Intelligent transport systems -- Use cases for sharing of probe data

This document describes various use cases for the sharing of probe vehicle data as a common platform for smart city instantiation. When modernizing a city towards a smart city, it is necessary for information flows across various fields, such as transportation, healthcare, energy, water and other government services, to be effectively managed and shared. Despite efforts from many cities, integrating all databases related to all services has proven to be a cumbersome task. One challenge is the lack of a systematic way that can be modelled for data sharing. The ITS data sharing model for vehicle probe data can serve as the basis for instigating this type of work. To elaborate how vehicle probe data work can be applied to achieve this objective, this document: —   gathers use cases and examples of vehicle probe data sharing around the world, and —   provides use cases for data sharing that are appropriate for smart city ITS mobility solutions. By examining these use cases and current and planned data sharing practices around the world, this document demonstrates how this mechanism can help implement many smart city applications. This document also shows that by combining the vehicle probe data with roadside sensor data, and other important public and private data sources, the services can be operated more effectively. Data collection methods and data or information provisioning are beyond the scope this document. Specifically, this document does not describe items related to the vehicle probe data collection nor the vehicle probe data provision activities as specified by other existing standards such as ISO 19414.

Systèmes de transport intelligents -- Cas d'usages pour le partage des données de sondage

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Published
Publication Date
17-Aug-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
21-Jul-2021
Completion Date
21-Jul-2021
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 4286
First edition
2021-08
Intelligent transport systems — Use
cases for sharing of probe data
Systèmes de transport intelligents — Cas d'usages pour le partage des
données de sondage
Reference number
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Use cases for the probe vehicle systems data sharing framework ...................................................................2

4.1 The conceptual framework for vehicle probe system data sharing .......................................................... 2

4.2 Concept of data sharing of vehicle probe data............................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Probe data sharing benefits ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Benefits of data sharing ............................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.3 Model of data sharing function ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.4 Standards................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.5 Applicability of data distribution technologies ..................................................................................... 5

4.3.6 Metadata ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.7 Storage and access .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.8 Data ownership and IPR ............................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.9 Challenges .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Definition of service domains utilizing shared probe data ...................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Referenced target use cases ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Infrastructure operation management ......................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Traffic Management ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.4 Road traffic management ......................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.5 Enforcement .....................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.6 The role of service providers .............................................................................................................................11

6 Data sharing use cases .................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Japan use case ..............................................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Australia use case ....................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Singapore use case ..................................................................................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) US use cases ...................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex E (informative) China use case ..............................................................................................................................................................20

Annex F (informative) Korea use case ..............................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Introduction

When discussing transportation systems, much attention has been paid to safety, comfort, impacts on

the environment and energy efficiency. The use of probe data (specified in ISO 22837) is a key factor in

dealing with the above issues.

Probe vehicle data are collected through various vehicles in an ITS system, but the data are typically

used only for a specific application by the service provider. To boost efficiency, it is recommended that

the vehicle probe data be shared by various service applications through common databases.

Current probe vehicle systems collect and use data, but do not share data with other ITS service

applications. Vehicle probe data are valuable for all related services and limiting the use of such data

to within one service only ought to be avoided for efficient data use. Sharing probe data among service

providers enhances quality of service, as the probe data collected through the sensors and other

sources can be utilized by other service providers.

As an example, shared common database can be used for new services, such as an advanced notification

safety information provision service, by utilizing roadside sensor data collected by a road authority.

Many other new services can be added as the number of CAV (connected and automated vehicle)

increases.

This document describes probe data sharing use cases so that additional service can be developed by

sharing probe data collected by various probe vehicle systems.

The functionalities of a probe vehicle system (PVS) can be implemented in an ITS station unit according

to ISO 21217 and support application protocols specified in other standards. Examples of such protocols

are the local dynamic map (LDM) specified in ISO/TS 18750, and generic ITS station facilities layer

services specified in ISO/TS 17429. The service architecture classifies ITS services including PVS, and

this classification also defines service domains for cooperation between PVSs.

It is noted that this document does not prescribe a physical communication medium for transmitting

data/information to or from vehicles. This document is intended to be independent of any communication

medium and to be compatible with any medium that is selected by the system developers.

In addition, this document focuses only on the framework for vehicle probe data sharing use cases.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Use cases for sharing of
probe data
1 Scope

This document describes various use cases for the sharing of probe vehicle data as a common

platform for smart city instantiation. When modernizing a city towards a smart city, it is necessary

for information flows across various fields, such as transportation, healthcare, energy, water and

other government services, to be effectively managed and shared. Despite efforts from many cities,

integrating all databases related to all services has proven to be a cumbersome task. One challenge

is the lack of a systematic way that can be modelled for data sharing. The ITS data sharing model for

vehicle probe data can serve as the basis for instigating this type of work. To elaborate how vehicle

probe data work can be applied to achieve this objective, this document:

— gathers use cases and examples of vehicle probe data sharing around the world, and

— provides use cases for data sharing that are appropriate for smart city ITS mobility solutions.

By examining these use cases and current and planned data sharing practices around the world, this

document demonstrates how this mechanism can help implement many smart city applications.

This document also shows that by combining the vehicle probe data with roadside sensor data, and

other important public and private data sources, the services can be operated more effectively.

Data collection methods and data or information provisioning are beyond the scope this document.

Specifically, this document does not describe items related to the vehicle probe data collection nor the

vehicle probe data provision activities as specified by other existing standards such as ISO 19414.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14812:— , Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary

ISO 19414, Intelligent transport systems — Service architecture of probe vehicle systems

ISO 22837, Vehicle probe data for wide area communications

ISO 24100, Intelligent transport systems — Basic principles for personal data protection in probe vehicle

information services
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14812, ISO 19414, ISO 22837,

ISO 24100 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DTS 14812:2021.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
3.1
data sharing

activity between two or more service providers where the data can be combined and processed to

create data for new application services
4 Use cases for the probe vehicle systems data sharing framework
4.1 The conceptual framework for vehicle probe system data sharing

Various probe data systems are deployed and successfully operated by service providers independently.

However, most likely, the vehicle probe data collected by one ITS systems can only be used for a

specific application by the service provider and are not shared among other applications. In exploiting

applications and services for a smart city, such data cannot be used effectively, for the purpose of

solving smart city mobility issues, for example. Part of the issue is that the service providers often work

in their own specific application silos and fail to see the value of data sharing from a holistic viewpoint.

It is recommended that the vehicle probe data be shared among stakeholders; this sharing could

support various potential fields of services for smart city service applications via a common database.

Ideally, all the data in each application supporting a smart city ought to be exchanged through all

fields of services with a common format. However, this is not feasible as most of the vehicle probe data

systems in place are deployed at different times and provided by different vendors. In the case of the

probe vehicle system, for example, aside from the data gathered from certain applications or services

which do follow a set of standards, most of the data collected requires transformation or conversion to

ensure data interoperability. From a data access efficiency viewpoint, the best place to implement these

data conversions is at the common database.

Although data interoperability is essential when adopting the common database for probe data, data

ownership and privacy protection need to be taken into consideration as high priority issues. Probe

data might need to be gathered from sources applying proprietary means. Some service providers can

consider that such data bear much value and can be reluctant to grant the access to those data freely.

Furthermore, some probe data can be associated with an individual and needs to be specially protected

according to personal privacy protection regulations.

This document describes useful use cases for sharing vehicle probe data and provides useful examples

currently used and planned around the world. This document provides role model descriptions of data

sharing only, and does not cover data collection, nor data provision.

The conceptual framework of the vehicle probe system, as shown in Figure 1 below, depicts the relations

among stakeholders, such as a service provider, vehicles including connected and automated vehicles

(CAV), roadside systems and the roadside operation authorities. The key is to have a common database

so that all the service data, regardless of their origins can be fed and stored in the common database.

Since the implementation of such a framework for probe data systems can vary, the framework depicted

in Figure 1 is for reference only and cannot include all the stakeholders and outlines of their roles.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Figure 1 — Reference vehicle probe system framework

As shown in Figure 1, the service provider, through the pre-provision process, requests vehicle data from

a vehicle and the vehicle provides vehicle data to the service provider accordingly. The service provider

stores data into the database and executes application services with the support of the database, and the

processed information of those services are provided back to the vehicle. Likewise, the service provider

can exchange information with road authorities. In some cases, the service provider can collect probe

data from the vehicle through a road authority. In such a case, the vehicle data are collected by roadside

sensors and passed to the road authority. Data collected through other roadside sensors can also be

collected by the road authority. The road authority can then aggregate those data and send them to the

service provider. In return, the service provider can provide the processed valuable information to the

road authority.
4.2 Concept of data sharing of vehicle probe data

Although a common database can help the service provider improve its operational efficiency in its

service realm, the real benefit to a probe vehicle system can be further amplified only if multiple probe

databases in the probe vehicle system are also shared. Figure 2 provides a conceptual view of how

multiple databases are shared in a probe vehicle system. The databases shown on the left are the ones

associated with each service provider, such as probe service and other services.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
NOTE 1 Service provider A database has vehicle probe data as per ISO 19414.

NOTE 2 Service provider B database has vehicle probe data from commercial vehicle of TARV as per ISO 15638.

NOTE 3 Service provider C database has public transport data as per ISO 17185.

NOTE 4 Service provider D database has traffic management centre data as per ISO/TS 19468.

Figure 2 — The conceptual view of data sharing in a vehicle probe system

The data from TMC (traffic management centre) in Figure 2 includes examples of currently available

road authority's traffic data.

Sharing probe data among current service providers and additional service providers enables the

creation and realization of additional new application services.

ISO/TS 21177 and ISO/TS 21184 cover secured access to sensor and control networks of ITS stations

in general. A standardized data format based on standardized data types is specified to enable data

exchange between ITS stations and ITS applications. Secure certificate-based Access Control is specified

in ISO/TS 21177, combined with ISO/TS 21184 using configuration data. Required data models are

specified in ISO/TS 21184.
4.3 Probe data sharing benefits
4.3.1 Introduction

The observations detailed in the following subclauses can be derived through probe data sharing.

4.3.2 Benefits of data sharing

Through the shared common database, where maintenance service is maintained as an advanced

service and various functions including the Internet connection can be used, the opportunity to use the

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)

data sharing function has become a common use case for smart city solutions. The merit of this data

sharing function can be summarized into the following two points:

a) Easy exchange of data — Data can be converted into common data format and exchanged quickly

and reliably without going through the store and distribute processes. In addition, it is possible to

apply various security settings, such as setting access rights for the users for each data element,

which can enhance data security.

b) Simple management of data — As data can be managed centrally, data management is simplified. In

addition, there can be minimum time lag while updating the data.
4.3.3 Model of data sharing function

To use the data sharing function among service providers, it is required to set up users and user groups

according to the role of the users and the controlled accessible data.

As shown in Figure 3, users often have multiple roles, and consideration needs to be given to the

grouping method and security setting.
Figure 3 — Multiple roles of users (service providers)
4.3.4 Standards

Existing probe data standards and sharing policy standards already defined by the local authority can

be utilized.
4.3.5 Applicability of data distribution technologies
ISO/TR 23255 can be used as reference document.
4.3.6 Metadata

Metadata sharing policies already defined by the local authority can be utilized.

4.3.7 Storage and access

General storage and access to shared data integration already defined by the local authority can be

utilized.
4.3.8 Data ownership and IPR

Clear guidelines already defined by the local authority can be utilized for identifying data ownership

and licencing, including IPR, of probe data, supporting data and processing tools.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
4.3.9 Challenges

There are several challenges which need to be analysed and solved when deploying probe data sharing

among multiple service provider entities:

— It is important to define the rules regarding data storage to respect data privacy.

— The entity in charge of maintaining and processing the collected probe vehicle data and its liability

need to be defined.
— The governance rules for such an entity need to be defined.

— Decision-making on the policy needs to be done, whether it is a centralized entity framework or a

cloud framework that can be completed through multiple decentralized entities.
5 Definition of service domains utilizing shared probe data
5.1 General

Sharing of probe vehicle data among current service providers and additional service providers can

support the implementation of new service applications needed for smart city services. For example,

data sharing could eventually be implemented to satisfy infrastructure assessment needs and to

improve safety within cities.
Possible service applications can include:
— critical safety information provision,
— safety driving support,
— infrastructure planning,
— dynamic traffic management,
— traffic rule enforcement,
— dynamic map updates, and
— emergency evacuation support.

Where applicable, probe data sharing definitions already defined by the local authority can be utilized.

For deployment, further research or development of data sharing is recommended.
5.2 Referenced target use cases
5.2.1 General

ITS service applications largely rely upon the big data collected through the applications and services of

a smart city that are held and maintained by a smart city data management entity. Those ITS services

can be grouped into two categories: the services provided by jurisdiction or the road operator; and

the services by the public and private service providers. The applications offered and managed by

the jurisdiction or the road operator can be classified in four groups as “infrastructure operation

management”, “traffic management”, “road traffic operation management” and “enforcement”. The

applications provided by the service providers can be offered through public or private sectors. The

classification of an ITS service and applications can be shown in Figure 4.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Figure 4 — Classification of smart city ITS service and its applications

Numerous emerging ITS service applications for smart city deployment have been growing rapidly in

recent years. The following list provides examples of those applications:

— Traffic management applications to ease traffic congestion and maintain safety in urban areas

— Road traffic operation applications to realize efficient and safer use of infrastructure

— EFC support for Urban-ITS traffic management to realize dynamic road pricing
— Weigh in motion to ease heavy goods transport vehicles

— Dangerous goods/hazardous materials transport management to enforce geo-fencing

— Disaster information provisioning systems for safer and more timely evacuation activities

— Infrastructure services applications for efficient and automated maintenance works

— Access control in urban areas to control vehicle entry to certain areas

— Traffic signal (SPaT-MAP): signal phase and timing, and road topology message information

provisioning for safer and more efficient traffic flow in the urban area

— Law enforcement applications for regulated freight vehicles such as overloaded vehicle shutout

from certain urban areas

— Remote digital tachograph monitoring to maintain safe freight transport vehicle movement

— Heavy vehicle air quality controls and geo-fencing in certain urban areas

— Emission control of vehicles entering certain urban areas to enforce geo-fencing in certain areas of

the smart city

— Autonomous vehicle applications such as monitoring, emergency controls, override command,

regulated information provisioning

— Urban/suburban/expressways mobility modes-specific safety information provisioning and traffic

monitoring
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)

— Dynamic map management including probe data collection, data aggregation, managing digital

twin in the cloud and provisioning of safety information

— Electronic fee collection from services such as parking, event admission, car sharing

— Vehicle remote maintenance applications such as over the air software updates

— Freight vehicle management applications supporting efficient and safer transport fleet operations

— Electric vehicle charging applications such as booking, monitoring and fee collections with security

management
— Fuel cell vehicle charging applications like those previously mentioned
— Intelligent parking such as an automated valet parking supporting system

— Car sharing management including booking, matchmaking between user and driver, safety

information provisioning

— Public transit information provisioning to users on timely and dynamic real time basis

— Taxi fleet management applications such as booking, matchmaking between users and drivers,

safety information provisioning

— Dynamic map-utilizing service applications for automated driving buses, shuttles and freight

vehicles for efficient and safer operations
— Tourist information/advice provisioning service applications for inbound users

— Bicycle/motor cyclists' ITS service applications such as vulnerable road user safety information

provision services

Major use cases and business cases for smart city ITS service applications, currently available and

future ones are shown here for information only. The example uses cases shown in this document are

each referenced with a URL link information; however, there is no intention to promote those use cases

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 4286
First edition
Intelligent transport systems — Use
cases for sharing of probe data
Systèmes de transport intelligents - Cas d'usages pour le partage des
données de sondage
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 References ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Use cases for the probe vehicle systems data sharing framework ...................................................................2

4.1 The conceptual framework for vehicle probe system data sharing .......................................................... 2

4.2 Concept of data sharing of vehicle probe data............................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Probe data sharing benefits ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Benefits of data sharing ............................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.3 Model of data sharing function ............................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.4 Standards................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.5 Applicability of data distribution technologies ..................................................................................... 5

4.3.6 Metadata ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.7 Storage and access .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.8 Data ownership and IPR ............................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.9 Challenges .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Definition of service domains utilizing shared probe data ...................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Referenced target use cases ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Infrastructure operation management ......................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Traffic Management ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.4 Road traffic management ......................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.5 Enforcement .....................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.6 The role of service providers .............................................................................................................................11

6 Data sharing use cases .................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Japan use case ..............................................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Australia use case ....................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Singapore use case ..................................................................................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) US use cases ...................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex E (informative) China use case ..............................................................................................................................................................20

Annex F (informative) Korea use case ..............................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Introduction

When discussing transportation systems, much attention has been paid to safety, comfort, impacts on

the environment and energy efficiency. The use of probe data (specified in ISO 22837) is a key factor in

dealing with the above issues.

Probe vehicle data are collected through various vehicles in an ITS system, but the data are typically

used only for a specific application by the service provider. To boost efficiency, it is recommended that

the vehicle probe data be shared by various service applications through common databases.

Current probe vehicle systems collect and use data, but do not share data with other ITS service

applications. Vehicle probe data are valuable for all related services and limiting the use of such data

to within one service only ought to be avoided for efficient data use. Sharing probe data among service

providers enhances quality of service, as the probe data collected through the sensors and other

sources can be utilized by other service providers.

As an example, shared common database can be used for new services, such as an advanced notification

safety information provision service, by utilizing roadside sensor data collected by a road authority.

Many other new services can be added as the number of CAV (connected and automated vehicle)

increases.

This document describes probe data sharing use cases so that additional service can be developed by

sharing probe data collected by various probe vehicle systems.

The functionalities of a probe vehicle system (PVS) can be implemented in an ITS station unit according

to ISO 21217 and support application protocols specified in other standards. Examples of such protocols

are the local dynamic map (LDM) specified in ISO/TS 18750, and generic ITS station facilities layer

services specified in ISO/TS 17429. The service architecture classifies ITS services including PVS, and

this classification also defines service domains for cooperation between PVSs.

It is noted that this document does not prescribe a physical communication medium for transmitting

data/information to or from vehicles. This document is intended to be independent of any communication

medium and to be compatible with any medium that is selected by the system developers.

In addition, this document focuses only on the framework for vehicle probe data sharing use cases.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 4286:2021(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Use cases for sharing of
probe data
1 Scope

This document describes various use cases for the sharing of probe vehicle data as a common

platform for smart city instantiation. When modernizing a city towards a smart city, it is necessary

for information flows across various fields, such as transportation, healthcare, energy, water and

other government services, to be effectively managed and shared. Despite efforts from many cities,

integrating all databases related to all services has proven to be a cumbersome task. One challenge

is the lack of a systematic way that can be modelled for data sharing. The ITS data sharing model for

vehicle probe data can serve as the basis for instigating this type of work. To elaborate how vehicle

probe data work can be applied to achieve this objective, this document:

— gathers use cases and examples of vehicle probe data sharing around the world, and

— provides use cases for data sharing that are appropriate for smart city ITS mobility solutions.

By examining these use cases and current and planned data sharing practices around the world, this

document demonstrates how this mechanism can help implement many smart city applications.

This document also shows that by combining the vehicle probe data with roadside sensor data, and

other important public and private data sources, the services can be operated more effectively.

Data collection methods and data or information provisioning are beyond the scope this document.

Specifically, this document does not describe items related to the vehicle probe data collection nor the

vehicle probe data provision activities as specified by other existing standards such as ISO 19414.

2 References

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14812:— , Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary

ISO 19414, Intelligent transport systems — Service architecture of probe vehicle systems

ISO 22837, Vehicle probe data for wide area communications

ISO 24100, Intelligent transport systems — Basic principles for personal data protection in probe vehicle

information services
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14812, ISO 19414, ISO 22837,

ISO 24100 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DTS 14812:2021.
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3.1
data sharing

activity between two or more service providers where the data can be combined and processed to

create data for new application services
4 Use cases for the probe vehicle systems data sharing framework
4.1 The conceptual framework for vehicle probe system data sharing

Various probe data systems are deployed and successfully operated by service providers independently.

However, most likely, the vehicle probe data collected by one ITS systems can only be used for a

specific application by the service provider and are not shared among other applications. In exploiting

applications and services for a smart city, such data can not be used effectively, for the purpose of

solving smart city mobility issues, for example. Part of the issue is that the service providers often work

in their own specific application silos and fail to see the value of data sharing from a holistic viewpoint.

It is recommended that the vehicle probe data be shared among stakeholders; this sharing could

support various potential fields of services for smart city service applications via a common database.

Ideally, all the data in each application supporting a smart city ought to be exchanged through all

fields of services with a common format. However, this is not feasible as most of the vehicle probe data

systems in place are deployed at different times and provided by different vendors. In the case of the

probe vehicle system, for example, aside from the data gathered from certain applications or services

which do follow a set of standards, most of the data collected requires transformation or conversion to

ensure data interoperability. From a data access efficiency viewpoint, the best place to implement these

data conversions is at the common database.

Although data interoperability is essential when adopting the common database for probe data, data

ownership and privacy protection need to be taken into consideration as high priority issues. Probe

data might need to be gathered from sources applying proprietary means. Some service providers can

consider that such data bear much value and can be reluctant to grant the access to those data freely.

Furthermore, some probe data can be associated with an individual and needs to be specially protected

according to personal privacy protection regulations.

This document describes useful use cases for sharing vehicle probe data and provides useful examples

currently used and planned around the world. This document provides role model descriptions of data

sharing only, and does not cover data collection, nor data provision.

The conceptual framework of the vehicle probe system, as shown in Figure 1 below, depicts the relations

among stakeholders, such as a service provider, vehicles including connected and automated vehicles

(CAV), roadside systems and the roadside operation authorities. The key is to have a common database

so that all the service data, regardless of their origins can be fed and stored in the common database.

Since the implementation of such a framework for probe data systems can vary, the framework depicted

in Figure 1 is for reference only and can not include all the stakeholders and outlines of their roles.

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Figure 1 — Reference vehicle probe system framework

As shown in Figure 1, the service provider, through the pre-provision process, requests vehicle data from

a vehicle and the vehicle provides vehicle data to the service provider accordingly. The service provider

stores data into the database and executes application services with the support of the database, and the

processed information of those services are provided back to the vehicle. Likewise, the service provider

can exchange information with road authorities. In some cases, the service provider can collect probe

data from the vehicle through a road authority. In such a case, the vehicle data are collected by roadside

sensors and passed to the road authority. Data collected through other roadside sensors can also be

collected by the road authority. The road authority can then aggregate those data and send them to the

service provider. In return, the service provider can provide the processed valuable information to the

road authority.
4.2 Concept of data sharing of vehicle probe data

Although a common database can help the service provider improve its operational efficiency in its

service realm, the real benefit to a probe vehicle system can be further amplified only if multiple probe

databases in the probe vehicle system are also shared. Figure 2 provides a conceptual view of how

multiple databases are shared in a probe vehicle system. The databases shown on the left are the ones

associated with each service provider, such as probe service and other services.
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NOTE 1 Service provider A database has vehicle probe data as per ISO 19414.

NOTE 2 Service provider B database has vehicle probe data from commercial vehicle of TARV as per ISO 15638.

NOTE 3 Service provider C database has public transport data as per ISO 17185.

NOTE 4 Service provider D database has traffic management centre data as per ISO 19468.

Figure 2 — The conceptual view of data sharing in a vehicle probe system

The data from TMC (traffic management centre) in Figure 2 includes examples of currently available

road authority's traffic data.

Sharing probe data among current service providers and additional service providers enables the

creation and realization of additional new application services.

ISO/TS 21177 and ISO/TS 21184 cover secured access to sensor and control networks of ITS stations

in general. A standardized data format based on standardized data types is specified to enable data

exchange between ITS stations and ITS applications. Secure certificate-based Access Control is specified

in ISO/TS 21177, combined with ISO/TS 21184 using configuration data. Required data models are

specified in ISO/TS 21184.
4.3 Probe data sharing benefits
4.3.1 Introduction

The observations detailed in the following subclauses can be derived through probe data sharing.

4.3.2 Benefits of data sharing

Through the shared common database, where maintenance service is maintained as an advanced

service and various functions including the Internet connection can be used, the opportunity to use the

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data sharing function has become a common use case for smart city solutions. The merit of this data

sharing function can be summarized into the following two points:

a) Easy exchange of data — Data can be converted into common data format and exchanged quickly

and reliably without going through the store and distribute processes. In addition, it is possible to

apply various security settings, such as setting access rights for the users for each data element,

which can enhance data security.

b) Simple management of data — As data can be managed centrally, data management is simplified. In

addition, there can be minimum time lag while updating the data.
4.3.3 Model of data sharing function

To use the data sharing function among service providers, it is required to set up users and user groups

according to the role of the users and the controlled accessible data.

As shown in Figure 3, users often have multiple roles, and consideration needs to be given to the

grouping method and security setting.
Figure 3 — Multiple roles of users (service providers)
4.3.4 Standards

Existing probe data standards and sharing policy standards already defined by the local authority can

be utilized.
4.3.5 Applicability of data distribution technologies
ISO/TR 23255 can be used as reference document.
4.3.6 Metadata

Metadata sharing policies already defined by the local authority can be utilized.

4.3.7 Storage and access

General storage and access to shared data integration already defined by the local authority can be

utilized.
4.3.8 Data ownership and IPR

Clear guidelines already defined by the local authority can be utilized for identifying data ownership

and licencing, including IPR, of probe data, supporting data and processing tools.

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4.3.9 Challenges

There are several challenges which need to be analyzed and solved when deploying probe data sharing

among multiple service provider entities:

— It is important to define the rules regarding data storage to respect data privacy.

— The entity in charge of maintaining and processing the collected probe vehicle data and its liability

need to be defined.
— The governance rules for such an entity need to be defined.

— Decision-making on the policy needs to be done, whether it is a centralized entity framework or a

cloud framework that can be completed through multiple decentralized entities.
5 Definition of service domains utilizing shared probe data
5.1 General

Sharing of probe vehicle data among current service providers and additional service providers can

support the implementation of new service applications needed for smart city services. For example,

data sharing could eventually be implemented to satisfy infrastructure assessment needs and to

improve safety within cities.
Possible service applications can include:
— critical safety information provision,
— safety driving support,
— infrastructure planning,
— dynamic traffic management,
— traffic rule enforcement,
— dynamic map updates, and
— emergency evacuation support.

Where applicable, probe data sharing definitions already defined by the local authority can be utilized.

For deployment, further research or development of data sharing is recommended.
5.2 Referenced target use cases
5.2.1 General

ITS service applications largely rely upon the big data collected through the applications and services of

a smart city that are held and maintained by a smart city data management entity. Those ITS services

can be grouped into two categories: the services provided by jurisdiction or the road operator; and

the services by the public and private service providers. The applications offered and managed by

the jurisdiction or the road operator can be classified in four groups as “infrastructure operation

management”, “traffic management”, “road traffic operation management” and “enforcement”. The

applications provided by the service providers can be offered through public or private sectors. The

classification of an ITS service and applications can be shown in Figure 4.
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Figure 4 — Classification of smart city ITS service and its applications

Numerous emerging ITS service applications for smart city deployment have been growing rapidly in

recent years. The following list provides examples of those applications:

— Traffic management applications to ease traffic congestion and maintain safety in urban areas

— Road traffic operation applications to realize efficient and safer use of infrastructure

— EFC support for Urban-ITS traffic management to realize dynamic road pricing
— Weigh in motion to ease heavy goods transport vehicles

— Dangerous goods/hazardous materials transport management to enforce geo-fencing

— Disaster information provisioning systems for safer and more timely evacuation activities

— Infrastructure services applications for efficient and automated maintenance works

— Access control in urban areas to control vehicle entry to certain areas

— Traffic signal (SPaT-MAP): signal phase and timing, and road topology message information

provisioning for safer and more efficient traffic flow in the urban area

— Law enforcement applications for regulated freight vehicles such as overloaded vehicle shutout

from certain urban areas

— Remote digital tachograph monitoring to maintain safe freight transport vehicle movement

— Heavy vehicle air quality controls and geo-fencing in certain urban areas

— Emission control of vehicles entering certain urban areas to enforce geo-fencing in certain areas of

the smart city

— Autonomous vehicle applications such as monitoring, emergency controls, override command,

regulated information provisioning

— Urban/suburban/expressways mobility modes-specific safety information provisioning and traffic

monitoring
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— Dynamic map management including probe data collection, data aggregation, managing digital

twin in the cloud and provisioning of safety information

— Electronic fee collection from services such as parking, event admission, car sharing

— Vehicle remote maintenance applications such as over the air software updates

— Freight vehicle management applications supporting efficient and safer transport fleet operations

— Electric vehicle charging applications such as booking, monitoring and fee collections with security

management
— Fuel cell vehicle charging applications like those previously mentioned
— Intelligent parking such as an automated valet parking supporting system

— Car sharing management including booking, matchmaking between user and driver, safety

information provisioning

— Public transit information provisioning to users on timely and dynamic real time basis

— Taxi fleet management applications such as booking, matchmaking between users and drivers,

safety information provisioning

— Dynamic map-utilizing service applications for automated driving buses, shuttles and freight

vehicles for efficient and safer operations
— Tourist information/advice provisioning service applications for inbound users

— Bicycle/motor cyclists' ITS service applications such as vulnerable road user safety information

provision services

Major use cases and business cases for smart city ITS service applications, currently available and

future ones are shown here for information
...

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