, Road vehicles — Fuel injection pump testing — Part 1: Dynamic conditions

ISO 4113, Road vehicles — Calibration fluids for diesel injection equipment
ISO 4788, Laboratory glassware — Graduated measuring cylinders

ISO 7440-1, Road vehicles — Fuel injection equipment testing — Part 1: Calibrating nozzle and holder

assemblies

ISO 8535-1, Diesel engines — Steel tubes for high-pressure fuel injection pipes — Part 1: Requirements for

seamless cold-drawn single-wall tubes

ISO 8984-1, Diesel engines — Testing of fuel injectors — Part 1: Hand-lever-operated testing and setting

apparatus

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

by particle concentration
ISO 16232:2018, Road vehicles — Cleanliness of components and systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16232 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
3.1
Reynolds number

dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio between the inertia and viscous forces in a flowing fluid,

given by the formula
Ul×
R =
where,
R is the Reynolds number (Re);

U is the mean axial fluid velocity across the defined area, expressed in millimetres per seconds;

l is the characteristic dimension of the system over which the flow occurs, expressed in millimetres;

[for pipes l = d (pipe bore diameter)]

ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, expressed in square millimetres per second (centistokes).

4 Test apparatus

Typical test equipment recommended for measuring fuel-injection equipment cleanliness is described

in Annex A. In 4.1 to 4.9 are details of specific apparatus that shall be used, unless a suitable alternative

can be demonstrated.
4.1 Pressure source
Pressure source is test dependent as described in 4.1.1 to 4.1.7.
4.1.1 Fuel injection pump test bench

A test bench as specified in ISO 4008-1 with a single cylinder pump or one cylinder of an inline pump.

4.1.2 Hand-lever-operated testing and setting apparatus
A testing apparatus as described in ISO 8984-1.
4.1.3 High-pressure pulsating flow rig
A pressuse source capable of achieving:

a) a flow rate which will generate a turbulent flow in the pipes (Re > 4 000) for a period of 30 s ± 1 s,

while pulsating the flow between zero and this value at a frequency of 0,2 Hz to 1 Hz, followed by

b) a flush at 1,4 MPa ± 0,1 MPa constant pressure for 15 s ± 1 s.
4.1.4 Verification low-pressure pump

A plunger or diaphragm-type pump, having a flow rate of approximately twice the rated value for the

component under test at a pressure of at least 2 MPa. The verification low-pressure pump has to be

cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance with Annex C. It has to be carefully stored with a

proper cover in a clean environment.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
4.1.5 Verification high-pressure delivery pump

For testing of high-pressure pipes with open ends, having a flow rate capable of generating a Reynolds

number in the pipes of Re > 4 000. A pressure capability of 3 MPa ± 0,1 MPa is considered suitable.

The verification high-pressure delivery pump shall be cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance

with Annex C. It shall be carefully stored with a proper cover in a clean environment.

4.1.6 Pressure vessel

Used as pressure source. It shall be able to supply a testing pressure of at least 0,5 MPa (= 5 bar) and to

produce a turbulent flow inside the rail (recommended flow rate at least 2,5 l/min).

4.1.7 Flushing pump

Used for testing of rails with open ends, having a flow rate of at least 0,1 l/min. For this pump a pressure

capability of up to 0,1 MPa ± 0,01 MPa is considered suitable.
4.2 Verification high-pressure pipe assembly

600 mm long of tube ISO 8535-1 S-2-6-2 1 P 0, as specified in ISO 8535-1, and suitable for the component

under test.

Stainless steel tubing should be used because of its resistance to rust and corrosion contamination. The

verification high-pressure pipe assembly shall be cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance with

Annex C. It shall be carefully stored with proper cover in a clean environment.
4.3 Verification test injector

In accordance with ISO 7440-1, fitted with an orifice plate of orifice diameter 2,5 mm. The inlet edge

filter shall be removed to improve the particle passage.
+0,3
The nozzle opening pressure shall be set to 20, 7 MPa.
0
4.4 Collecting vessel

It may be necessary for collecting test fluid downstream from the tested equipment at a flow rate

different from that passing through the particle counter, the contamination monitor or the membrane

filter.

The collecting vessel may be used for storing test fluid before transfer fluid samples to laboratory

for analysis. A cylindrical stainless steel or glass reservoir with a conical bottom should be used for

facilitating further particle collection.
4.5 Verification rail

Needed to establish the cleanliness level CL for the whole rail cleanliness test apparatus.

For the verification the verification rail shall be cleaned to the blank value in accordance with Annex C

and carefully stored with proper cover in a clean environment.
4.6 Equipment for contamination measurement

Involving the application of two specific techniques for evaluating the level of contamination:

— gravimetric analysis;
— microscopic examination.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Each requires the specific laboratory apparatus as given in 4.6.1 and 4.6.2.
4.6.1 Gravimetric analysis apparatus
See ISO 16232:2018, 9.2.2.
4.6.1.1 Non-ventilated drying oven
Capable of maintaining a temperature of 80 °C ± 2 °C.
4.6.1.2 Filter holder
Comprising:

— glass funnel of at least 300 ml capacity with suitably calibrated volumetric graduations (e.g.

25 ml ± 2 ml),
— suitable cover for the funnel (e.g. petri dish),
— clamping device,
— suitable base to support the membrane filter, and

— a means of dissipating any static electricity generated during the filtering process.

4.6.1.3 Vacuum flask

Suitable for the filter holder and of capacity enabling it to hold the entire volume of sample liquid

without refilling.
4.6.1.4 Vacuum device
Able to generate a vacuum of 86,6 kPa (gauge).
4.6.1.5 Solvent dispenser (syringe)

A pressurized vessel that discharges solvent through an in-line filter membrane with a pore size of not

greater than 1 µm.
4.6.1.6 Tweezers
Flat-bladed (non-serrated, blunt tips), and of stainless steel.
4.6.1.7 Graduated cylinders

For measuring out the volume of test liquid, the accuracy of which shall be in accordance with ISO 4788,

unless a suitable alternative can be demonstrated (with a minimum accuracy of ±2 %).

4.6.1.8 Sample bottles

Of 250 ml nominal capacity, preferably flat-bottomed and wide-mouthed, with a screw cap containing a

suitable internal polymeric seal.
4.6.1.9 Plastic film

0,05 mm thick × 50 mm × 50 mm, placed between the sample bottle cap and neck if the cap does not

have an internal seal. The film shall be compatible with both the cleaning and sample liquids.

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
4.6.1.10 Filter membranes

Preferred 25 mm or 47 mm in diameter, white, without grids, and compatible with the fluid to be

analysed and with the rinsing chemicals. Reference membranes shall have a recommended pore size of

between 5 µm to 8 µm. The pore size used shall be stated.
4.6.1.11 Petri dishes
Of glass and 150 mm diameter.
4.6.1.12 Analytical balance
Of at least 0,05 mg accuracy.
4.6.1.13 Alpha-ray ionizer

To be used to prevent collection of dust during the weighing operation placed under the balance scale

incorporating the filter and projecting from beneath it.
4.6.1.14 Air dryer
4.6.1.15 Collecting vessel
A vessel with a vacuum device connecting, to be used to collect test fluid.
4.6.2 Microscopic analysis apparatus
See ISO 16232:2018, 9.2.3 and 9.3.1.
4.6.2.1 Filter membrane

Compatible with the sample liquid and any solvents or chemicals used in the processes. Normally,

the membrane shall be of 25 mm or 47 mm diameter, white, with grids (each grid square width side

3,08 mm ± 0,05 mm and equal to 1 % of the effective filtration area), and
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12345
Third edition
Diesel engines — Cleanliness
assessment of fuel injection
equipment
Moteurs diesels — Évaluation de propreté pour équipement
d'injection de combustible
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 12345:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Pressure source ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Fuel injection pump test bench ........................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Hand-lever-operated testing and setting apparatus ......................................................................... 2

4.1.3 High-pressure pulsating flow rig ....................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.4 Verification low-pressure pump ......................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.5 Verification high-pressure delivery pump ................................................................................................. 3

4.1.6 Pressure vessel .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Flushing pump ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Verification high-pressure pipe assembly ....................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Verification test injector.................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.4 Collecting vessel ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Verification rail ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Equipment for contamination measurement ............................................................................................................... 3

4.6.1 Gravimetric analysis apparatus........................................................................................................................... 4

4.6.2 Microscopic analysis apparatus .......................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Test fluid ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7.1 Calibration fluid ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.7.2 Solvent, aliphatic hydrocarbon ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.7.3 Water, de-mineralised ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.8 Clean-up filter .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.9 Pressure gauge ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 High-pressure supply pumps (common rail fuel injection system) .......................................................... 7

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Dynamic test with the test pump running ................................................................................................. 7

5.2.3 Flushing test at low speed with the test pump running by hand ........................................... 8

5.3 Unit injectors ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................... 8

5.3.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Fuel injection pumps ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................... 9

5.4.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 CR fuel injectors ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Continuous high-pressure flow test .............................................................................................................11

5.6 Fuel injectors (nozzle holder assemblies) ....................................................................................................................12

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6.3 Syringe test (washing out injectors) ............................................................................................................12

5.7 High-pressure fuel injection pipes ......................................................................................................................................13

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.7.2 Dynamic test .....................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)

5.7.3 High-pressure flushing test .................................................................................................................................14

5.7.4 Syringe (solvent dispenser) or hand flush test ...................................................................................14

5.8 Rails ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.8.2 Pressure vessel flushing test...............................................................................................................................15

5.8.3 Low-pressure flushing test ..................................................................................................................................16

5.8.4 Syringe or hand flush test .....................................................................................................................................18

5.9 Low-pressure systems ...................................................................................................................................................................18

5.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.9.2 Equipment set up and verification of cleanliness ............................................................................18

5.9.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................19

6 Sample analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.2 Gravimetric analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................19

7 Reporting of the inspection results ................................................................................................................................................20

8 Designation of cleanliness requirements ................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Typical test equipment for measuring fuel injection equipment

cleanliness ................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex B (normative) Rail low-pressure flushing test ......................................................................................................................28

Annex C (normative) Procedure for verifying test equipment initial cleanliness .............................................30

Annex D (normative) Determination of flushing parameters for rail pressure vessel

flushing test ............................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex E (informative) Comparison of CCC (component cleanliness code, ISO 16232) to

FIECC (fuel injection equipment cleanliness code, ISO 12345:2013) ........................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain, and powertrain fluids.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12345:2013), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the reporting of the inspection results (Clause 7) changed from FIECC (fuel injection equipment

cleanliness code, as in ISO 12345:2013) to CCC (component cleanliness code, as in ISO 16232).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Introduction

Modern fuel injection systems contain many closely controlled clearances and rely on the fuel-flowing

characteristics of small orifices; thus they require the close control of sources of contamination in

order to maintain the operational performance demanded of them throughout their design life. To this

end, such systems are designed with integral fuel-filtration equipment, which reduces the amount of

potentially damaging debris that could enter the system from external sources.

However, contamination of the fuel injection system can also occur internally, from system use or

wear, from equipment servicing, or as a result of the original supplier’s manufacturing and assembly

processes. The focus of this document is on the latter source of contamination, and is thus concerned

with the assessment of the cleanliness of the fuel injection equipment as originally supplied to the

engine manufacturer.

Fuel injection systems comprise a number of components. Traditional systems contain low-pressure

elements (fuel tank, pipe work, filters, lift pump, etc.), a fuel injection pump, high-pressure pipes and

fuel injectors, located within the engine cylinder head.

During the preparation of this document, the importance of care in the handling and measurement

of contamination samples was clearly recognized. Moreover, the low levels of contaminant with fuel

injection equipment make this a particularly difficult task. For this document to be used meaningfully

- as an indicator of component cleanliness and a driver towards higher-quality standards - extreme

attention to detail is recommended for the user. Therefore, verification requirements for the used test

equipment are emphasized in detail.

It is not always clear what level and type of cleanliness would be beneficial for improved performance

and life on a cost-effective basis. The actual quantitative levels can only be set in relation to other

parameters, agreed between the manufacturer, supplier and user. This document provides a set of

procedures for evaluating the cleanliness of fuel-injection equipment and a framework for a common

measurement and reporting.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12345:2021(E)
Diesel engines — Cleanliness assessment of fuel injection
equipment
1 Scope

This document specifies cleanliness assessment procedures for evaluating the amount of debris found

within the clean side of diesel fuel injection assemblies, which could lead to a reduction in the system’s

operational effectiveness.

While other International Standards, e.g. ISO 16232, relate to cleanliness of components used in road

vehicle fluid circuits, this document is focused on diesel fuel injection assemblies as supplied to diesel

engine manufacturers or the service market.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4008-1, Road vehicles — Fuel injection pump testing — Part 1: Dynamic conditions

ISO 4113, Road vehicles — Calibration fluids for diesel injection equipment
ISO 4788, Laboratory glassware — Graduated measuring cylinders

ISO 7440-1, Road vehicles — Fuel injection equipment testing — Part 1: Calibrating nozzle and holder

assemblies

ISO 8535-1, Diesel engines — Steel tubes for high-pressure fuel injection pipes — Part 1: Requirements for

seamless cold-drawn single-wall tubes

ISO 8984-1, Diesel engines — Testing of fuel injectors — Part 1: Hand-lever-operated testing and setting

apparatus

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

by particle concentration
ISO 16232:2018, Road vehicles — Cleanliness of components and systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16232 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
3.1
Reynolds number

dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio between the inertia and viscous forces in a flowing fluid,

given by the formula
Ul×
R =
where,
R is the Reynolds number (Re);

U is the mean axial fluid velocity across the defined area, expressed in millimetres per seconds;

l is the characteristic dimension of the system over which the flow occurs, expressed in millimetres;

[for pipes l = d (pipe bore diameter)]

ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, expressed in square millimetres per second (centistokes).

4 Test apparatus

Typical test equipment recommended for measuring fuel-injection equipment cleanliness is described

in Annex A. In 4.1 to 4.9 are details of specific apparatus that shall be used, unless a suitable alternative

can be demonstrated.
4.1 Pressure source
Pressure source is test dependent as described in 4.1.1 to 4.1.7.
4.1.1 Fuel injection pump test bench

A test bench as specified in ISO 4008-1 with a single cylinder pump or one cylinder of an inline pump.

4.1.2 Hand-lever-operated testing and setting apparatus
A testing apparatus as described in ISO 8984-1.
4.1.3 High-pressure pulsating flow rig
A pressuse source capable of achieving:

a) a flow rate which will generate a turbulent flow in the pipes (Re > 4 000) for a period of 30 s ± 1 s,

while pulsating the flow between zero and this value at a frequency of 0,2 Hz to 1 Hz, followed by

b) a flush at 1,4 MPa ± 0,1 MPa constant pressure for 15 s ± 1 s.
4.1.4 Verification low-pressure pump

A plunger or diaphragm-type pump, having a flow rate of approximately twice the rated value for the

component under test at a pressure of at least 2 MPa. The verification low-pressure pump has to be

cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance with Annex C. It has to be carefully stored with a

proper cover in a clean environment.
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
4.1.5 Verification high-pressure delivery pump

For testing of high-pressure pipes with open ends, having a flow rate capable of generating a Reynolds

number in the pipes of Re > 4 000. A pressure capability of 3 MPa ± 0,1 MPa is considered suitable.

The verification high-pressure delivery pump shall be cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance

with Annex C. It shall be carefully stored with a proper cover in a clean environment.

4.1.6 Pressure vessel

Used as pressure source. It shall be able to supply a testing pressure of at least 0,5 Mpa (= 5 bar) and to

produce a turbulent flow inside the rail (recommended flow rate at least 2,5 l/min).

4.1.7 Flushing pump

Used for testing of rails with open ends, having a flow rate of at least 0,1 l/min. For this pump a pressure

capability of up to 0,1 MPa ± 0,01 MPa is considered suitable.
4.2 Verification high-pressure pipe assembly

600 mm long of tube ISO 8535-1 S-2-6-2 1 P 0, as specified in ISO 8535-1, and suitable for the component

under test.

Stainless steel tubing should be used because of its resistance to rust and corrosion contamination. The

verification high-pressure pipe assembly shall be cleaned to the cleanliness level CL in accordance with

Annex C. It shall be carefully stored with proper cover in a clean environment.
4.3 Verification test injector

In accordance with ISO 7440-1, fitted with an orifice plate of orifice diameter 2,5 mm. The inlet edge

filter shall be removed to improve the particle passage.
+0,3
The nozzle opening pressure shall be set to 20, 7 MPa.
0
4.4 Collecting vessel

It may be necessary for collecting test fluid downstream from the tested equipment at a flow rate

different from that passing through the particle counter, the contamination monitor or the membrane

filter.

The collecting vessel may be used for storing test fluid before transfer fluid samples to laboratory

for analysis. A cylindrical stainless steel or glass reservoir with a conical bottom should be used for

facilitating further particle collection.
4.5 Verification rail

Needed to establish the cleanliness level CL for the whole rail cleanliness test apparatus.

For the verification the verification rail shall be cleaned to the blank value in accordance with Annex C

and carefully stored with proper cover in a clean environment.
4.6 Equipment for contamination measurement

Involving the application of two specific techniques for evaluating the level of contamination:

— gravimetric analysis;
— microscopic examination.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
Each requires the specific laboratory apparatus as given in 4.6.1 and 4.6.2.
4.6.1 Gravimetric analysis apparatus
See ISO 16232:2018, 9.2.2.
4.6.1.1 Non-ventilated drying oven
Capable of maintaining a temperature of 80 °C ± 2 °C.
4.6.1.2 Filter holder
Comprising:

— glass funnel of at least 300 ml capacity with suitably calibrated volumetric graduations (e.g.

25 ml ± 2 ml),
— suitable cover for the funnel (e.g. petri dish),
— clamping device,
— suitable base to support the membrane filter, and

— a means of dissipating any static electricity generated during the filtering process.

4.6.1.3 Vacuum flask

Suitable for the filter holder and of capacity enabling it to hold the entire volume of sample liquid

without refilling.
4.6.1.4 Vacuum device
Able to generate a vacuum of 86,6 kPa (gauge).
4.6.1.5 Solvent dispenser (syringe)

A pressurized vessel that discharges solvent through an in-line filter membrane with a pore size of not

greater than 1 µm.
4.6.1.6 Tweezers
Flat-bladed (non-serrated, blunt tips), and of stainless steel.
4.6.1.7 Graduated cylinders

For measuring out the volume of test liquid, the accuracy of which shall be in accordance with ISO 4788,

unless a suitable alternative can be demonstrated (with a minimum accuracy of ±2 %).

4.6.1.8 Sample bottles

Of 250 ml nominal capacity, preferably flat-bottomed and wide-mouthed, with a screw cap containing a

suitable internal polymeric seal.
4.6.1.9 Plastic film

0,05 mm thick × 50 mm × 50 mm, placed between the sample bottle cap and neck if the cap does not

have an internal seal. The film shall be compatible with both the cleaning and sample liquids.

4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12345:2021(E)
4.6.1.10 Filter membranes

Preferred 25 mm or 47 mm in diameter, white, without grids, and compatible with the fluid to be

analysed and with the rinsing chemicals. Reference membranes shall have a recommended pore size of

between 5 µm to 8 µm. The pore size used shall be stated.
4.6.1.11 Petri dishes
Of glass and 150 mm diameter.
4.6.1.12 Analytical balance
Of at least 0,05 mg accuracy.
4.6.1.13 Alpha-ray ionizer

To be used to prevent collection of dust during the weighing operation placed under the balance scale

incorporating the filter and projecting from beneath it.
4.6.1.14 Air dryer
4.6.1.15 Collecting vessel
A vessel with a vacuum device connecting, to be used to collect test fluid.
4.6.2 Microscopic analysis apparatus
See ISO 16232:2018, 9.2.3 and 9.3.1.
4.6.2.1 Filter membrane

Compatible with the sample liquid and any solvents or chemicals used in the processes. Normally,

the membrane shall be of 25 mm or 47 mm diameter
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.