Ergonomics data for use in the application of ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014

This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments, and facilities. The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research. The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory, physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomics data that have no direct relation to ageing or disabilities. The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.

Données ergonomiques destinées à être utilisées dans le cadre de l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71:2014

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jan-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
25-Nov-2020
Completion Date
25-Nov-2020
Ref Project

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 22411
Second edition
2021-01
Ergonomics data for use in the
application of ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014
Données ergonomiques destinées à être utilisées dans le cadre de
l'application du Guide ISO/IEC 71:2014
Reference number
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Supporting ISO/IEC Guide 71 with human data ................................................................................................................... 2

5 Data selection and format ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Data selection ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Data format of this document .................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 How to use the data ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Sensory characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Overview of sensory characteristics and capabilities ........................................................................................... 5

6.2 Vision ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Visual sensitivity to colour (spectral sensitivity of the eye: ageing effect).................... 6

6.2.2 Colour category (spans of fundamental colour, young people, older

people, and people with low vision) ............................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Colour category (international comparison) .......................................................................................22

6.2.4 Contrast sensitivity (young people, older people and people with low vision) .....25

6.2.5 Contrast for legibility (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................28

6.2.6 Visual acuity (effects of age, viewing distance and luminance) ...........................................32

6.2.7 Minimum font size for legibility (effects of age, viewing distance and

luminance) .........................................................................................................................................................................35

6.2.8 Minimum font size for legibility (international comparison) ................................................37

6.2.9 Minimum font size for legibility (low vision) .................. .....................................................................41

6.2.10 Disability glare (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................44

6.2.11 Useful field of view (ageing effect) ................................................................................................................47

6.2.12 Lighting level and visual performance (ageing effect) .................................................................52

6.2.13 Visibility of an indicator lamp: Context and task specific data (effects of

ageing and low vision) .............................................................................................................................................55

6.3 Hearing .......................................................................................................................................................................................................58

6.3.1 Hearing-sensitivity decrease as a function of age ............................................................................58

6.3.2 Tone perception in quiet conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................60

6.3.3 Sensitivity to low-frequency tones (ageing effect) ..........................................................................62

6.3.4 Equal-loudness-level contours (ageing effect) ...................................................................................64

6.3.5 Tone perception in noisy conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................67

6.3.6 Sound pressure level of spoken announcements in public space (ageing effect) .70

6.3.7 Audible conditions for speech communication in a noisy environment

(ageing effect) ..................................................................................................................................................................72

6.4 Touch ............................................................................................................................................................................................................75

6.4.1 Tactile pressure sense and spatial resolution (ageing effect) ................................................75

6.4.2 Tactile spatial resolution (people with visual disabilities) ......................................................77

6.4.3 Tactile spatial resolution (body location and ageing effect) ...................................................78

6.4.4 Tactile temporal resolution (sensitivity to vibration, ageing effect) ................................81

6.4.5 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (effects of ageing and
experience in the use of tactile symbols and characters for people with

visual disabilities) ........................................................................................................................................................83

6.4.6 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (international comparison) ...................85

6.5 Thermal sense ......................................................................................................................................................................................88

6.5.1 Surface temperature (ageing effect) ............................................................................................................88

6.5.2 Air temperature (ageing effect) .......................................................................................................................89

6.5.3 Thermal comfort (physical disabilities) ...................................................................................................92

7 Physical characteristics and capabilities .................................................................................................................................99

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)

7.1 Overview of physical characteristics and capabilities .......................................................................................99

7.2 Physical characteristics related to body size ......... ..................................................................................................101

7.2.1 Basic body size (design range from small to large size) ..........................................................101

7.2.2 Grip diameter (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................104

7.3 Movement – fine hand use abilities .................................................................................................................................106

7.3.1 Hand steadiness (ageing effect) ....................................................................................................................106

7.3.2 Eye-hand coordination (dexterity, ageing effect) ..........................................................................107

7.4 Movement – functions of upper body structure ...................................................................................................110

7.4.1 Reach range (effects of ageing and stature) .......................................................................................110

7.4.2 Reach range (graspability, female 5 percentile of body size) ..........................................115

7.4.3 Reach range in three dimensions of height, forward distance (depth), and
left-right width for older people and people with disabilities (rheumatism

and Parkinson’s disease) ....................................................................................................................................117

7.4.4 Rotation: pronation and supination (ageing effect) ....................................................................120

7.5 Movement – Functions of lower body structure ..................................................................................................123

7.5.1 Step height (ageing effect) .................................................................................................................................123

7.5.2 Step height: Subjective evaluation of physical load (ageing effect,

international comparison) ................................................................................................................................126

7.5.3 Tread depth of stairs (ageing effect) .........................................................................................................128

7.5.4 Walking speed (ageing effect) ........................................................................................................................130

7.5.5 Slope of ramps and wheelchair operation (physical disabilities) ...................................133

7.6 Muscle strength and muscle endurance ......................................................................................................................134

7.6.1 Grip force of the hand (ageing effect) ......................................................................................................134

7.6.2 Pressing force of the thumb .............................................................................................................................136

7.6.3 Compressive force of the index finger .....................................................................................................138

7.6.4 Operating torque in four different conditions ..................................................................................140

7.6.5 Grip strength (ageing effect)............................................................................................................................144

7.6.6 Lifting strength (gender effect) .....................................................................................................................147

7.6.7 Lifting strength (effects of age and gender) .......................................................................................150

7.6.8 Pushing force with two hands (ageing effect) ..................................................................................152

7.6.9 Pulling force with one hand (ageing effect) ........................................................................................154

7.6.10 Pushing force with a finger (ageing effect) .........................................................................................156

7.6.11 Static torque with two hands (ageing effect) ....................................................................................158

7.6.12 Torque and force for opening packages (effects of ageing and disabilities) ..........160

7.6.13 Jar opening (perceived effort, older women) ....................................................................................164

7.6.14 Upper extremity muscle strength (ageing effect) .........................................................................166

8 Cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..........................................................................................................................170

8.1 Overview of cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................170

8.2 Attention .................................................................................................................................................................................................171

8.2.1 Selective attention (selective listening, effect of age) ................................................................171

8.2.2 Dual task performance (task complexity, ageing effect)..........................................................175

8.2.3 Memory under dual task conditions (effects of dual tasks and ageing) ....................177

8.3 Information processing .............................................................................................................................................................180

8.3.1 Processing speed and capacity ......................................................................................................................180

8.4 Memory ...................................................................................................................................................................................................182

8.4.1 Effects of ageing and cognitive disabilities on memory ...........................................................182

8.5 Language and literacy .................................................................................................................................................................184

8.5.1 Language use (ageing effects) ........................................................................................................................184

Annex A (informative) Additional textual descriptions of figures ..................................................................................186

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................234

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 122, Ergonomics, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 22411:2008), which has been

technically revised.

The main change compared to the previous edition is the replacement of ergonomics data on

human abilities and capabilities with new or more elaborated data for use in the application of

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to help standards developers by providing ergonomics data related to

human characteristics and capabilities to support ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014. This document is supposed to

be used mainly by standards developers, but also by those responsible for design. The underlying idea

is that products, services and environments encountered in all aspects of daily life and intended for the

consumer market and the workplace should be designed to be accessible for people with a widest range

of capabilities. This idea, called accessibility, has been spreading all over the world.

ISO/IEC Guide 71 was first published in 2001 to successfully address the importance of being aware

of the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities and to direct the attention of standards

developers to these needs when they draft or revise standards. In response to the publication of

ISO/IEC Guide 71, ISO/TR 22411:2008 was developed to fulfil the gap between the concept and practice

with offering ergonomic knowledge and data on human abilities.

After more than 10 years from the publication of ISO/IEC Guide 71 and ISO/TR 22411, together with

new knowledge and experience in implementing these documents, ISO/IEC Guide 71 was revised into a

more elaborated one and consequently the revision of ISO/TR 22411 was required.

This document provides updated ergonomics data as well as newly available data which are all publicly

available and can be used to support standards developers in applying ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 in their

individual standards. These ergonomics data help standards developers to understand characteristics

and capabilities of diverse users to be served by requirements and recommendations in a standard.

The data provided in this document apply mainly to persons with disabilities and older persons.

The intention in using these data is to formulate requirements and recommendations in standards

that include the widest possible range of users. It can also be used by designers in order to increase

accessibility as part of accessible design or universal design.

While the data covers a wide area of human abilities related to accessibility, data for some part of the

area, for example cognitive abilities, is still missing. Furthermore, new data emerged or were updated

during the development of this document, which is not included in this document either. This document,

due to scientific reasons, does not necessarily adopt the ICF terminology but established terms in

ergonomics.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Ergonomics data for use in the application of ISO/IEC
Guide 71:2014

IMPORTANT — The electronic file of this document contains colours which are considered to be

useful for the correct understanding of the document. Users should therefore consider printing

this document using a colour printer.
1 Scope

This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists

and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments,

and facilities.

The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and

capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research.

The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory,

physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomics data that have no direct

relation to ageing or disabilities.

The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of

human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from a

population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve identified

goals in identified contexts of use

Note 1 to entry: Context of use includes direct use or use supported by assistive technologies.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-112:2017, 3.15]
3.2
accessible design

design focused on diverse users to maximize the number of potential users who can readily use a

system in diverse contexts

Note 1 to entry: This aim can be achieved by (1) designing systems that are readily usable by most users without

any modification, (2) making systems adaptable to different users (by providing adaptable user interfaces) and

(3) having standardized interfaces to be compatible with assistive products and assistive technology.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: Terms such as universal design, accessible design, design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive

design and transgenerational design are often used interchangeably with the same meaning.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.19]
3.3
impairment
problem in body function or structure related to a significant deviation or loss

Note 1 to entry: Impairments can be temporary or permanent; progressive, regressive or static; intermittent or

continuous.
[SOURCE: ICF 2001, WHO]
3.4
system

product, service, or built environment or any combination of them with which the user interacts

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.1]
3.5
universal design

design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest

extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design

Note 1 to entry: Universal design shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups or persons with

disabilities where this is needed.

Note 2 to entry: Terms such as universal design, accessible design, design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive

design and transgenerational design are often used interchangeably with the same meaning.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.18]
3.6
user
individual who accesses or interacts with a system

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.5, modified — In the definition, "person" has been changed to

"individual", "accesses or" has been added, and "product or service" has been removed.]

4 Supporting ISO/IEC Guide 71 with human data

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 provides standards developers with guidance on addressing accessibility in

standards through two approaches, as shown in Figure 1:

1) the first approach defines accessibility goals for the product or system under development and the

user accessibility needs associated with fulfilling those goals (denoted by Clause 6 in Figure 1);

2) the second approach provides accessibility-related design considerations, based on an

understanding of human abilities and characteristics (denoted by Clause 7 in Figure 1).

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)
Figure 1 — Two approaches to address accessibility in standards described in
ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014

The user accessibility needs (first approach) or design considerations (second approach) can serve

as the basis for accessibility requirements and recommendations in standards. Regardless of which

approach is used, the accessibility requirements and recommendations in the standards are derived

through the appropriate selection of strategies (denoted by Clause 8 in Figure 1) that can meet the

accessibility needs or address the design considerations.

Ergonomics data are relevant throughout both approaches and especially important in determining

which strategies are the most effective in a situation. In some cases, the data can provide a source

of nominal values or numerical specifications which can be included in the requirements and

recommendations of standards. In other cases (especially with respect to cognitive variables), the

available data are qualitative in nature and/or reflect small sample sizes, but can still be used to

evaluate the feasibility of applying particular strategies to meet accessibility needs or to address design

considerations.

In addition to the role that ergonomics data play in standards development, these data are directly

relevant to the product and system designers, who are attempting to fulfil accessibility requirements and

recommendations by developing and implementing technical solutions that make use of the existing data.

One of the challenges for standards developers and designers is that ergonomics data relevant to

specific populations is distributed across multiple standards and other guidance documents, as well as

in published research reports, papers and books from a variety of academic disciplines. The purpose

of this document is to bring the most valid and applicable data together in one document. This will

assist standards developers to address accessibility and consider the widest range of user needs when

formulating requirements and recommendations. Having a single source of information will also be of

value to designers.
5 Data selection and format
5.1 Data selection

The data in this document were selected from various sources existing in scientific books and journals,

standards, as well as databases of universities, research institutes or projects. They are all relevant for

demonstrating effects of ageing and disabilities and the committee regards valid and worth citing in

this document. Most of the data are well-supported in academia and related technical fields or based on

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 22411:2021(E)

a sufficient number of samples to provide statistical meaningful results. Some of the data, especially in

cognitive field, have a limited number of samples but the committee regards qualitatively relevant for

application.
5.2 Data format of this document

Data in this document are presented in a common format for easy and correct understanding of the

data. It contains following items. If no information is available for some
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 22411
Second edition
Ergonomics data and guidelines for
the application of ISO/IEC Guide 71 to
products and services to address the
needs of older persons and persons
with disabilities
Données d'ergonomie et lignes directrices pour l'application du Guide
ISO/IEC 71 aux produits et services afin de répondre aux besoins des
personnes âgées et de celles ayant des incapacités
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Supporting ISO/IEC Guide 71 with human data ................................................................................................................... 2

5 Data selection and format ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Data selection ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Data format of this document .................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 How to use the data ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Sensory characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Overview of sensory characteristics and capabilities ........................................................................................... 5

6.2 Vision ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Visual sensitivity to colour (spectral sensitivity of the eye: ageing effect).................... 6

6.2.2 Colour category (spans of fundamental colour, young people, older

people, and people with low vision) ............................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Colour category (international comparison) .......................................................................................23

6.2.4 Contrast sensitivity (young people, older people and people with low vision) .....26

6.2.5 Contrast for legibility (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................29

6.2.6 Visual acuity (effects of age, viewing distance and luminance) ...........................................33

6.2.7 Minimum font size for legibility (effects of age, viewing distance and

luminance) .........................................................................................................................................................................36

6.2.8 Minimum font size for legibility (international comparison) ................................................38

6.2.9 Minimum font size for legibility (low vision) .................. .....................................................................42

6.2.10 Disability glare (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................45

6.2.11 Useful field of view (ageing effect) ................................................................................................................48

6.2.12 Lighting level and visual performance (ageing effect) .................................................................53

6.2.13 Visibility of an indicator lamp: Context and task specific data (effects of

ageing and low vision) .............................................................................................................................................56

6.3 Hearing .......................................................................................................................................................................................................59

6.3.1 Hearing-sensitivity decrease as a function of age ............................................................................59

6.3.2 Tone perception in quiet conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................61

6.3.3 Sensitivity to low-frequency tones (ageing effect) ..........................................................................63

6.3.4 Equal-loudness-level contours (ageing effect) ...................................................................................65

6.3.5 Tone perception in noisy conditions (ageing effect) ......................................................................68

6.3.6 Sound pressure level of spoken announcements in public space (ageing effect) .71

6.3.7 Audible conditions for speech communication in a noisy environment

(ageing effect) ..................................................................................................................................................................73

6.4 Touch ............................................................................................................................................................................................................76

6.4.1 Tactile pressure sense and spatial resolution (ageing effect) ................................................76

6.4.2 Tactile spatial resolution (people with visual disabilities) ......................................................78

6.4.3 Tactile spatial resolution (body location and ageing effect) ...................................................79

6.4.4 Tactile temporal resolution (sensitivity to vibration, ageing effect) ................................82

6.4.5 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (effects of ageing and
experience in the use of tactile symbols and characters for people with

visual disabilities) ........................................................................................................................................................84

6.4.6 Legibility of tactile symbols and characters (international comparison) ...................86

6.5 Thermal sense ......................................................................................................................................................................................89

6.5.1 Surface temperature (ageing effect) ............................................................................................................89

6.5.2 Air temperature (ageing effect) .......................................................................................................................90

6.5.3 Thermal comfort (physical disabilities) ...................................................................................................93

7 Physical characteristics and capabilities .............................................................................................................................100

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)

7.1 Overview of physical characteristics and capabilities ....................................................................................100

7.2 Physical characteristics related to body size ......... ..................................................................................................102

7.2.1 Basic body size (design range from small to large size) ..........................................................102

7.2.2 Grip diameter (ageing effect) ..........................................................................................................................105

7.3 Movement – fine hand use abilities .................................................................................................................................107

7.3.1 Hand steadiness (ageing effect) ....................................................................................................................107

7.3.2 Eye-hand coordination (dexterity, ageing effect) ..........................................................................108

7.4 Movement – functions of upper body structure ...................................................................................................111

7.4.1 Reach range (effects of ageing and stature) .......................................................................................111

7.4.2 Reach range (graspability, female 5 percentile of body size) ..........................................116

7.4.3 Reach range in three dimensions of height, forward distance (depth), and
left-right width for older people and people with disabilities (rheumatism

and Parkinson’s disease) ....................................................................................................................................118

7.4.4 Rotation: pronation and supination (ageing effect) ....................................................................121

7.5 Movement – Functions of lower body structure ..................................................................................................124

7.5.1 Step height (ageing effect) .................................................................................................................................124

7.5.2 Step height: Subjective evaluation of physical load (ageing effect,

international comparison) ................................................................................................................................127

7.5.3 Tread depth of stairs (ageing effect) .........................................................................................................129

7.5.4 Walking speed (ageing effect) ........................................................................................................................131

7.5.5 Slope of ramps and wheelchair operation (physical disabilities) ...................................134

7.6 Muscle strength and muscle endurance ......................................................................................................................135

7.6.1 Grip force of the hand (ageing effect) ......................................................................................................135

7.6.2 Pressing force of the thumb .............................................................................................................................137

7.6.3 Compressive force of the index finger .....................................................................................................139

7.6.4 Operating torque in four different conditions ..................................................................................141

7.6.5 Grip strength (ageing effect)............................................................................................................................145

7.6.6 Lifting strength (gender effect) .....................................................................................................................148

7.6.7 Lifting strength (effects of age and gender) .......................................................................................151

7.6.8 Pushing force with two hands (ageing effect) ..................................................................................153

7.6.9 Pulling force with one hand (ageing effect) ........................................................................................155

7.6.10 Pushing force with a finger (ageing effect) .........................................................................................157

7.6.11 Static torque with two hands (ageing effect) ....................................................................................159

7.6.12 Torque and force for opening packages (effects of ageing and disabilities) ..........161

7.6.13 Jar opening (perceived effort, older women) ....................................................................................166

7.6.14 Upper extremity muscle strength (ageing effect) .........................................................................168

8 Cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..........................................................................................................................172

8.1 Overview of cognitive characteristics and capabilities ..................................................................................172

8.2 Attention .................................................................................................................................................................................................173

8.2.1 Selective attention (selective listening, effect of age) ................................................................173

8.2.2 Dual task performance (task complexity, ageing effect)..........................................................177

8.2.3 Memory under dual task conditions (effects of dual tasks and ageing) ....................179

8.3 Information processing .............................................................................................................................................................182

8.3.1 Processing speed and capacity ......................................................................................................................182

8.4 Memory ...................................................................................................................................................................................................184

8.4.1 Effects of ageing and cognitive disabilities on memory ...........................................................184

8.5 Language and literacy .................................................................................................................................................................186

8.5.1 Language use (ageing effects) ........................................................................................................................186

Annex A (informative) Additional textual descriptions of figures ..................................................................................188

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................236

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ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 122, Ergonomics, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 22411:2008), which has been

technically revised.

The main change compared to the previous edition is the replacement of ergonomics data on

human abilities and capabilities with new or more elaborated data for use in the application of

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is intended to help standards developers by providing ergonomic data related to human

characteristics and capabilities to support ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014. This document is supposed to be

used mainly by standards developers, but also by those responsible for design. The underlying idea is

that products, services and environments encountered in all aspects of daily life and intended for the

consumer market and the workplace should be designed to be accessible for people with a widest range

of capabilities. This idea, called accessibility, has been spreading all over the world.

ISO/IEC Guide 71 was first published in 2001 to successfully address the importance of being aware

of the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities and to direct the attention of standards

developers to these needs when they draft or revise standards. In response to the publication of

ISO/IEC Guide 71, ISO/TR 22411:2008 was developed to fulfil the gap between the concept and practice

with offering ergonomic knowledge and data on human abilities.

After more than 10 years from the publication of ISO/IEC Guide 71 and ISO/TR 22411, together with

new knowledge and experience in implementing these documents, ISO/IEC Guide 71 was revised into a

more elaborated one and consequently the revision of ISO/TR 22411 was required.

This document provides updated ergonomic data as well as newly available data which are all publicly

available and can be used to support standards developers in applying ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 in their

individual standards. This ergonomic data helps standards developers to understand characteristics

and capabilities of diverse users to be served by requirements and recommendations in a standard.

The data provided in this document apply mainly to persons with disabilities and older persons.

The intention in using this data is to formulate requirements and recommendations in standards

that include the widest possible range of users. It can also be used by designers in order to increase

accessibility as part of accessible design or universal design.

While the data covers a wide area of human abilities related to accessibility, data for some part of the

area, for example cognitive abilities, is still missing. Furthermore, new data emerged or were updated

during the development of this document, which is not included in this document either. This document,

due to scientific reasons, does not necessarily adopt the ICF terminology but established terms in

ergonomics.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)
Ergonomics data and guidelines for the application of ISO/
IEC Guide 71 to products and services to address the needs
of older persons and persons with disabilities
1 Scope

This document provides ergonomics data for standard developers to use in applying

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 to address accessibility in standards. These data can also be used by ergonomists

and designers to support the development of more accessible products, systems, services, environments,

and facilities.

The ergonomics data include quantitative data and knowledge about basic human characteristics and

capabilities as well as context-specific and task-specific data, all being based on ergonomics research.

The data focused on the effects of ageing and/or consequences of various types of human sensory,

physical, and cognitive disabilities. It does not contain general ergonomic data that have no direct

relation to ageing or disabilities.

The data presented in this document are not exhaustive due to no available data for some aspects of

human characteristics and capabilities with regard to ageing and disabilities.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from a

population with the widest range of user needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve identified

goals in identified contexts of use

Note 1 to entry: Context of use includes direct use or use supported by assistive technologies.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-112:2017, 3.15]
3.2
accessible design

design focused on diverse users to maximize the number of potential users who can readily use a

system in diverse contexts

Note 1 to entry: This aim can be achieved by (1) designing systems that are readily usable by most users without

any modification, (2) making systems adaptable to different users (by providing adaptable user interfaces) and

(3) having standardized interfaces to be compatible with assistive products and assistive technology.

Note 2 to entry: Terms such as universal design, accessible design, design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive

design and transgenerational design are often used interchangeably with the same meaning.

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[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.19]
3.3
impairment
problem in body function or structure related to a significant deviation or loss

Note 1 to entry: Impairments can be temporary or permanent; progressive, regressive or static; intermittent or

continuous.
[SOURCE: ICF 2001, WHO]
3.4
system

product, service, or built environment or any combination of them with which the user interacts

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.1]
3.5
universal design

design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest

extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design

Note 1 to entry: Universal design shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups or persons with

disabilities where this is needed.

Note 2 to entry: Terms such as universal design, accessible design, design for all, barrier-free design, inclusive

design and transgenerational design are often used interchangeably with the same meaning.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014, 2.18]
3.6
user
individual who accesses or interacts with a system

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:2018, 3.1.5, modified — In the definition, "person" has been changed to

"individual", "accesses or" has been added, and "product or service" has been removed.]

4 Supporting ISO/IEC Guide 71 with human data

ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014 provides standards developers with guidance on addressing accessibility in

standards through two approaches, as shown in Figure 1:

1) the first approach defines accessibility goals for the product or system under development and the

user accessibility needs associated with fulfilling those goals (denoted by Clause 6 in Figure 1);

2) the second approach provides accessibility-related design considerations, based on an

understanding of human abilities and characteristics (denoted by Clause 7 in Figure 1).

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Figure 1 — Two approaches to address accessibility in standards described in
ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014

The user accessibility needs (first approach) or design considerations (second approach) can serve

as the basis for accessibility requirements and recommendations in standards. Regardless of which

approach is used, the accessibility requirements and recommendations in the standards are derived

through the appropriate selection of strategies (denoted by Clause 8 in Figure 1) that can meet the

accessibility needs or address the design considerations.

Ergonomics data are relevant throughout both approaches and especially important in determining

which strategies are the most effective in a situation. In some cases, the data can provide a source

of nominal values or numerical specifications which can be included in the requirements and

recommendations of standards. In other cases (especially with respect to cognitive variables), the

available data are qualitative in nature and/or reflect small sample sizes, but can still be used to

evaluate the feasibility of applying particular strategies to meet accessibility needs or to address design

considerations.

In addition to the role that ergonomics data play in standards development, these data are directly

relevant to the product and system designers, who are attempting to fulfil accessibility requirements and

recommendations by developing and implementing technical solutions that make use of the existing data.

One of the challenges for standards developers and designers is that ergonomics data relevant to

specific populations is distributed across multiple standards and other guidance documents, as well as

in published research reports, papers and books from a variety of academic disciplines. The purpose

of this document is to bring the most valid and applicable data together in one document. This will

assist standards developers to address accessibility and consider the widest range of user needs when

formulating requirements and recommendations. Having a single source of information will also be of

value to designers.
5 Data selection and format
5.1 Data selection

The data in this document were selected from various sources existing in scientific books and journals,

standards, as well as databases of universities, research institutes or projects. They are all relevant for

demonstrating effects of ageing and disabilities and the committee regards valid and worth citing in

this document. Most of the data are well-supported in academia and related technical fields or based

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ISO/TR 22411:2020(E)

on a sufficient number of samples to provide statistical meaningful results. Some of the data, especially

in cognitive field, have a limited number of samples but committee regards qualitatively relevant for

application.
5.2 Data format of this document
Data in this document
...

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